• 제목/요약/키워드: Economic evaluation

검색결과 529건 처리시간 0.171초

공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2000년 및 2001년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 - (Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research -A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2000 and 2001-)

  • 강신형;한화택;조금남;이승복;조형희;김민수
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1102-1139
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    • 2002
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2000 and 2001 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) Most of papers related with heat transfer analysis and heat exchanger shows dealt with convection, evaporation, and channel flow for the design application of heat exchanger. The numerical heat transfer simulation studies have been peformed and reported to show heat transfer characteristics. Experimental as well as numerical studies on heat exchanger were reported, while not many papers are available for the system analysis including heat exchanger. (3) A review of the recent studies on heat pump system shows that performance analysis and control of heat pump have been peformed by various simulations and experiments. The research papers on multi-type heat pump system increased significantly. The studies on heat pipe have been examined experimently for change of working characteristics and strut lure. Research on the phase change has been carried out steadily and operation strategies of encapsulated ice storage tank are reported experimentally in several papers. (4) A review of recent studies on refrigeration/air conditioning system have focused on the system performance and efficiency for new alternative refrigerants. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer characteristics are investigated for tube shapes and new alternative refrigerants. Studies on components of refrigeration/air conditioning system are carried to examine efficiency for various compressors and performance of new expansion devices. In addition to thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures, studies on new refrigerants are also carried out, however research works on two-phase flow seemed to be insufficient. (5) A review of the recent studies on absorption cooling system indicates that heat and mass transfer phenomena have been investigated to improve absorber performance. Various experimental data have been presented and several simulation models have been proposed. A review of the recent studies on duct and ventilation shows that ventilation indices have been proposed to quantify the ventilation performance in buildings and tunnels. Main efforts have been focused on the applications of ventilation effectiveness in practice, either numerically using computational fluid dynamics or experimentally using tracer gas techniques. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor thermal environment and building service systems, research issues have mainly focused on many innovative ideas such as underfloor air-conditioning system, personal environmental modules, radiant floor cooling and etc. Also, the new approaches for minimizing energy consumption as well as improving indoor environmental conditions through predictive control of HVAC systems, various activities of building energy management and cost-benefit analysis for economic evaluation were highlighted.

국내 초임계 석탄화력발전소에 연소 후 CO2 포집공정 설치 시 성능 및 경제성 평가 (Performance and Economic Analysis of Domestic Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant with Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process)

  • 이지현;곽노상;이인영;장경룡;심재구
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.365-370
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    • 2012
  • 국내 초임계 석탄화력발전소에 연소 후 $CO_2$ 포집공정을 설치하였을 경우에 예상되는 발전단가와 $CO_2$ 저감비용(Cost of $CO_2$ avoided)을 산출하였다. 본 연구에서 고려된 연소 후 $CO_2$ 포집기술은 이미 상업적으로 적용이 가능하고, 기존의 화력발전에 적용이 용이한 아민 화합물을 이용한 화학 흡수법을 기초로 하였으며, 경제성 평가를 위해 연간 발생하는 비용 및 발전량을 연간 균등화(Levelized)하여 발전단가를 산정하는 수명기간 중 발전단가 분석(LCCA: Life Cycle Cost Analysis) 방식을 활용하여 분석하였다. 경제성 평가에서 가장 중요한 항목 중 하나인 설비 투자비(건설비 등) 및 운영비 산출을 위해, 기존의 $CO_2$ 포집 설비가 없는 기준 석탄화력발전소의 건설비는 IEA(국제에너지기구)에서 제시하는 국내 초임계석탄화력 발전소(순출력 767 MW급)의 데이터를 활용하였으며, 석탄화력발전소에 $CO_2$ 포집설비가 추가된 경우에도 IEA에서 제시하는 기준 석탄화력발전소와 $CO_2$ 포집설비 설치 후의 OECD 평균 순공사비(Overnight cost) 증감분을 참조하여 계산하였다. 상기 데이터를 이용하여 기존 석탄화력발전소 및 $CO_2$ 포집 설비 설치 후의 발전단가 및 $CO_2$ 포집비용을 분석한 결과 $CO_2$ 포집설비 설치 후 발전 효율은 기존 초임계 석탄화력발전소의 발전효율 41%에서 31.6%로 약 9.4%가 저하되었으며, 발전단가는 기존의 45.5 USD/MWh에서 73.9 USD/MWh로 약 62%가 증가되었고 $CO_2$ 포집비용은 41.3 USD/$tCO_2$로 산출되었다.

공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2004년 및 2005년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰- (Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2004 and 2005 -)

  • 최영돈;강용태;김내현;김만회;박경근;박병윤;박진철;홍희기
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.94-131
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    • 2007
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2004 and 2005 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD and flow visualization(PIV, PTV and LDV methods) technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) The research trends of the previous two yews are surveyed as groups of natural convection, forced convection, electronic cooling, heat transfer enhancement, frosting and defrosting, thermal properties, etc. New research topics introduced include natural convection heat transfer enhancement using nanofluid, supercritical cooling performance or oil miscibility of $CO_2$, enthalpy heat exchanger for heat recovery, heat transfer enhancement in a plate heat exchanger using fluid resonance. (3) The literature for the last two years($2004{\sim}2005$) is reviewed in the areas of heat pump, ice and water storage, cycle analysis and reused energy including geothermal, solar and unused energy). The research on cycle analysis and experiments for $CO_2$ was extensively carried out to replace the Ozone depleting and global warming refrigerants such as HFC and HCFC refrigerants. From the year of 2005, the Gas Engine Heat Pump(GHP) has been paid attention from the viewpoint of the gas cooling application. The heat pipe was focused on the performance improvement by the parametric analysis and the heat recovery applications. The storage systems were studied on the performance enhancement of the storage tank and cost analysis for heating and cooling applications. In the area of unused energy, the hybrid systems were extensively introduced and the life cycle cost analysis(LCCA) for the unused energy systems was also intensively carried out. (4) Recent studies of various refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and of alternative refrigerants including carbon dioxide. Efficiency of various compressors and expansion devices are also dealt with for better modeling and, in particular, performance improvement. Thermoelectric module and cooling systems are analyzed theoretically and experimentally. (5) According to the review of recent studies on ventilation systems, an appropriate ventilation systems including machenical and natural are required to satisfied the level of IAQ. Also, an recent studies on air-conditioning and absorption refrigeration systems, it has mainly focused on distribution and dehumidification of indoor air to improve the performance were carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on optimal thermal comfort, improvement of indoor air Quality and many innovative systems such as air-barrier type perimeter-less system with UFAC, radiant floor heating and cooling system and etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental condition as well as minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building control and operation strategy and energy performance analysis for economic evaluation.

경량전철 교량 LCC분석을 위한 불확실성 인자 분석 (An Analysis of the Uncertainty Factors for the Life Cycle Cost of Light Railroad Transit)

  • 원서경;이두헌;김균태;김현배;전진택;한충희
    • 한국건설관리학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.396-400
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    • 2007
  • 최근 경량전철 건설이 정부 및 지자체의 정책과 민간자본의 투자에 힘입어 다양한 노선들이 추진되는 등 SOC 분야에 민간투자사업 형태의 참여가 증가하고 있다. 이러한 민자유치사업은 지자체를 포함한 정부뿐 아니라 민간건설업체의 입장에서도 면밀한 사업 경제성 분석을 통한 타당성 검토가 이루어져야 한다. 즉 공사비 등의 초기 투자비용 뿐 아니라 유지관리비용, 해당 시설물 운영을 통한 수익창출, 해체비용 등 생애주기측면에서의 정확한 비용 분석이 필요하다 하겠다. 그러나 불확실성 인자들의 분석과 이를 활률론적 기법에 의해 경제성을 평가할 수 있는 여건은 미흡한 실정이다. 대표적으로 경량전철 건설사업의 경우 유지관리비용에 관한 실적자료가 아직 미비하므로 정확한 비용산출 및 경제성 분석이 어려운 실정이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 최근 민자투자가 많은 경량전철사업 중 토목구조물 경제성평가를 위한 불확실성을 분석하였다. 이를 위해 먼저 경량전철 비용분류체계를 토대로 교량구조물을 대상으로 생애주기비용 측면에서 고려되어야 할 불확실성 인자를 분석하는 순으로 연구를 수행하였다. 경량전철 건설사업에 있어 시설물에 대한 유지관리 실적자료가 거의 전무한 상황임을 가정할 때, 본 연구를 통해 제시된 비용분류체계와 불확실성 인자 분석은 향후 이 분양의 LCC분석 및 경제성 평가의 자룔로 활용될 수 있으리라 기대한다.

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화력발전소 온배수열 활용 시설하우스 열공급 모형 경제성분석 연구 (An Economic Analysis of the Effluent Heat Supply from Thermal Power Plant to the Farm Facility House)

  • 엄병환;안차수
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 2018
  • 석탄화력발전소 온배수열 활용하여 발전소 인근지역 시설농업에 난방열을 공급하는 사업의 배관투자비는 설치거리에 비례하여 증가하고 발전소와 떨어진 거리는 경제성 확보에 문제를 낳는다. 또한, 설치거리가 짧은 경우는 난방열 수요 확보가 어려워 경제성 확보의 문제가 있을 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 기준 열배관로 신설길이 1 km에 대한 경제성 평가와 열배관로 신설길이 변동에 따른 민감도를 정부지원금 수준, 난방열 수요량 수준과 정부지원금 증가에 따른 경제성 확보가능 열배관로 신설거리 수준에서 분석하였다. 분석결과 기준 열배관로 신설길이에서는 NPV 131백만원, IRR 15.73%로 경제성을 확보 가능한 것으로 평가되었다. 다만, 민감도 분석결과 열배관로 신설길이가 2.6 km를 초과하는 경우 NPV가 음수로 나타나 경제성을 확보하지 못하는 것으로 분석되었다. 결과적으로 초기투자비의 50%를 정부가 지원하는 경우 5.3 km, 80%를 지원하는 경우 11.4 km 이내에서 경제성을 확보하는 것으로 분석되었다. 기준 열배관로 신설길이에서는 난방열 수요가 기준 열수요 대비 62% 수준 이하로 감소하는 경우 경제성이 없으며, 열배관로 신설길이가 2 km에서는 기준 열수요 대비 14%만 감소하여도 경제성을 확보하지 못하는 것으로 분석되었다. 초기투자비대비 정부지원금 비율이 증가하는 경우 열배관로 신설거리의 탄력성이 증가하여, 열수요 1단위에서 부담하는 시설투자비인 고정비가 감소한다. 이는 단위당 생산원가가 감소하는 효과로 나타나고 시설농업에 더 저렴한 수준으로 열을 공급할 수 있음을 의미한다. 정부지원금은 열배관로 신설거리가 증가하는 효과로 경제성이 확보될 수 있고, 열수요 개발가능 범위 증가에 따라 추가적인 경제성을 확보할 수 있다. 초기투자비 대비 정부지원금 비율이 증가할수록 생산단가 감소로 인한 시설농가의 에너지비용 또한 감소할 것으로 예측된다. 본 연구결과는 발전소 온배수열 활용사업에 대한 정부지원금의 효과성을 경제적 평가측면에서 분석한 점에서 의의를 가지며, 향후 시범적용 또는 Pilot 단계의 실제 적용사례를 기반으로 한 경제성 평가결과에 대한 필요성을 제기할 수 있는 근거가 된다.

소아 충수돌기염 진단에서 Alvarado Scoring System의 유용성 (Usefulness of a Alvarado Scoring System for the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children)

  • 양은석;윤성관;김은영;노영일;박상기;박영봉;문경래
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2004
  • 목 적: Alvarado score는 성인에서 급성 충수돌기염 환자의 조기 진단에 용이하고 오진율을 줄이는 유용한 진단법으로 알려져 있다. 저자들은 급성 복통이 주소인 소아 환아에서 급성충수돌기염 진단에 alvarado score의 유용성에 대하여 알아보고 진단의 정확성에 대하여 평가하고자 연구를 하였다. 방 법: 2002년 6월부터 2003년 5월까지 조선대학교 부속 병원 응급실을 방문한 복통을 호소하는 소아 170명 중 충수돌기염의 강하게 의심되는 122명을 대상으로 전향적으로 조사하였다. 복통을 주소로 방문한 환아의 나이, 임상증상, 임상징후, 혈액학적 검사결과를 분석하여 Alvarado score를 산출하고 진단을 위해 복부초음파 검사나 전산화 단층 촬영을 시행하고 수술을 시행한 경우 조직학적 진단을 하여 확진하였으며 수술하지 않은 군은 12시간의 추적 관찰로 확진하였다. 방사선학적 진단과 수술 결과 등을 비교하여 확진군과 오진군의 Alvarado score를 비교 분석하였다. 결 과: 응급실에 복통이 주소인 환아 중 충수돌기염이 강하게 의심되었던 환아는 122명이었다. 122명의 환아 중 남아는 67명(54.9%), 여아는 55명(45.1%)이었다. 조직검사를 통해 충수돌기염으로 진단 받은 환자는 수술한 105명 중 92명으로 87.6%에 해당하였고 충수돌기염으로 수술한 환자들의 오진율은 12.4%였다. 평균 Alvarado score는 충수돌기염 군은 $5.40{\pm}1.24$, 충수돌기염이 아닌 군은 $3.73{\pm}1.82$이었다(p<0.05). Alvarado score 6점 이상인 경우 소아 충수돌기염을 진단하는데 민감도가 86.4%, 특이도는 80.0%였다. 소아 충수돌기염을 진단하는데 복부 초음파검사나 전산화단층촬영의 진단의 민감도는 92.5%였다. 결 론: 복부초음파검사나 전산화 단층 촬영 등과 함께 Alvarado score는 소아 충수돌기염의 진단에 유용하게 이용될 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.

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Cation Exchange Capacities, Swelling, and Solubility of Clay Minerals in Acidic Solutions : A Literature Review

  • Park, Won Choon
    • 자원환경지질
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 1979
  • 본문은 광물학 및 습식야금법의 관점에서, 산성용액내의 점토 광물의 물리적 특성과 화학적 특성을 문헌에 의해 검토한 것이다. 점토광물의 몇가지 중요한 특성은 이들이 산성용액내에서 양이온을 교환하고 흡수팽창하며, 이질광물로 분해(incongruent dissolution)하는 능력을 갖는다는 것이다. 여러 점토광물들은 양이온 교환과정으로 금속 이온들을 용액으로부터 흡착할 수 있다. 일반적으로 이들의 양이온 교환능력은 다음 순서로 증가된다. 즉, kaolinite, halloysite, illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite 산성용액내에서는 점토광물들에 의하여 동과 같은 양이온 흡착은 수소와 알미늄에 의해 크게 방해를 받으므로, 우라늄 및 동 등의 금속을 회수하는데는 점토광물이 중용한 요소가 되지 않는다. 그러나, 염기성용액에서는 양이온 흡착(uptake)이 중요하다. 흡수 팽창성은 낮은 pH에서 최소가 된다. 이는 격자 파괴에 기인할 가능성이 많다. 흡수 팽창은 montmorillonite형 점토에서 조절이 되는데 그것은 내부층의 Na 이온이 리튬 과/또는 수산화된 알미늄 이온과 교환을 하기 때문이다. 점토광물에 대한 산의 효과는 다음과 같다. i) 면적 및 다공성이 증가됨에 따라 보다 작은 판상의 집합체로 분리됨 ii) 점토-산 반응은 다음 순서로 일어난다. (ㄱ) 내부층 양이온들의 $H^+$ 치환 (ㄴ) Al, Fe, Mg 등의 팔면체 양이온의 이동. (ㄷ) 사면체 Al 이온들의 이동. 산의 공격반응(attack)은 점토 입자의 가장자리에서부터 시작되어 내부로 계속되며, 수화된 규소겔을 가장 자리에 남긴다. iii) (ㄴ)과 (ㄷ)의 반응속도는 위-일급($pseudo-1^{st}$ order)이며, 이는 산의 농도에 비례한다. 그리고 그 속도는 온도 매 $10^{\circ}C$ 증가에 따라 배가된다. 산에 의한 동이나 우라늄을 제자리에서 용해시키는 경우 고찰할 문제는 다음과 같다. i) 1년 혹은 그 이상의 오랜 작용으로 산의 반응을 받은 점토광물은 규소겔을 남길 것이다. 그런데 이 겔이 용해(leaching)작용을 받고 있는 유용 광물 표면을 덮게 되면 용해에 의한 회수 속도는 실질적으로 감소된다. ii) 0.5% 점토광물과 동을 함유하는 회수 가능한 동광상에 대해 점토-산 반응에 사용될 값의 상승은 동 1파운드당 1.5c이다. (혹은 구리 1파운드당 $H_2SO_4$ 0.93Ibs) 점토광물에 의한 이러한 산의 소모량이 산화동광상에서 동을 추출하는데 경제적 평가의 한 요소가 될 것이다.

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The Contribution of Innovation Activity to the Output Growth of Emerging Economies: The Case of Kazakhstan

  • Smagulova, Sholpan;Mukasheva, Saltanat
    • 유통과학연구
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the state of the energy industry and to determine the efficiency of its functioning on the basis of energy conservation principle and application of innovative technologies aimed at improving the ecological modernisation of agricultural sectors of Kazakhstan. The research methodology is based on an integrated approach of financial and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of the investment project, based on calculation of elasticity, total costs and profitability, as well as on comparative, graphical and system analysis. The current stage is characterised by widely spread restructuring processes of electric power industry in many countries through introduction of new technical installations of energy facilities and increased government regulation in order to enhance the competitive advantage of electricity market. Electric power industry features a considerable value of creating areas. For example, by providing scientific and technical progress, it crucially affects not only the development but also the territorial organisation of productive forces, first of all the industry. In modern life, more than 90% of electricity and heat is obtained by Kazakhstan's economy by consuming non-renewable energy resources: different types of coal, oil shale, oil, natural gas and peat. Therefore, it is significant to ensure energy security, as the country faces a rapid fall back to mono-gas structure of fuel and energy balance. However, energy resources in Kazakhstan are spread very unevenly. Its main supplies are concentrated in northern and central parts of the republic, and the majority of consumers of electrical power live in the southern and western areas of the country. However, energy plays an important role in the economy of industrial production and to a large extent determines the level of competitive advantage, which is a promising condition for implementation of energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies. In these circumstances, issues of modernisation and reforms of this sector in Kazakhstan gain more and more importance, which can be seen in the example of economically sustainable solutions of a large local monopoly company, significant savings in capital investment and efficiency of implementation of an investment project. A major disadvantage of development of electricity distribution companies is the prevalence of very high moral and physical amortisation of equipment, reaching almost 70-80%, which significantly increases the operating costs. For example, while an investment of 12 billion tenge was planned in 2009 in this branch, in 2012 it is planned to invest more than 17 billion. Obviously, despite the absolute increase, the rate of investment is still quite low, as the total demand in this area is at least more than 250 billion tenge. In addition, industrial infrastructure, including the objects of Kazakhstan electric power industry, have a tangible adverse impact on the environment. Thus, since there is a large number of various power projects that are sources of electromagnetic radiation, the environment is deteriorated. Hence, there is a need to optimise the efficiency of the organisation and management of production activities of energy companies, to create and implement new technologies, to ensure safe production and provide solutions to various environmental aspects. These are key strategic factors to ensure success of the modern energy sector of Kazakhstan. The contribution of authors in developing the scope of this subject is explained by the fact that there was not enough research in the energy sector, especially in the view of ecological modernisation. This work differs from similar works in Kazakhstan in the way that the proposed method of investment project calculation takes into account the time factor, which compares the current and future value of profit from the implementation of innovative equipment that helps to bring it to actual practise. The feasibility of writing this article lies in the need of forming a public policy in the industrial sector, including optimising the structure of energy disbursing rate, which complies with the terms of future modernised development of the domestic energy sector.

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공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2002년 및 2003년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 - (Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2002 and 2003 -)

  • 정광섭;김민수;김용찬;박경근;박병윤;조금남
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1234-1268
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    • 2004
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2002 and 2003 has been carried out. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment/design. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation in diverse facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat transfer, humidity was also interesting to promote comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing research topics. Well developed CFD technologies were widely applied for analysis and design of various facilities and their systems. (2) Heat transfer characteristics of enhanced finned tube heat exchangers and heat sinks were extensively investigated. Experimental studies on the boiling heat transfer, vortex generators, fluidized bed heat exchangers, and frosting and defrosting characteristics were also conducted. In addition, the numerical simulations on various heat exchangers were performed and reported to show heat transfer characteristics and performance of the heat exchanger. (3) A review of the recent studies shows that the performance analysis of heat pump have been made by various simulations and experiments. Progresses have been made specifically on the multi-type heat pump systems and other heat pump systems in which exhaust energy is utilized. The performance characteristics of heat pipe have been studied numerically and experimentally, which proves the validity of the developed simulation programs. The effect of various factors on the heat pipe performance has also been examined. Studies of the ice storage system have been focused on the operational characteristics of the system and on the basics of thermal storage materials. Researches into the phase change have been carried out steadily. Several papers deal with the cycle analysis of a few thermodynamic systems which are very useful in the field of air-conditioning and refrigeration. (4) Recent studies on refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement when new alternative refrigerants are applied. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and new alternative refrigerants including natural refrigerants. Efficiency of various compressors and performance of new expansion devices are also dealt with for better design of refrigeration/air conditioning system. In addition to the studies related with thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures, studies on new refrigerants are also carried out. It should be noted that the researches on two-phase flow are constantly carried out. (5) A review of the recent studies on absorption refrigeration system indicates that heat and mass transfer enhancement is the key factor in improving the system performance. Various experiments have been carried out and diverse simulation models have been presented. Study on the small scale absorption refrigeration system draws a new attention. Cooling tower was also the research object in the respect of enhancement its efficiency, and performance analysis and optimization was carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor thermal environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on several innovative systems such as personal environmental modules, air-barrier type perimeterless system with UFAC, radiant floor cooling system, etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental conditions and minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building energy management and cost-benefit analysis for economic evaluation.