• Title, Summary, Keyword: Economic Openness

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The Impact of Trade Openness on Economic Growth in China: An Empirical Analysis

  • Hye, Qazi Muhammad Adnan;Wizarat, Shahida;Lau, Wee-Yeap
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 2016
  • This study uses an endogenous economic growth model to determine the long run relationship between trade openness and economic growth in China by using the data 1975-2009.It contributes to the literature by developing trade openness index. An autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration and rolling regression method are employed. This study tests the link between trade openness and economic growth in the case of China by using the framework of endogenous economic growth model. This study also employs the rolling window regression method in order to examine the stability of coefficients throughout the sample span. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration technique and rolling regression method are used. The empirical findings indicate that trade openness (i.e. Both individual trade indicator and composite trade openness index) are positively related to economic growth in the long run and short run. Our results indicate that trade openness as measured by individual trade indicator and composite trade openness index are positively related to economic growth in the long run and short run. However, results from the rolling window suggest that trade openness is negatively linked to economic growth only for a number of years.

Impacts of Corruption Control on Economic Growth in Relationship with Stock Market and Trade Openness

  • PHAM, Van Thi Hong
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.12
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 2020
  • The study aims to investigate the dual effects of corruption control on economic growth in relationship with the stock market and trade openness in developing countries. The study used difference S-GMM method on the dynamic panel data model in the period (2002-2017) with data collected from the World Bank. The study discovers the dominant impacts of corruption control in the relationship with the stock market on economic growth. At the same time, the study also confirms the overwhelming impact of corruption control in the relationship between trade openness and economic growth in the developing countries. In addition, the study shows that inefficient stock markets in developing countries will not promote economic growth. Meanwhile, the long-standing credit market has a positive impact on economic growth. With the strong development of stock market and trade openness in the period (2002-2017), control on corruption in developing countries does not get better in time with the increase in demand. The findings of this study suggest a number of solutions to strengthen corruption control, leading to the increased efficiency on the stock market and as well as encouraging the positive effects of trade openness to contribute to promoting economic growth in developing countries.

The Effects of Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Absorptive Capabilities on the Economic Growth of the Lao People's Democratic Republic

  • NANTHARATH, Phouthakannha;KANG, Eungoo
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2019
  • The paper examines the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on the economic growth of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 1993 and 2015. The investigation is based on the influence of growth and economic absorptive capability determinants such as human capital, trade openness, and institutional quality. The methodological analysis uses a multivariate framework accounting capital stock, labor stock, FDI, human capital, trade openness, and institutional quality in regression of the Vector Autoregressive model. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, and Granger Causality test were applied as parts of the econometric time-series analysis approach. The empirical results demonstrate the positive effects of FDI and trade openness, and the negative effects of human capital and institutional quality on the economic growth of the Lao PDR over the 1993 to 2015 period. The findings confirm that trade openness complemented by a sufficient level of infrastructure, education, quality institutions, and transparency significantly influence economic growth and attract more FDI. Research results lend credence to the need for the Lao PDR's government to focus on improving its economic absorptive capability and economic competitiveness regionally and globally by improving wealth and resource management strategies, as failure to take this course of action could lead to the Dutch Disease effects.

Economic Growth, Financial Development, and Trade Openness of Leading Countries in ASEAN

  • HO, Chi H.P.;PHAM, Nhan N.T.;NGUYEN, Kiet T.
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2021
  • The study examines the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth through trade openness for the leading ASEAN countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). The study employs a panel data for the period of 25 years spanning from 1995 to 2015 for the six countries, yielding a balanced panel of 150 observations. Fixed effect model (FEM) and random effect model (REM) are used for the panel data, following the Hausman test performed for model selection. The trivariate Granger causality test is also used to check for possible relationship between the variables. The results show that REM is chosen based on the Hausman test result, suggesting that the trade openness has a positive association with growth whereas the financial development is positively, but insignificantly associated with growth. The reason for this is that the financial development and economic growth may be related to each other. The results are, then, further explored and confirmed by the causality test. That is, the financial development and the economic growth, through the trade openness, are found to have bidirectional positive relationships. This implies that there would be shortcomings when ignoring the presence of trade openness, which positively impacts the relationship between finance and growth.

The Impact of Investments on Economic Growth: Evidence from Vietnam

  • NGUYEN, Khang The;NGUYEN, Hung Thanh
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.8
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    • pp.345-353
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    • 2021
  • The impact of investment on economic growth has been studied by many authors around the world with different times and research methods. Therefore, there are conflicting opinions about the impact of investment on economic growth. To contribute empirical evidence, the objective of this study is to assess the impact of investment sources such as public investment, private investment, and foreign direct investment on economic growth in Vietnam in the short-run and long-run. The data used for the study is panel data from 63 Vietnamese provinces between 2000 and 2020. The inquiry method is PMG (Pool Mean Group) regression for economic growth (GDP) after testing the stationarity of the variables that meet the PMG regression condition as suggested by Pesaran et al. (1996) and Hamuda et al. (2013). The results show that: factors such as labor and trade openness have a negative impact on economic growth in the short term. In the long run, public investment has a negative effect on economic growth, while domestic private investment, foreign direct investment, trade openness, and labor have positive effects on economic growth. Labour contributes the most, followed by trade openness, foreign direct investment, and domestic private investment. Finally, the study provides policy implications for the Government of Vietnam.

An Empirical Analysis on the Economic Growth Convergence in the East Asian Countries (동아시아 국가의 경제성장 수렴에 대한 실증분석)

  • Song, Jeongseok;Kim, Hyunsuk
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.477-498
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    • 2010
  • This paper studies economic growth convergence conditioning on various characteristics of East Asian countries. Our findings suggest that when trade openness is conditioned in addition to human capital and investment, the economic growth rates for East Asian countries converge faster than when human capital and investment alone are considered. In particular, while Northeast Asian countries exhibit absolute economic growth convergence as well as economic growth convergence conditioned on trade openness, Southeast Asian countries show only economic growth convergence conditioned on trade openness. Analysis of policy implications based on the results of the first East Asian countries' high dependence on foreign trade, trade openness in the convergence of economic growth has had a significant positive effect. Second, in order to establish a regional economic integration in East Asia, Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia, the country's economic growth is necessary to reduce the gap.

Different Types of Liberalization and Jobs in South Korean Firms

  • Kim, Hyuk-Hwang;Lee, Hongshik
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.71-97
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    • 2015
  • This study examines the effects of several factors indicating economic openness-imported intermediate goods, total imports, IFDI (inward foreign direct investment), and foreign ownership-on regular, irregular jobs and the ratio of irregular employment to regular employment. Findings revealed that imported intermediate inputs and IFDI affected neither regular nor irregular job figures. However, an increase in total imports led to a decrease in the number of irregular jobs without affecting regular full time jobs, leading to a decrease in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. On the other hand, changes in foreign ownership structure had a contrary effect, that is, a decrease in the number of regular jobs and an increase in irregular ones, and, thus, an increase in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. Overall results showed that a rise in imports results in depressed overall employment, irregular employment in particular, while more IFDI results in more irregular jobs replacing regular ones, effectively exacerbating job insecurity. The implication of this analysis is that greater economic openness may have a negative impact on the South Korean labor market overall.

The Relationship Between Foreign Aid and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh

  • GOLDER, Uttam;SHEIKH, Md. Imran;SULTANA, Fatema
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2021
  • Bangladesh's growing foreign aid has sparked controversy over whether it affects the country's economic performance. This review assesses foreign aid's influence on the country's economic growth with annual data covering the 1989-2018 period. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model is applied to achieve the research objective, and the empirical results indicate a substantial and robust impact of foreign assistance on economic growth. The outcome further reveal that domestic investment also contributes significantly to the country's economic evolution. However, trade openness plays a substantial positive role in the short run, although the impact is immaterial in the long run. The empirical findings indicate that the association between aid, domestic investment, and growth has a confident meaningful effect at 1 per cent level in the long run, whereas aid influences more than domestic investment. However, in the short run, aid, domestic investment, trade openness, and growth show positive and noteworthy response also at 1 percent level. This review undertakes a detailed analysis about the country's economic growth, and grounded on its outcome, this work suggests that focus should be placed more on creating domestic investment, promoting more export, and allocation of aid should be determined by the relative needs of the country.

The Dynamics of Economic Growth in Underdeveloped Regions: A Case Study in Indonesia

  • JUMONO, Sapto;BASKARA, Ika;ABDURAHMAN, Abdurrahman;MALA, Chajar Matari Fath
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.643-651
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    • 2021
  • This study aims to determine the response of regional economic growth to the financial performance of regional economies in regard to the liquidity conditions, saving-investment gaps, trade openness, inflation, as well as the national economic growth. The basic logic theory of research uses the principles of open economics and financial intermediary systems. The data used in this study are secondary data, and the form of data is a quarterly time series for the period from 2008 to 2019. The data were obtained from various publications, such as the Central Statistics Agency (CSA), Regional Financial Economics Statistics (RFES), Indonesian Banking Statistics (IBS), and the Financial Services Authority (FSA). Data processing was done through VAR/VECM analysis; short-term and long-term equilibrium analyses were carried out. The results of the analysis illustrate that regional economic growth and the conditions of liquidity, saving-investment gaps, trade openness, inflation, and national economic growth are related and lead to significant impact variations in the provinces of Papua and West Papua. In conclusion, the findings of this research support the leading supply hypothesis and reformulate the strategy and policy of economic development, bearing in mind that there are still many underdeveloped districts in these two provinces.

Economic Openness and Labor Allocation between Skilled and Less-skilled Sectors (경제의 대외개방도 증가가 숙련 및 미숙련 부문의 고용에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Joon
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.87-133
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    • 2012
  • This paper consists of two parts. The first part introduces a simple endogenous growth model. It is based on Romer(1990), but extends the original model by incorporating individual workers skill heterogeneity. Based on the heterogeneity, the model has a labor allocation mechanism between skilled (research) and unskilled (production) sectors. Different from Romer(1990), the labor allocation is determined by both demand and supply conditions of the economy. The endogenous growth model presented in this paper shows how the shape of the distribution of human capital affects on the labor allocation, hence on the employment structure, wage profile and economic growth. The model can be extended to an open economy. With the heterogeneity, the extended model explains distributional effect as well as growth effect of the economic openness. The second part provides empirical evidence in support of the extension part of the model presented in the first part. Based on the endogenous growth framework as proposed by Romer(1990) and Rivera-Batiz and Romer(1991), the model explains how economic openness affects labor allocation between skilled and unskilled sectors. According to the model, economic openness can affect labor allocation through two channels; knowledge spillover and specialization. First, the openness promotes knowledge spillover and hence increases the productivity of workers in the skilled sectors. This makes the economy employs more workers in the skilled sector. On the other hand, the openness causes global specialization which leads more employment in the skilled sector for the developed countries but at the same time, leads less employment in the skilled sector for the developing countries since the developing countries have comparative advantages in the unskilled sector. The empirical results obtained using cross country panel data in this paper support these two effects of knowledge spillover and specialization.

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