• Title, Summary, Keyword: Doenjang

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Changes in Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Traditional Meju during Fermentation at Sunchang Area (순창지역 메주 발효 중 미생물과 효소역가의 변화)

  • 유진영;김현규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.448-454
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    • 1998
  • Meju for doenjang and kochujang was prepared as a model at Sunchang areaand monitored with major changes. Kochujang meju was prepared on September 12 and doenjang meju on November 12, 1995. Kochjang meju was found to be naturally fermented at 80~90% RH, 15~2$0^{\circ}C$ and doenjang meju was at 80~90% RH and 0~5$^{\circ}C$. The shapes of kochujang meju and doenjang meju were doughnut-type and rectangular, respectively. Weight losses during fermentation were 48% and 28%, respectively. The pH drop and acip production of kochujang meju were negligible. However, pH of doenjang meju decreased from 6.29 to 5.88 and acidity increased from 0.08 to 0.23% as lactic acid. Protein in meju was found to be rapidly solubilized during the early stage of fermentation. Soluble protein cotents of kochujang meju after 7 days and 60 days were 8.23%, respectively. The doenjang mejus were 2.15% after 20 days and 5.72% after 60 days. Soluble suger content increased with the fermentation time. The soluble sugar content was higher in kochjang meju. Acidic protease was highly produced during meju fermentation. $\alpha$-Amylase and $\beta$-amylase were detected in the kochujang meju, of which glutinous rice consisted, but negligible in doenjang meju. Lipase was detected in kochujang meju, but was, negligible in doenjang meju. Microbial population increased drastically after 7 days of fermentation in kochujang meju and 20 days of fermentation in doenjang meju.

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Development of Yeast Leavened Pan Bread Using Commercial Doenjangs (Korean Soybean Pastes): 1. Physicochemical Properties of Doenjang and Physical Properties of Bread Added with Doenjang (시판 된장을 이용한 식빵 제조: 1. 된장의 이화학적 특성 및 된장을 첨가한 식빵의 물리적 특성)

  • 오현주;문혜경;김창순
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1002-1010
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to develope yeast leavened pan bread using the commercial Doenjangs (Korean soybean pastes). Physicochemical properties of the Doenjang products were measured such as aminonitrogen, pH, titratable acidity and salinity, reducing sugar, total free sugar, total organic acid, PDI (protein dispersibility index) and color. Seven products of Doenjang were freeze-dried and powdered to be used in bread formula at the levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%. When the Doenjang powder was added up to 5.0%, the ovenspring during baking remarkably increased resulting in increased loaf volume. However, with Doenjang powder more than 7.5%, the loaf volume became smaller than the control as the dough expansion and ovenspring decreased. Thus when Doenjang was added to bread dough, the loaf volume was highly correlated with ovenspring (r=0.92) but it was not with dough expansion during 1st fermentation (r=0.56). The browning color of bread crust and crumb became deeper with decrease in L value as the addition of Doenjang powder increased. From the mechanical texture measurements of bread crumb, hardness, gumminess and chewiness decreased with addition of Doenjang powders. Regardless of the kinds of Doenjang, the Doenjang powders could be added into the bread dough up to 5.0%, improving the loaf volume and texture of yeast leavened pan bread and demonstrating the possibility of producing a functional bread using the Doenjang powders.

Quality characteristics of Doenjang depending on various salt concentration during long-term fermentation period (다양한 염도에서 제조한 된장의 장기 숙성 시 품질변화)

  • Choi, Bo-Young;Gil, Na-Young;Park, Shin-Young;Kim, So-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.788-796
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    • 2016
  • This study presented the change of quality characteristics of Doenjang with various salt concentrations (4, 8, 15, and 20%) during 12 months. The pHs of Doenjang during fermentation were gradually increased for 12 months, whereas the pHs of Doenjang with 4 and 8% salt increased rapidly. Titratable acidity of Doenjang with 4 and 8% salt was high at initial time, while Doenjang with 15 and 20% salt was high at the 9 and 12 months. The amino-type nitrogen content of Doenjang with 4 and 8% salt was increased and ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity of all Doenjang was decreased during whole fermentation period. The protease activity of Doenjang with 4 and 8% salt was higher than Doenjang with 15 and 20% salt until 7 months. Total aerobic bacteria number 8.0~9.1 log CFU/g for 12 months, which was steady during fermentation period. Doenjang with 8% salt showed the highest score in umami taste whereas the lowest score in bitterness, astringency, and sourness tastes between 5 and 12 months. In conclusion, Doenjang with 8% salt was a suitable concentration for low-salt fermented foods.

Antimutagenic Effect of Doenjang(Korean Fermented Soy Paste) toward Aflatoxin (된장의 Aflatoxin $B_1$에 대한 항돌연변이 효과)

  • 박건영;문숙희;백형석;최홍식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 1990
  • Antimutagenic effect of doenjag (Korean fermented soy paste) on mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 was studied. AFB1 revealed maximum mutagenicity at dose level of 1 $\mu$g/plate with metabolic activation system in both strains. Strong antiutagenic activity toward AFB1 was completely inhibited at the level of 50% of the doenjang extract. At the same concentration 64-66% and 39-53% of the AFB1 induced mutageneses were blocked when the methanol extracts of raw and cooked soybeans were added in the system respectively Raw soybeans showed higher ihhibition rate to the mutagenicity than cooked soybeans but the fermented soybeans(doenjang) was the most effective (p<0.05) Other soybean fermented foods such as commercial doenjang natto and miso were also exhibited some antimutagenic activities however the traditional doenjang was the most effective and then commercial doenjang. Natto and miso were less effective.

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Antimutagenic Effects of Doenjang(Korean Soy Paste)

  • Park, Kun-Young;Suk-Hee;Cheigh, Hong-sik;Baik, Hyung-Suk
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 1996
  • Antimutagenic effect of Doenjang (Korean soy paste) on various carcinogens in Salmonella typhimurium strains of TA98 and TA100 were studied. By the addition of methanol extract of Doenjang to aflatoxin B₁(AFB₁)in the experimental system, the mutagenicity of AFB₁ on the strains of TA98 and TA100 was com-pletely inhibited. The methenol extract of the Doenjang also inhibited the mutagencities induced by direct mutagens such as N-methy1-N'-nitro-N-nitroguanidine(MNNG)and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(4-NQO), and another indirect mutagens of benzo(a) pyrene(BaP) and dimethylnitrosamine(DMN). From the solvents and thin layer chromatographic(TLC) fractionations, free fatty acid(s), especially linoleic acid in Doenjang seemed to be one of the active antimutagenic compounds.

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Characteristics of Korean Soybean Paste (Doenjang) Prepared by the Fermentation of Black Soybeans

  • Kim, Seong-Yeong;Son, Heung-Soo;Oh, Sung-Hoon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2009
  • The changes in components and biological activities of doenjang samples prepared with black soybeans and fermented with Bacillus subtilis SCB were investigated. The amino nitrogen (A-N) contents of samples increased with increasing black soybean content. A doenjang product made using a 1:1 ratio of soybeans-black soybeans showed a maximum level of genistein and daidzein isoflavones ($1111.6{\mu}g/g$) at 110 days of fermentation, along with decreasing contents of genistin and daidzin due to the conversion to aglycones. The black soybean-only doenjang sample showed higher protease activity, including caseinolytic and fibrinolytic enzyme activities, than the other samples, and had relatively higher polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Therefore, doenjang made with additions of black soybeans and fermented by B. subtilis SCB may have improved physiological properties, suggesting this to be a valuable method of preparation.

Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste

  • Cha, Youn-Soo;Yang, Ji-Ae;Back, Hyang-Im;Kim, Soo-Ran;Kim, Min-Gul;Jung, Su-Jin;Song, Won O;Chae, Soo-Wan
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.520-526
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    • 2012
  • Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ${\geq}23kg/m^2$ and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ${\geq}$ 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ${\geq}23kg/m^2$ and WHR ${\geq}$ 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat ($cm^2$), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as ($cm^2$), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults.

Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Doenjang Prepared with Rhizopus, Pichia, and Bacillus

  • Kang, Su Jin;Seo, Ji Yeon;Cho, Kye Man;Lee, Chang Kwon;Kim, Jeong Hwan;Kim, Jong-Sang
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.221-226
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    • 2016
  • A new type of doenjang was manufactured by mixing soaked soybean, koji (Rhizopus oryzae), cheonggukjang (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 and B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17), and Pichia farinosa SY80 as a yeast, salt, and water, followed by fermentation with koji that was made by fermenting whole wheat with R. oryzae. The mixed culture doenjang was designed to have a more palatable flavor and stronger biological activities than the conventional product. The extract of mixed culture doenjang showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial doenjang as evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay although it was not significantly different from the commercial product in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities. Further, the mixed culture doenjang reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and protected cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity more efficiently in human hippocampal HT22 neuroblastoma cells than the commercial doenjang. In conclusion, a newly-developed mixed culture doenjang had a strong antioxidant activity in vitro and cultured cell model systems, exhibited a potential to prevent oxidative stress-associated disorders although animal and clinical studies are needed to confirm its in vivo efficacy.

Quality Characteristics of Modified Doenjang and Traditional Doenjang (개량된장과 전통된장의 품질 특성)

  • Jeon, Hyeonjin;Lee, Sanghoon;Kim, Sangsook;Kim, Yoonsook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.1001-1009
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between quality factors and palatability of modified Doenjang and traditional Doenjang. Fourteen types of Doenjang, including three modified Doenjang and 11 traditional Doenjang samples, were analyzed to evaluate their physicochemical and sensorial properties. There were differences in e-tongue, which indicates overall acceptability. Water contents, minerals, total sugar contents, salt contents, pH, titratable acidity, and free amino acids of Doenjang did not show significant differences. From the correlation and regression analysis, palatability was closely related to the e-tongue sensor such as $X_1$ (sourness), $X_3$ (saltiness), and $X_4$ (umami) to -0.772, -0.642, and 0.678, respectively. The regression equation for sensorial palatability (Y) was Y=$45.356-0.008X_1-0.010X_3$ with a coefficient of 0.882.

Anti-proliferative Effects of Traditional Korean Doenjang across Different Aging Periods on Cancer Cell Lines (숙성기간으로 구분된 전통된장의 암세포 증식억제 효과)

  • Yang, Hye Jeong;Hur, Jinyoung;Hong, Sang Pil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.467-477
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    • 2020
  • Doenjang is a major fermented soy-based food in Korea. Recent investigations have shown that fermented soybean foods have immunity-enhancing, anti-cancer, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. Several studies also have reported that genistein and daidzein, which are easily absorbed in the body are produced in larger quantities in aged doenjang. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variations in the anti-cancer effects of commercialized doenjang as it ages. Four groups were formed for this study according to aging periods of doenjang, namely short (under 5 years, S group), mid (under 10 years, M group), long (under 15 years, L group) and very long (over 15 years, E group). The anti-cancer effects of doenjang were determined by cell cytotoxicity assays in A549, YAC-1, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Also, NK cell activity and splenocyte proliferation were assayed for cancer immunotherapy. The quantities of phenolic compounds in doenjang at different ages were also measured. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects increased in the S and M groups for all three cancer cell lines. Interestingly, similar to this result, splenocyte proliferation and NK activity were also the highest in the S and M groups. In contrast, the E group showed significantly reduced splenocyte proliferation. The quantity of phenolic compounds was similar to that of the anti-cancer results. Collectively, these results suggest that the fermentation period of doenjang plays a very important role in determining its anti-cancer effects.