• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ecosystem & Environment

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Converting Lands that are damaged by Graveyards into Tree Burial Sites in order to Restore Green Areas (산지묘지의 훼손지 복원을 위한 수목장지로의 전환)

  • Woo, Jae-Wook;Byun, Woo-Hyuk;Kim, Hak-Beom;Park, Won-Kyoung;Kim, Min-Su;Norsyuhada, Norsyuhada
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this paper was to study the issues related to converting the graveyards within forests into spaces intended for tree burials by means of planting, given the situation that the graveyards have encroached on land and damaged the environment. For the reason, a field survey was performed to determine the width, length, and distance to the nearest tree of 205 graveyards in the capital area. Through this, it was determined that the domestic lands damaged by graveyards amounted to $862km^2$, including the areas that were deforested to manage the graves. This only confirms that land encroachment by graveyards is a serious issue. The methods for making tree burial sites were examined from the perspective of how to meet public demands given the graveyard's spatial distinctiveness. As a result, this study suggested different methods to establish tree burial sites according to the degree of transformation and the term of its formation. This study also classified the graveyards into three types, and identified the planting methods that harmonized the safe growth of trees and the scenic beauty of memorial places based on the standard. This is in order to plant trees that are shade-tolerant and suitable to the forest line, along with which other tree line was and also, to plant aesthetic trees around the empty space. Through applying the developed methods, this study established and monitored two exemplary sites in Yongin and Boryeng. Aesthetic trees were planted in Yongin site which was located in an open area, aod the shade-tolerant trees were planted in Boryeong, which was located in a forest area. As a result, the image of a garden appeared at Yongin site and the image of a tree colony harmonized with the near forest emerged at Boryeong site. Therefore, it is confirmed that the method of planting according to the distribution status of neighboring trees was effective. As a result of monitoring, mulching wood chips were suitable for sites that were small or easy to approach. This is because the weeds were controlled in Yongin site by mulching. Furthermore, by monitoring the growth of 11 species of vegetation, this study confirmed that low and cover-type vegetations were suitable for tree burial sites. In Boryeong site, the wild cherry trees, which were planted as adult trees, all died, and the tilling of snake's beard, which were planted as cover vegetation, was slow. Therefore, this study found that seedlings were more suitable to plant in forest graveyards than adult trees, which were large and difficult to approach, and it was effective to use the remaining lawn and form a low vegetation after the crown of trees had expanded to such places.

A Study on Comparison of Changes in Ecological Characteristics for Bulgwangcheon(stream) Close-to Nature Section (불광천 자연형 하천 정비구간의 생태적 특성 변화 비교 연구)

  • Park, Won-Zei;Lee, Kyong-Jae;Han, Bong-Ho;Jang, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.112-129
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to provide basic data in managing the project that was carried out on Bulgwangcheon in a nature-friendly way to improve the conditions around the areas, which was brought to completion in 2002, based on changes in ecological characteristics. For this propose, this study examined documents related to the project, compared physical and enviromnental changes before and after the project was conducted and analyzed changes in the stream ecosystem. The result showed that in areas that effluent water was often observed, especially when it rained, the river wall was washed away and vegetation was found damaged. As for actual vegetation, this study compared planting coverage of each section of the research area and actual vegetation charts. The results indicated that Lespedeza spp., Aster koraiensis among mixed seeds that were planted in the reservoir path were almost swept away while Festuca arundinacea dominated the areas. Phragmites communis, Miscanthus sacchariflorns and Salix gracilistyla which had been planted in a small number were also almost washed out though a small number of them were left to form a colony. After examining the topography and structure of the plant community, this study found that areas where mixed seed were planted had changed into two types of vegetation: First type of area is dominated by P and R which are usually raised in apron with abundant floating particles. The second type of area is dominated by dry gramineous plant such as F and A. Areas around low flow channel where Phragmites communis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Salix gracilistyla planting construction method is applied was washed away with the width of low flow channel reduced. Though P, M and S formed a small community in some areas around the low flow area, they were in small number and in composition of simple plant species. Two ways were suggested in this study to manage the stream in an ecological way. First, adequate revetment construction methods should be applied by monitoring the flow of the stream as well as considering the flood control of urban streams. Second, target vegetation communities that are suitable for the environment of the stream should be chosen and be plantedconstantly with high density. At the same time, ornamental native plants shouldn't be planted as they have been and disturbing vegetation should be removed.

Relationships between Geographical Conditions and Distribution Pattern of Plant Species on Uninhabited Islands in Korea (우리나라 無人島嶼의 地理的 還境과 植物의 分布 pattern 사이의 相關性 分析)

  • 정재민;홍경낙
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 2002
  • Correlations among the island area, distance to mainland, latitude, longitude, human impacts, diversity and composition of vascular plants were investigated by analyzing data on 261 islands(10.3% of total number of islands in Korea) selected from the annual reports for 'the natural evironment survey of the uninhabited islands in Korea' published by 'Ministry of Environment' during three years from 1999. The area of surveyed 261 islands ranged 1,100 to 961,000㎡(average of 75,000㎡), and the distance to mainland ranged 0.15 to 51.5km (average of 14.9km). Total number of plant species recorded in those islands was 1,109 species throughout 30 families, and mean mumber of plant species of each island was 98.7 species. Native species were 1,003 species (90.4%), and exotic species were 106 species(9.6%). The families with the largest number of species was the Compositae with 114 species, and followed in the order of Gramineae(90), Leguminosae(54), and Rosaceae(53). The result of multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on the plant species composition showed that 261 islands were distinctly divided into two groups, western sea group(131 islands) and southern sea group(130 islands). The islands of western sea group(average area of 93,000㎡) had greatly larger area than them of southern sea group(average area of 57,000㎡), but the average number of species (average species of 192) per island were less than in southern sea group (average species of 233). And, the partitioning into two groups was responsible for the species restricted to southern than to western sea group. Therefore, this results suggest that the distribution pattern and the composition of plant species could be also affected by the latitude of the island. When the species-area model was applied to total island and plant species, these results indicate that the island area was the most significant predictor of plant species diversity, and the distance to mainland and the human impacts were also shown to be significant predictors of plant species richness. But when applied to both groups of islands by the stepwise selection method, the result showed that islands of southern sea group were greatly affected by the factors such as human impacts, distance to mainland and longitude than western sea group. For the purpose of conservation of natural ecosystem on the uninhabited islands in Korea, we will also examine how the human impacts and the invasion of exotic plant species will disturb the native species diversity.

Development and Application of Multi-Functional Floating Wetland Island for Improving Water Quality (수질정화를 위한 다기능 인공식물섬의 개발과 적용)

  • Yoon, Younghan;Lim, Hyun Man;Kim, Weon Jae;Jung, Jin Hong;Park, Jae-Roh
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.221-230
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    • 2016
  • Multi-functional floating wetland island (mFWI) was developed in order to prevent algal bloom and to improve water quality through several unit purification processes. A test bed was applied in the stagnant watershed in an urban area, from the summer to the winter season. For the advanced treatment, an artificial phosphorus adsorption/filtration medium was applied with micro-bubble generation, as well as water plants for nutrient removal. It appeared that the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (T-P) removal was higher in the warmer season (40.9%, 45.7%) than in the winter (15.9%, 20.0%), and the removal performance (suspended solid, chlorophyll a) in each process differs according to seasonal variation; micro-bubble performed better (33.1%, 39.2%) in the summer, and the P adsorption/filtration and water plants performed better (76.5%, 59.5%) in the winter season. From the results, it was understood that the mFWI performance was dependent upon the pollutant loads in different seasons and unit processes, and thus it requires continuous monitoring under various conditions to evaluate the functions. In addition, micro-bubbles helped prevent the formation of anaerobic zones in the lower part of the floating wetland. This resulted in the water circulation to form a new healthy aquatic ecosystem in the surrounding environment, which confirmed the positive influence of mFWI.

Diversity, Spatial Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Relict Forest Trees in South Korea (한국 산림유존목의 다양성, 공간 분포 및 생태 특성)

  • CHO, Hyun-Je;Lee, Cheol-Ho;Shin, Joon-Hwan;Bae, Kwan-Ho;Cho, Yong-Chan;Kim, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.4
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    • pp.401-413
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    • 2016
  • Forest resources utilization and variable disturbance history have been affected the rarity and conservation value of forest relict trees, which served as habitat for forest biodiversity, important carbon stock and cultural role include human and natural history in South Korea. This study was conducted to establish the baseline data for forest resources conservation by clarifying species diversity, spatial distribution and ecological characteristics (individual and habitat) of forest relict trees (DBH > 300 cm) based on the data getting from mountain trail, high resolution aerial photos and field professionals and field survey. As results, 54 taxa (18 family 32 genus 48 species 1 subspecies 3 variety and 2 form) as about 22% of tree species in Korea was identified in the field. 837 individuals of forest relict trees were observed and the majority of the trees was in Pinaceae, deciduous Fagaceae and Rosaceae, which families are abundant in population diversity. High elevation area was important to relict trees as mean altitudinal distribution was 1,200 m a.s.l as likely affected by human activity gradients and mid-steep slope and North aspect was important environment for the trees remain. Many individuals exhibited 'damage larger branch' (55.6%) and consequent relatively lower mean canopy coverages (below 80%). Synthetically, present diversity and abundance of relict forest trees in South Korea were the result of complex process among climate variation, local weather and biological factors and the trees of big and old were estimated to important forest biodiversity elements. In the future, clarifying the role and function of relict trees in forest ecosystem, in- and ex- situ programmes for important trees and habitat, and activities for building the background of conservation policy such as "Guideline for identifying and measurement of forest relict trees".

Selection of Filamentous Cyanobacteria and Optimization of Culture Condition for Recycling Waste Nutrient Solution (폐양액 활용을 위한 Filamentous Cyanobacteria의 선발 및 최적배양)

  • Yang, Jin-Chul;Chung, Hee-Kyung;Lee, Hyoung-Seok;Choi, Seung-Ju;Yun, Sang-Soon;Ahn, Ki-Sup;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2004
  • The discharge of waste nutrient solution from greenhouse to natural ecosystem leads to the accumulation of excess nutrients that results in contamination or eutrophication. There is a need to recycle the waste nutrient solution in order to prevent the environmental hazards. The amount and kind of nutrients in waste nutrient solution might be enough to grow photosynthetic microorganisms. Hence in the present study, we examined the growth and mass cultivation of cyanobacteria in the waste nutrient solution with an objective of removing N and P and concomitantly, its mass cultivation. Four photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacteria (Anabaena HA101, HA701 and Nostoc HN601, HN701) isolated from composts and soils of the Chungnam province were used as culture strains. Among the isolates, Nostoc HN601 performed faster growth rate and higher N and P uptake in the BG-II ($NO_3{^-}$) medium when compared to those of other cyanobacterial strains. Finally, the selected isolate was tested under optimum conditions (airflow at the rate of $1L\;min^{-1}$. in 15 L reactor, initial pH 8) in waste nutrient solution from tomato hydroponic in green house condition. Results showed to remove 100% phosphate from the waste nutrient solution in the tomato hydroponics recorded over a period of 7 days. The growth rate of Nostoc HN601 was $16mg\;Chl-a\;L^{-1}$ in the waste nutrient solution from tomato hydroponics with optimum condition, whereas growth rate of Nostoc HN601 was only $9.8mg\;Chl-a\;L^{-1}$ in BG-11 media. Nitrogen fixing capacity of Nostoc HN601 was $20.9nmol\;C_2H_4\;mg^{-1}\;Chl-a\;h^{-1}$ in N-free BG-11. The total nitrogen and total phosphate concentration of Nostoc HN601 were 63.3 mg N gram dry weight $(GDW)^{-1}$ and $19.1mg\;P\;GDW^{-1}$ respectively. Collectively, cyanobacterial mass production using waste nutrient solution under green house condition might be suitable for recycling and cleaning of waste nutrient solution from hydroponic culture system. Biomass of cyanobacteria, cultivated in waste nutrient solution, could be used as biofertilizer.

Dynamics of Phosphorus-Turbid Water Outflow and Limno-Hydrological Effects on Hypolimnetic Effluents Discharging by Hydropower Electric Generation in a Large Dam Reservoir (Daecheong), Korea (대청호 발전방류수의 인·탁수 배출 역동성과 육수·수문학적 영향)

  • Shin, Jae-Ki;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2017
  • Daecheong Reservoir was made by the construction of a large dam (>15 m in height) on the middle to downstream of the Geum River and the discharge systems have the watergate-spillway (WS), a hydropower penstock (HPP), and two intake towers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the limnological anomalies of turbid water reduction, green algae phenomenon, and oligotrophic state in the lower part of reservoir dam site, and compared with hydro-meteorological factors. Field surveys were conducted in two stations of near dam and the outlet of HPP with one week intervals from January to December 2000. Rainfall was closely related to the fluctuations of inflow, outflow and water level. The rainfall pattern was depended on the storm of monsoon and typhoon, and the increase of discharge and turbidity responded more strongly to the intensity than the frequency. Water temperature and DO fluctuations within the reservoir water layer were influenced by meteorological and hydrological events, and these were mainly caused by water level fluctuation based on temperature stratification, density current and discharge types. The discharges of WS and HPP induced to the flow of water bodies and the outflows of turbid water and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Especially, when hypoxic or low-oxygen condition was present in the bottom water, the discharge through HPP has contributed significantly to the outflow of phosphorus released from the sediment into the downstream of dam. In addition, HPP effluent which be continuously operated throughout the year, was the main factor that could change to a low trophic level in the downreservoir (lacustrine zone). And water-bloom (green-tide) occurring in the lower part of reservoir was the result that the water body of upreservoir being transported and diffused toward the downreseroir, when discharging through the WS. Finally, the hydropower effluent was included the importance and dynamics that could have a temporal and spatial impacts on the physical, chemical and biological factors of the reservoir ecosystem.

Evaluation of Ecological quality and establishment of ecological restoration guideline in landscape level of Mt. Moodeung National Park (무등산국립공원의 생태적 질 평가 및 복원 가이드라인 수립)

  • Lim, Chi Hong;Park, Yong Su;An, Ji Hong;Jung, Song Hie;Nam, Kyeong Bae;Lee, Chang Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.296-307
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    • 2016
  • Ecological restoration is an eco-technology, which heals the nature damaged by human activity by imitating organization and function of the integrate nature and thereby provide an inhabitable space for diverse organisms. Such an ecological restoration has to be carried out by applying restoration plan prepared based on the results of diagnostic evaluation discussed in the diversified respects. This study aims to prepare an ecological restoration plan of the damaged forest ecosystem in Mt. Moodeung National Park. To arrive at the goal, first of all, we diagnosed quality of forest landscape established in Mt. Moodeung National Park based on natural (topography, climate, and distribution of vegetation) and artificial (land use, linear landscape element) factors. In addition, we evaluated the integrity of each zone divided by linear landscape element quantitatively based on geometric property and land use intensity. As the result of analysis, topography of Mt. Moodeung National Park tended to be depended on weathering property of parent rock and vegetation zones were divided to three vegetation zones. Based on land use pattern, deciduous broad-leaved forest, evergreen needle-leaved forest, and mixed forest occupied about 90% of Mt. Moodeung National Park. Mean score of forest landscape quality was shown in $69.86{\pm}11.41$. As a result, forest landscape elements in Mt. Moodeung National Park were influenced greatly by human activity and the degree was depended on topographic condition. This study suggested the synthetic restoration plan to improve ecological quality of Mt. Moodeung National Park based on the results of diagnostic evaluation.

Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessments on Fish Compositions and the Ecological Health of Jeokbyeok River on the Road Construction of Muju-Geumsan Region (무주-금산간 도로건설에 따른 적벽강의 어류 종 조성 분석 및 생태건강도 사전환경성평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Jae;Park, Hee-Sung;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.27-43
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    • 2017
  • The objectives of the study were to evaluate fish compositions, endangered species, community structure, physical habitat, and general water quality for a preliminary environmental impact assessment of Jeokbyeok River on the road construction between two regions. Total number of species and total number of individuals, based on CPUE, were 23 and 1186, respectively. The endangered species (I, II) as the legal protection species were Pseudopungtungia nigra (79 samples) Gobiobotia brevibarba) (5) Gobiobotia macrocephala (2), indicating a requiring of endangered species conservation. In the meantime, exotic species and ecological disturbing species such as Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus, were not present, indicating a well conserved area. According to fish community analysis, values of species diversity index were high (range: 0.788 - 1.030), and the dominance index were low (range: 0.097 - 0.183), indicating that the fish community in this area was maintained well without high dominacne by specific species. Also, fish analysis on tolerance guilds and trophic guilds showed that the proportions of sensitive species were largely exceeded the proportions of the tolerant species, while the proportions of insectivore species were largely exceeded the proportions of the omnivore species. This outcome suggests that the ecosystem was well maintained in terms of tolerance and trophic compositions (food chain). Ecological health, based on the multi-metric fish model of Fish Assessment Integrity (FAI), reflected those fish conditions. In other words, values of FAI model averaged 82.4, which means a "good condition" in the criteria of ecological health by the Minstry of Environment, Korea. In addition, general water quality and physical habitat analyses showed that the system was in good condition. Under these conditions, if the road constructions between the two regions happen in the future, inorganic suspended solids may increase in the waterbody, and this may result in indirect or direct influences on the physical habitats and food chain as well as fish compositions, so the ecological protections and prevention strategy from the soil erosion are required in the system.

Analysis of Annual Variability of Landfast Sea Ice near Jangbogo Antarctic Station Using InSAR Coherence Images (InSAR 긴밀도 영상을 이용한 남극 장보고기지 인근 정착해빙의 연간 변화 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Kim, Yeonchun;Jin, Hyorim;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.501-512
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    • 2015
  • Landfast sea ice (LFI) in Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica where the Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station is located, has significant influences on marine ecosystem and the sailing of an icebreaker. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the spatio-temporal variation of the LFI in Terra Nova Bay. In this study, we chose interferometric pairs with the temporal baseline from 1 to 9 days out of a total of 62 COSMO-SkyMed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images over Terra Nova Bay obtained from December 2010 to January 2012, and then constructed the coherence image of each pair. The LFI showed coherence values higher than 0.3 even in the interferometric SAR (InSAR) pairs of up to 9-days of temporal baseline. This was because the LFI was fixed at coastline and thus showed low temporal phase decorrelation. Based on the characteristics of the coherence on LFI, We defined the areas of LFI that show spatially homogeneous coherence values higher than 0.5. Pack ice (PI) and open water showed low coherence values due to large temporal phase decorreation caused by current and wind. Distinguishing PI from open water in the coherence images was difficult due to their similarly low coherence values. PI was identified in SAR amplitude images by investigating cracks on the ice. The extents of the LFI and PI were estimated from the coherence and SAR amplitude images and their temporal variations were analyzed. The extent of the LFI increased from March to July (maximum extent of $170.7km^2$) and decreased from October. The extent of the PI increased from February to May and decreased from May to July when the LFI increases dramatically. The extent of the LFI and air temperature showed an inverse correlation with a time lag of about 2 months, i.e., the extent of the LFI decreases after 2 months of the increase in the air temperature. Meanwhile the correlation between wind speed and the extent of the LFI was very low. This represents that the extent of LFI in Terra Nova Bay are influenced more by the air temperature than wind speed.