• Title, Summary, Keyword: Doenjang

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Analysis of volatile compounds in fermented seasoning pastes using edible insects by SPME-GC/MS (SPME-GC/MS 이용 식용곤충 페이스트형 발효조미료의 향기성분분석)

  • Cho, Joo-Hyoung;Zhao, Huiling;Chung, Chang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.152-164
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    • 2018
  • Fermented seasoning pastes were prepared by Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis using three edible insects, Tenebrio molitor larvae (TMP), Gryllus bimaculatus (GBP), and Bombyx mori pupa (SPP), with soybean (SBP) as a negative control. Volatile compounds were extracted by the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and confirmed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 121 volatiles from four samples were identified and sub-grouped as 11 esters, 18 alcohols, 23 aldehydes, 5 acids, 10 pyrazines, 2 pyridines, 7 aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 19 alkanes, 9 amides, 4 furans and 3 miscellaneous. TMP, GBP, SPP and SBP had 48, 54, 36, and 55 volatile compounds, respectively. Overall, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine and trimethylpyrazine were found by a high proportion in all samples. Tetramethylpyrazine, a main flavor of doenjang, a Korean fermented seasoning soybean paste, was identified as one of the major compounds in TMP, SPP, and SBP. SBP had benzaldehyde, hexanal, n-pentanal, and aldehydes and SPP with pyrazines.

Contents of Sodium, Potassium and Food-borne Pathogens Contamination of Side Dishes Distributed in Seoul Area (서울지역 유통 반찬류의 나트륨, 칼륨 함량 및 식중독균 오염도 조사)

  • Hwang, In-Sook;Jang, Mi-Ra;Kim, Ouk-Hee;Lee, Sung-Deuk;Park, Young-Ae;Choi, Bu-Chul;Lee, Kyeong-Ah;Kim, Li-La;Kim, Dong-Kyu;Jung, Ae-Hee;Oh, Young-Hee;Kim, Jung-Hun;Jung, Kweon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2017
  • To determine the contents of sodium and potassium in side dishes, 92 samples from 22 different kinds of side dishes that can be classified into 3 groups were collected in Seoul area and analysed using ICP-OES. The highest sodium content was detected in pepper doenjang muchim, while potassium content was the highest in kong jorim. When comparing the content of sodium and potassium in 3 groups, namely namul, muchim, and jorim, the sodium content of namul group was significantly different from those of jorim and muchim (p-value < 0.05). Sodium intake per serving size was the highest in parae muchim among the samples as estimated to 20.2% of WHO recommendation that is 2,000 mg/day. The amount of sodium by simultaneously intake of soybean sprouts namul, anchovy jorim and parae muchim per one serving size was estimated to 1,000 mg. The potassim/sodium ratios of spinach namul and kong jorim were 1.70 and 0.81, respectively, while that of bracken namul was very low as about 0.1. Food-borne pathogens were not detected out of 92 side dishes.

Effect of Extracts and Bacteria from Korean Fermented Foods on the Control of Sesame Seed-Borne Fungal Diseases (발효식품 추출물과 미생물을 활용한 참깨 종자전염성 병 방제)

  • Kim, Yong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Jun;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Park, Jong-Won;Park, So-Hyang;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.297-308
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    • 2015
  • In order to control seed-borne diseases, we obtained extracts from commercial fermented food products of Kimchi, Gochujang, Doenjang, Ganjang and Makgeolli and their suppressive effects against seed-borne diseases were studied. In addition, the suppressive effects of bacterial strains isolated from the fermented foods were screened in vitro and in vivo. Among fifty food extracts, twenty food-extracts suppressed more than 92% incidence of seedling rots in vitro and seven food extracts increased 58.3-66.8% of healthy seedling in the greenhouse. Among 218 isolates from the fermented foods, 29 isolates showing high antifungal activity against seven seed-borne fungal pathogens were selected. Among 29 isolates, 13 isolates significantly reduced seedling rot and increased healthy seedlings. Sixteen isolates with high antifungal activity and suppressive effect against sesame seedling rots were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Fourteen of sixteen isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. and the other two isolates from Makgeolli were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was confirmed that B. amyloliquifaciens was majority in the effective bacterial population of Korean fermented foods. In addition, when the bioformulations of the two selected effective microorganisms, B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1, were prepared in powder forms using bentonite, kaolin, talc and zeolite, talc- and kaolin-bioformulation showed high control efficacy against sesame seed-borne disease, followed by zeolite-bioformulation. Meanwhile control efficacy of each bentonite-bioformulation of B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1 was lower than that of bacterial suspension of them. It was found that the selected effective microorganisms from Korean fermented foods were effective for controlling seed-borne diseases of sesame in vitro and in the greenhouse. We think that Korean fermented food extracts and useful microorganisms isolated from the extract can be used as bio-control agents for suppressing sesame seed-borne diseases based on above described results.

Characteristics of Hydrolytic Enzymes that Produced by Bacillus subtilis CK-2 Isolated from Doenjang (된장으로부터 분리한 Bacillus subtilis CK-2가 생산하는 가수분해효소의 활성 특성)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyup;Kim, Chul-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.805-811
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    • 2017
  • In the previous paper, we isolated a bacterium that can hydrolyze various organic materials from soybean paste, including cellulose, lipids, starch, and protein. The activity and chemical properties of the crude enzymes produced by the isolate Bacillus subtilis CK-2 were further investigated. Cellulase showed the highest activity at pH 5.0 and $55^{\circ}C$. The stability of cellulase was maintained within the ranges of pH 5.0~10.0 and $20{\sim}50^{\circ}C$. Cellulolytic enzymes were activated by a $Co^{2+}$ ion, demonstrating the highest activity at a 0.45%(w/v) concentration of $Co^{2+}$. The optimal conditions for amylase were pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$. The activity of amylase was stable within the ranges of pH 4.0~5.0 and $20{\sim}50^{\circ}C$. The $Co^{2+}$ ion was also necessary for amylase activity, which was the highest at a 0.2%(w/v) concentration of $Co^{2+}$. The optimal pH and temperature conditions of protease were pH 8.0 and $50^{\circ}C$. The activity of protease was stable within the ranges of pH 7.0~8.5 and $20{\sim}50^{\circ}C$. Protease activity was catalyzed by $Mn^{2+}$, which was the highest at a 0.125%(w/v) concentration of $Mn^{2+}$. The isolate B. subtilis CK-2 demonstrated a high activity of autolysin. Based on these results, we identified and suggested the optimal pH, temperature, and metal ion concentration in the use of the hydrolytic enzymes of B. subtilis CK-2 for industrial purposes.

Effect of Korean Fermented Food Extracts and Bacteria Isolated from the Extracts for the Control of Rice Seed-borne Fungal Diseases (국산 발효식품 추출물과 발효식품유래 미생물을 활용한 벼 종자전염성 진균병 방제)

  • Kim, Yong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Jun;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Lee, Min-Ho;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Choi, Eun-Jung;Bae, Soo-Il;Jee, Hyeong-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.383-395
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    • 2014
  • When we investigated seed infestation by fungal pathogens from 51 varieties in 9 crops, the contamination rate of rice and sesame seeds was high. Therefore, to control seed-borne diseases, we obtained extracts from commercial products of Kimchi, Gochujang, Doenjang, Ganjang, Makgeolli and Tohajut and their suppressive effects against seed-borne diseases were studied. In addition, bacterial strains were screened to control rice seed-borne diseases in vitro and in vivo. Among forty food extracts, eleven food-extracts suppressed incidence of seedling rots in vitro and five food extracts increased 8-33% of healthy seedling in the greenhouse. Among 218 isolates from 40 fermented foods, 43 isolates showed high antifungal activity against seven fungal pathogens. When we tested 43 isolates for the reduction of rice seed borne disease, 32 isolates were able to reduce the rice seed borne disease. Among 32 isolates, 17 isolates reduced significantly seedling rot and increased healthy seedlings, the other isolates except for Kc4-2 and Mkl 2-2 increased shoot emergence and the percentage of healthy plants. Thirty isolates with high antifungal activity and suppressive effect against rice seedling rots were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Twenty one of thirty isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. Three isolates from Makgeolli were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. B. amyloliquifaciens were isolated from six Korean traditional fermented foods except for Ganjang. B. amyloliquifaciens were majority in the effective bacterial population of Gochujang and Jutgal. Relatively diverse Bacillus species including B. subtilis, B. pumilus, and B. amyloliquificiens were isolated from Kimchi. The selected effective microorganisms from Korean fermented foods founded to be effective for controlling seed-borne diseases of rice in vitro and in the greenhouse. We think that Korean fermented foods and their useful microorganisms can be used as biocontrol agents for suppressing rice seed-borne diseases based on above described results.

The Fermentative Characteristics of Cheonggukjang Prepared by Starter Culture of Bacillus spp. with Fibrinolytic Activity (혈전용해활성이 우수한 Bacillus spp. 스타터를 이용한 청국장의 발효특성)

  • Hwang, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.1832-1838
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to improve the flavor of Cheonggukjang prepared by the culture optimization of starter with the fibrinolytic activity. After 25 strains isolated from the commercial Cheonggukjang and Doenjang in different regions were compared, 7 Bacillus strains with proteolytic and slime-producing activities were selected. When the fibrin plate method for fibrinolytic activity was applied, CJJN-4 and 5 showed the higher activity in tripticase soy broth (TSB). All Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 and 5 also had the fibrinolytic activity, regardless of culture temperature or time. Especially, Cheonggukjang prepared at $40^{\circ}C$ showed higher activity than $45^{\circ}C$, and Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 for 48 hr at $40^{\circ}C$ showed the highest fibrinolytic activity. Although there was no significant difference in pH of Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 or 5 during 72 hr at $40^{\circ}C$, Cheonggukjang prepared with CJJN-4 at $45^{\circ}C$ had lower pH until 60 hr than $40^{\circ}C$ or CJJN-5. The total amino type nitrogen contents of Cheonggukjang were 1,139.6 (CJJN-4) and 1,027.6 mg% (CJJN-5) for 72 hr at $40^{\circ}C$, and their producing rates were also higher at $40^{\circ}C$ fermentation than $45^{\circ}C$. Meanwhile, the contents of ammonia type nitrogen induced unpleasant flavor were lower in Cheonggukjang with CJJN-4 and 5 at $40^{\circ}C$ than CJJN-5 at $45^{\circ}C$. Therefore, Cheonggukjang fermented with CJJN-4 starter at $40^{\circ}C$ had the improved flavor, such as change of amino or ammonia type nitrogen production, and higher fibrinolytic activity.

Survey on the Using Frequency of Processed Foods and Dietician' Perception against Management of Food Service at Food Service Institutions (집단급식소의 가공식품 이용 실태 및 급식관리에 대한 영양사의 인식에 대한 조사)

  • Soh, Gowan-Soon;Kim, Yong-Suk;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2007
  • The using frequency of processed foods and dietician's perception against management of food service at 98 food service institutions located in Jeollabuk-Do were surveyed. Food service institutions included 13 hospitals,38 schools,40 enterprises, and 7 others. Single menu (75.5%) with two (33.7%) or three (57.1%) side dish was offered. In addition, the offering ratio of boiled water and spring water was 37.8 and 32.7%, respectively. The processed foods with high using frequency were kochujang (1.19), sesame oil (1.22), and doenjang (1.30), but that of leek, onion, Chinese cabbage, and radish were 4.95, 4.62, 4.60, and 4.26, respectively. Dietician's major affairs in all type of food service institutions were cooking (64.3%), purchase (48.0%), and personnel managements (39.8%). Dieticians, however, had a low perception against safety and nutrition management. Therefore, in order to prevent the outbreak of food-borne diseases, we estimated that the education and the conversion of dietician' perception against safety and nutrition management were needed.