• Title, Summary, Keyword: Economic evaluation

Search Result 2,318, Processing Time 0.064 seconds

Usefulness of a Alvarado Scoring System for the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children (소아 충수돌기염 진단에서 Alvarado Scoring System의 유용성)

  • Yang, Eun Seok;Yoon, Sung Kwan;Kim, Eun Young;Rho, Young Il;Park, Sang Kee;Park, Yeong Bong;Mun, Gyeong-Rae
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: Alvarado scoring system was evaluated regarding its usefulness for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis in adult and in reduction of the incidence of negative appendicectomies. To evaluate the accuracy of diagnosing appendicitis using the Alvarado score in children. Methods: Prospectively, we surveyed 122 patients (male 67, female 55) suffering from abdominal pain, who had visited to the emergency department of Chosun University Hospital from June 2002 to May 2003. The Alvarado score has been computed from the white blood cell count, neutrophil count, body temperature, resistance in the right lower quadrant, length of symptoms, nausea and vomiting. Each patient was evaluated by a pediatric resident and then by a general surgeon independently. Results: Out of 170 total children who visited to the emergency department due to abdominal pain, 122 patients were associated with appendicitis. A total of 122 patients (67 male and 55 female) were visited to the emergency room with suspected appendicitis. From 105 operated patients, 92 (87.6%) were diagnosed acute appendicitis and erronous diagnostic rate was 12.4%, pathologically. Mean alvarado score of appendicitis group was $5.40{\pm}1.24$ whereas those of non-appendicitis group was $3.73{\pm}1.82$ (p<0.05). From 6 Alvarado score high sensitivity (86.4%) and high specificity (80.0%) were observed. Sensitivity of ultrasonography or computed tomography was 92.5%. Conclusion: We found that Alvarado score system is a noninvasive, safe diagnostic method, which is simple, reliable and repeatable. Alvarado score is useful system for a first, rapid and economic evaluation for the appendicitis in children.

  • PDF

Effect a Presentation Product has on the Repurchase Action (증정상품이 소비자의 재구매행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Gi-Seon;Kim, Hong
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
    • /
    • v.1 no.2
    • /
    • pp.193-224
    • /
    • 2006
  • When we look into the market economy of our country recently, we learn that the mind of consumption after IMF crisis is very shrunk and the market is led into a serious slump of consumption. For an approach to survive the contraction of the market and the market competition, enterprises command a variety of sales promotion strategy, out of which presentation is a sales promotion strategy to give the same product. The price-discounted strategy through the provision of donation commodity may induce the temporarily-discounted commodity not to be sold to the consumers or make a damage of the images of the brand, or arouse the price war against other companies, or lower the sense of the quality of the commodity. Therefore, it is necessary for a company to meet the end users' demand and also maintain the evaluation of the quality on the consumers' products highly. Therefore, in this study, we have attempted to study and analyze the consumers' satisfaction level and reliability on the donation goods in order to suggest the orientation of the presentation promotion strategy in accordance with the changes of the sales market. In addition, we tried to understand how the recognition, consumers' satisfaction level and reliability on the presentation goods had on the repurchase. With such objectives in this study, we could make an analogy of the following significance and suggestion of study. Firstly, in order to survive a serious competition market, enterprises must execute the product presentation along with diverse events instead of commanding the sales promotion strategy through a simple product presentation. This strategy can be an alternative to lower the danger a person-to-person product presentation may bring about. That is to say, we shall not lower the quality and value of the products but enhance a new image to customers through a product donation occasion together with an event as a new marketing pioneering method. Secondly, during the period of the current economic depression, if a company provides the consumers with an opportunity free of charge through the present special event period and the practical events, it will affect the advertising effect of the goods, the introduction of the customers and customers' repurchase. For this purpose, the company has to heighten customers' preferences by selecting the items customers are liable to prefer and closely analyze the consumers' response and market for such an objective. Thirdly, with the internet age, as the market has a tendency to increase In the number of consumers who do shopping in the internet, the marketing strategy has to build up the strategy of the presentation product instead of a simple offline strategy. For example, a company shall have to draw attention or attraction from end users who intend to do shopping through the online by a product planning expo or a presentation product corner. Fourthly, the excessive sale promotion strategy of presentation products may bring about even a reverse effect on the value of the goods or consumers' attitude as seen above. Therefore, a company has to relay' the value as to the price' to the consumers instead of the sales promotion strategy of donation products just for a temporary sales volume. Conclusively, even if we put the value with a reasonable price through the presentation product strategy in the past, we shall have construct the strategy by providing some plus factors in the price such as the provision of the upgraded products or services instead of just presentation, or the invitation of the events related to diverse events or culture arts from now on.

  • PDF

Development and Analyses of Effects of ICT Teaching: Learning Process Plan for 'Designing My Home' unit of Technology.Home Economic in High School (ICT활용 교수.학습 과정안 개발 및 효과 분석: 고등학교 기술.가정 "나의 주거 공간꾸미기" 단원을 중심으로)

  • Park Hyun-Sook;Cho Jae-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.15-27
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purpose of this research was to develop and analyze the effects of ICT based teaching learning process plans for 'Designing My Home' unit of Technology Home Economics subject in High School. The seven housing contents were selected from 8 textbooks and 8 teaching resources at the analyses stage. A specific homepage(ieduhome.cafe.com) was built to utilize the eight ICT teaching learning process plan as well as many other resources at the planning & development stages. The number of 68 highschool students have participated for the application stage during September 4-26, 2003 and the same number have studied the same contents through regular teaching learning plans as a comparison group. Experimental groups have significantly more increased in the knowledge and understanding of the housing contents than have comparison groups. The same results occurred in the interests in Home Economics, Housing, and Internet utilized study. The Design reports were not statistically differed between two groups based on the objective evaluation criteria. The results of this study generally supported previous research and showed that the In teaching learning plans were more effective in various aspects than were the regular plans.

  • PDF

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research -A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2000 and 2001- (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2000년 및 2001년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 -)

  • 강신형;한화택;조금남;이승복;조형희;김민수
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
    • /
    • v.14 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1102-1139
    • /
    • 2002
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2000 and 2001 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) Most of papers related with heat transfer analysis and heat exchanger shows dealt with convection, evaporation, and channel flow for the design application of heat exchanger. The numerical heat transfer simulation studies have been peformed and reported to show heat transfer characteristics. Experimental as well as numerical studies on heat exchanger were reported, while not many papers are available for the system analysis including heat exchanger. (3) A review of the recent studies on heat pump system shows that performance analysis and control of heat pump have been peformed by various simulations and experiments. The research papers on multi-type heat pump system increased significantly. The studies on heat pipe have been examined experimently for change of working characteristics and strut lure. Research on the phase change has been carried out steadily and operation strategies of encapsulated ice storage tank are reported experimentally in several papers. (4) A review of recent studies on refrigeration/air conditioning system have focused on the system performance and efficiency for new alternative refrigerants. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer characteristics are investigated for tube shapes and new alternative refrigerants. Studies on components of refrigeration/air conditioning system are carried to examine efficiency for various compressors and performance of new expansion devices. In addition to thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures, studies on new refrigerants are also carried out, however research works on two-phase flow seemed to be insufficient. (5) A review of the recent studies on absorption cooling system indicates that heat and mass transfer phenomena have been investigated to improve absorber performance. Various experimental data have been presented and several simulation models have been proposed. A review of the recent studies on duct and ventilation shows that ventilation indices have been proposed to quantify the ventilation performance in buildings and tunnels. Main efforts have been focused on the applications of ventilation effectiveness in practice, either numerically using computational fluid dynamics or experimentally using tracer gas techniques. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor thermal environment and building service systems, research issues have mainly focused on many innovative ideas such as underfloor air-conditioning system, personal environmental modules, radiant floor cooling and etc. Also, the new approaches for minimizing energy consumption as well as improving indoor environmental conditions through predictive control of HVAC systems, various activities of building energy management and cost-benefit analysis for economic evaluation were highlighted.

A Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Soil-Bentonite Mixed Soils with Compaction Energy and Swelling in the Landfill (폐기물매립장에서 다짐에너지와 팽윤도에 의한 토양-벤토나이트 혼합토의 투수계수 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이종민;이재영
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
    • /
    • v.6 no.4
    • /
    • pp.61-72
    • /
    • 2001
  • A barrier liner system is placed at the bottom and side slope in landfill to protect a leaking of leachate that the hydraulic conductivity of this system should be less than It 107cm/sec. In this study, the soil-bentonite mixture for the bottom liner system was evaluated in two point of views : changing characteristics of the hydraulic conductivity according to the different mixing ratio of soil-bentonite with the effect of bentonite swelling and the difference method (A & D type) of compaction on the hydraulic conductivity. As the results, maximum dry density (${\gamma}$$_{dmax}$) of SC group mixture was higher than of CL group mixture. However, the result of optimum moisture contents(OMC) of both groups were the contrary. In case of ${\gamma}$$_{dmax}$ by different compaction method, D type was higher than A. But the OMC were the contrary. The difference of ${\gamma}$$_{dmax}$ according to the Compaction energy, “SC” group mixture W3S higher than the “CL” group. In case of OMC of “CL” group was higher than “SC” group. The effecting of swelling was a little bit different on the two factors. According to the result of compaction test, the use of site soil only could not meet the criteria on hydraulic conductivity, but could find a solution for the mixing ratio of bentonite mixture were satisfied to the standard of barriation. The increased in bentonite mixing ratio and degree of swelling, the values of hydraulic conductivity were decreased. Especially the “CL” group with “D” type compaction measured the lowest value with the same conditions. Also, the bentonite mixing ratio has more influenced on the hydraulic conductivity compare with swelling effect. The “SC” group mixture with “A” typo compaction got a big difference from others. The evaluation of economic for the construction cost on the two cases, the lower bentonite mixing ratio of soil-bentonite mixed soil is more economically because of bentonite cost.

  • PDF

Evaluation of Sustainability for Olive Flounder Production by the Systems Ecology I. EMERGY Analysis of Olive Flounder Production (시스템 생태학적 접근법에 의한 넙치생산의 지속성 평가 I. 넙치생산에 대한 EMERGY 분석)

  • KIM Nam Kook;SON Ji Ho;KIM Jin Lee;LEE Suk Mo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.218-224
    • /
    • 2001
  • Olive flounder is one of the most important aquaculture species in Korea. Interest in the aquaculture of olive flounder has increased recently because of its good growth characteristics and high market price, However, the productivity of olive flounder aquaculture depends on economic inputs such as fuels, facilities, and labor, In this study, EMERGY concepts was used to compare the environment and economy of two olive flounder production methods, fishing fisheries and aquaculture, and to evaluate the sustainability of olive flounder production, EMERGY spelled with an 'm' is a universal measure of real wealth of the work of nature and society made on a common basis. Calculations of EMERGY production and storage provide a basis for making choices about environment and economy following. the general public policy to maximize real wealth, production and use. EMERGY flows from environment were $94.13\%$ for olive flounder fishing fisheries, and $2.20\%$ for aquaculture. EMERGY yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and sustainability index were 17.05, 1.02 and 274 for fishing fisheries and 0.06, 44.41 and 0.023 for aquaculture, respectively. These ratios indicate that the fishing fisheries will yield more net EMERGY, while the aquaculture requires a lower investment of EMERGY.

  • PDF

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2004 and 2005 - (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2004년 및 2005년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰-)

  • Choi, Yong-Don;Kang, Yong-Tae;Kim, Nae-Hyun;Kim, Man-Hoe;Park, Kyoung-Kuhn;Park, Byung-Yoon;Park, Jin-Chul;Hong, Hi-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.94-131
    • /
    • 2007
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2004 and 2005 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD and flow visualization(PIV, PTV and LDV methods) technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) The research trends of the previous two yews are surveyed as groups of natural convection, forced convection, electronic cooling, heat transfer enhancement, frosting and defrosting, thermal properties, etc. New research topics introduced include natural convection heat transfer enhancement using nanofluid, supercritical cooling performance or oil miscibility of $CO_2$, enthalpy heat exchanger for heat recovery, heat transfer enhancement in a plate heat exchanger using fluid resonance. (3) The literature for the last two years($2004{\sim}2005$) is reviewed in the areas of heat pump, ice and water storage, cycle analysis and reused energy including geothermal, solar and unused energy). The research on cycle analysis and experiments for $CO_2$ was extensively carried out to replace the Ozone depleting and global warming refrigerants such as HFC and HCFC refrigerants. From the year of 2005, the Gas Engine Heat Pump(GHP) has been paid attention from the viewpoint of the gas cooling application. The heat pipe was focused on the performance improvement by the parametric analysis and the heat recovery applications. The storage systems were studied on the performance enhancement of the storage tank and cost analysis for heating and cooling applications. In the area of unused energy, the hybrid systems were extensively introduced and the life cycle cost analysis(LCCA) for the unused energy systems was also intensively carried out. (4) Recent studies of various refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and of alternative refrigerants including carbon dioxide. Efficiency of various compressors and expansion devices are also dealt with for better modeling and, in particular, performance improvement. Thermoelectric module and cooling systems are analyzed theoretically and experimentally. (5) According to the review of recent studies on ventilation systems, an appropriate ventilation systems including machenical and natural are required to satisfied the level of IAQ. Also, an recent studies on air-conditioning and absorption refrigeration systems, it has mainly focused on distribution and dehumidification of indoor air to improve the performance were carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on optimal thermal comfort, improvement of indoor air Quality and many innovative systems such as air-barrier type perimeter-less system with UFAC, radiant floor heating and cooling system and etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental condition as well as minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building control and operation strategy and energy performance analysis for economic evaluation.

Effect a Presentation Product has on the Repurchase Action (증정상품이 소비자의 재구매행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Gi-Seon;Kim, Hong
    • 한국벤처창업학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.375-404
    • /
    • 2007
  • When we look into the market economy of our country recently, we learn that the mind of consumption after IMF crisis is very shrunk and the market is led into a serious slump of consumption. For an approach to survive the contraction of the market and the market competition, enterprises command a variety of sales promotion strategy, out of which presentation is a sales promotion strategy to give the same product. The price-discounted strategy through the provision of donation commodity may induce the temporarily-discounted commodity not to be sold to the consumers or make a damage of the images of the brand, or arouse the price war against other companies, or lower the sense of the quality of the commodity. Therefore, it is necessary for a company to meet the end users' demand and also maintain the evaluation of the quality on the consumers' products highly. Therefore, in this study, we have attempted to study and analyze the consumers' satisfaction level and reliability on the donation goods in order to suggest the orientation of the presentation promotion strategy in accordance with the changes of the sales market. In addition, we tried to understand how the recognition, consumers' satisfaction level and reliability on the presentation goods had on the repurchase. With such objectives in this study, we could make an analogy of the following significance and suggestion of study. Firstly, in order to survive a serious competition market, enterprises must execute the product presentation along with diverse events instead of commanding the sales promotion strategy through a simple product presentation. This strategy can be an alternative to lower the danger a person-to-person product presentation may bring about. That is to say, we shall not lower the quality and value of the products but enhance a new image to customers through a product donation occasion together with an event as a new marketing pioneering method. Secondly, during the period of the current economic depression, if a company provides the consumers with an opportunity free of charge through the present special event period and the practical events, it will affect the advertising effect of the goods, the introduction of the customers and customers' repurchase. For this purpose, the company has to heighten customers' preferences by selecting the items customers are liable to prefer and closely analyze the consumer's response and market for such an objective. Thirdly, with the internet age, as the market has a tendency to increase in the number of consumers who do shopping in the internet, the marketing strategy has to build up the strategy of the presentation product instead of a simple offline strategy. For example, a company shall have to draw attention or attraction from end users who intend to do shopping through the online by a product planning expo or a presentation product corner. Fourthly, the excessive sale promotion strategy of presentation products may bring about even a reverse effect on the value of the goods or consumers' attitude as seen above. Therefore, a company has to relay 'the value as to the price' to the consumers instead of the sales promotion strategy of donation products just for a temporary sales volume. Conclusively, even if we put the value with a reasonable price through the presentation product strategy in the past, we shall have construct the strategy by providing some plus factors in the price such as the provision of the upgraded products or services instead of just presentation, or the invitation of the events related to diverse events or culture arts from now on.

  • PDF

Space Usage and Satisfaction with Privacy in General Hospital Inpatients (종합병원 입원환자의 공간사용 및 프라이버시 만족도)

  • Choi, In Young;Park, Hey Kyung
    • The Korean Society of Science & Art
    • /
    • v.36
    • /
    • pp.391-400
    • /
    • 2018
  • To ensure a user-centered treatment environment, hospital construction needs an approach that is not centered on functional aspects such as efficiency or economic feasibility but on the consideration of needs as reflected in user psychology and behavior. Patients who are physically and psychologically vulnerable experience psychological pressure when they are placed in an unfamiliar environment. Most of existing studies however focus on the evaluation of the physical environment, without paying attention to the psychological or behavioral approach to anxiety and stress that patients may experience in a special environment that a hospital may be to them. This study examines general hospital inpatients to understand the usage of major space available and their satisfaction with privacy. This study provides useful primary information needed for the user-centered design of general hospital for improved patient health and welfare. For the purpose of the study, literature review, site investigation, and survey were conducted. Major functional space and privacy in general hospitals were studied, and the site investigation was performed to identify the plans and their status. Survey was also performed to understand the usage of functional space and satisfaction with such space usage as well as satisfaction with privacy. The findings were as follows: (1) Space usage was rated as average in general. It was found that patients used their rooms and lobby on a daily basis. By age, the usage was highest in the group in their 40s; the usage was relatively lower in the groups in their 30s or younger. (2) Space satisfaction was above average, indicating that patients were fairly satisfied. Satisfaction was highest in the lobby space designed with distinct features. By case, satisfaction was highest in Case B, characterized by its wide horizontal space in the rural settings. (3) Satisfaction with privacy in hospital was average, indicating that the demand for privacy was relatively higher but what patients receive in return was lower than their expectation. It was also found that satisfaction with privacy was a crucial element that affected the overall satisfaction with hospital.

Analysis of Microclimate Impact According to Development Scenarios of Vacant Land in Downtown Seoul - A Comparison of Wind Speed and Air Temperature - (서울 도심 공지의 개발 시나리오에 따른 미기후 영향 분석 - 풍속 및 기온 비교 -)

  • Baek, Jiwon;Park, Chan;Park, Somin;Choi, Jaeyeon;Song, Wonkyong;Kang, Dain;Kim, Suryeon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.105-116
    • /
    • 2021
  • In the city of high population density crowded with buildings, Urban Heat Island (UHI) is intensified, and the city is vulnerable to thermal comfort. The maintenance of vacant land in downtown is treated as a factor that undermines the residential environment, spoils the urban landscape, and decreases the economic vitality of the whole region. Therefore, this study compared the effects on microclimate in the surrounding area according to the development scenarios targeting the vacant land in Songhyeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul. The status quo, green oriented, building oriented and green-building mediation scenarios were established and ENVI-met was used to compare and analyze the impact of changes in wind speed, air temperature and mean radiant temperature (MRT) within 1 km of the target and the target site. The result of inside and 1 km radius the targeted area showed that the seasonal average temperature decreased and the wind speed increased when the green oriented scenario was compared with the current state one. It was expected that the temperature lowered to -0.73 ℃ or increased to 1.5 ℃ in summer, and the wind speed was affected up to 210 meters depending on the scenario. And it was revealed that green area inside the site generally affects inside area, but the layout and size of the buildings affect either internal and external area. This study is expected to help as a decision-making support tool for developing Songhyeon-dong area and to be used to reflect the part related to microclimate on the future environmental effects evaluation system.