• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ecosystem & Environment

Search Result 1,780, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

Diversity, Spatial Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Relict Forest Trees in South Korea (한국 산림유존목의 다양성, 공간 분포 및 생태 특성)

  • CHO, Hyun-Je;Lee, Cheol-Ho;Shin, Joon-Hwan;Bae, Kwan-Ho;Cho, Yong-Chan;Kim, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.105 no.4
    • /
    • pp.401-413
    • /
    • 2016
  • Forest resources utilization and variable disturbance history have been affected the rarity and conservation value of forest relict trees, which served as habitat for forest biodiversity, important carbon stock and cultural role include human and natural history in South Korea. This study was conducted to establish the baseline data for forest resources conservation by clarifying species diversity, spatial distribution and ecological characteristics (individual and habitat) of forest relict trees (DBH > 300 cm) based on the data getting from mountain trail, high resolution aerial photos and field professionals and field survey. As results, 54 taxa (18 family 32 genus 48 species 1 subspecies 3 variety and 2 form) as about 22% of tree species in Korea was identified in the field. 837 individuals of forest relict trees were observed and the majority of the trees was in Pinaceae, deciduous Fagaceae and Rosaceae, which families are abundant in population diversity. High elevation area was important to relict trees as mean altitudinal distribution was 1,200 m a.s.l as likely affected by human activity gradients and mid-steep slope and North aspect was important environment for the trees remain. Many individuals exhibited 'damage larger branch' (55.6%) and consequent relatively lower mean canopy coverages (below 80%). Synthetically, present diversity and abundance of relict forest trees in South Korea were the result of complex process among climate variation, local weather and biological factors and the trees of big and old were estimated to important forest biodiversity elements. In the future, clarifying the role and function of relict trees in forest ecosystem, in- and ex- situ programmes for important trees and habitat, and activities for building the background of conservation policy such as "Guideline for identifying and measurement of forest relict trees".

Selection of Filamentous Cyanobacteria and Optimization of Culture Condition for Recycling Waste Nutrient Solution (폐양액 활용을 위한 Filamentous Cyanobacteria의 선발 및 최적배양)

  • Yang, Jin-Chul;Chung, Hee-Kyung;Lee, Hyoung-Seok;Choi, Seung-Ju;Yun, Sang-Soon;Ahn, Ki-Sup;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.177-183
    • /
    • 2004
  • The discharge of waste nutrient solution from greenhouse to natural ecosystem leads to the accumulation of excess nutrients that results in contamination or eutrophication. There is a need to recycle the waste nutrient solution in order to prevent the environmental hazards. The amount and kind of nutrients in waste nutrient solution might be enough to grow photosynthetic microorganisms. Hence in the present study, we examined the growth and mass cultivation of cyanobacteria in the waste nutrient solution with an objective of removing N and P and concomitantly, its mass cultivation. Four photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacteria (Anabaena HA101, HA701 and Nostoc HN601, HN701) isolated from composts and soils of the Chungnam province were used as culture strains. Among the isolates, Nostoc HN601 performed faster growth rate and higher N and P uptake in the BG-II ($NO_3{^-}$) medium when compared to those of other cyanobacterial strains. Finally, the selected isolate was tested under optimum conditions (airflow at the rate of $1L\;min^{-1}$. in 15 L reactor, initial pH 8) in waste nutrient solution from tomato hydroponic in green house condition. Results showed to remove 100% phosphate from the waste nutrient solution in the tomato hydroponics recorded over a period of 7 days. The growth rate of Nostoc HN601 was $16mg\;Chl-a\;L^{-1}$ in the waste nutrient solution from tomato hydroponics with optimum condition, whereas growth rate of Nostoc HN601 was only $9.8mg\;Chl-a\;L^{-1}$ in BG-11 media. Nitrogen fixing capacity of Nostoc HN601 was $20.9nmol\;C_2H_4\;mg^{-1}\;Chl-a\;h^{-1}$ in N-free BG-11. The total nitrogen and total phosphate concentration of Nostoc HN601 were 63.3 mg N gram dry weight $(GDW)^{-1}$ and $19.1mg\;P\;GDW^{-1}$ respectively. Collectively, cyanobacterial mass production using waste nutrient solution under green house condition might be suitable for recycling and cleaning of waste nutrient solution from hydroponic culture system. Biomass of cyanobacteria, cultivated in waste nutrient solution, could be used as biofertilizer.

Dynamics of Phosphorus-Turbid Water Outflow and Limno-Hydrological Effects on Hypolimnetic Effluents Discharging by Hydropower Electric Generation in a Large Dam Reservoir (Daecheong), Korea (대청호 발전방류수의 인·탁수 배출 역동성과 육수·수문학적 영향)

  • Shin, Jae-Ki;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.50 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-15
    • /
    • 2017
  • Daecheong Reservoir was made by the construction of a large dam (>15 m in height) on the middle to downstream of the Geum River and the discharge systems have the watergate-spillway (WS), a hydropower penstock (HPP), and two intake towers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the limnological anomalies of turbid water reduction, green algae phenomenon, and oligotrophic state in the lower part of reservoir dam site, and compared with hydro-meteorological factors. Field surveys were conducted in two stations of near dam and the outlet of HPP with one week intervals from January to December 2000. Rainfall was closely related to the fluctuations of inflow, outflow and water level. The rainfall pattern was depended on the storm of monsoon and typhoon, and the increase of discharge and turbidity responded more strongly to the intensity than the frequency. Water temperature and DO fluctuations within the reservoir water layer were influenced by meteorological and hydrological events, and these were mainly caused by water level fluctuation based on temperature stratification, density current and discharge types. The discharges of WS and HPP induced to the flow of water bodies and the outflows of turbid water and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Especially, when hypoxic or low-oxygen condition was present in the bottom water, the discharge through HPP has contributed significantly to the outflow of phosphorus released from the sediment into the downstream of dam. In addition, HPP effluent which be continuously operated throughout the year, was the main factor that could change to a low trophic level in the downreservoir (lacustrine zone). And water-bloom (green-tide) occurring in the lower part of reservoir was the result that the water body of upreservoir being transported and diffused toward the downreseroir, when discharging through the WS. Finally, the hydropower effluent was included the importance and dynamics that could have a temporal and spatial impacts on the physical, chemical and biological factors of the reservoir ecosystem.

Evaluation of Ecological quality and establishment of ecological restoration guideline in landscape level of Mt. Moodeung National Park (무등산국립공원의 생태적 질 평가 및 복원 가이드라인 수립)

  • Lim, Chi Hong;Park, Yong Su;An, Ji Hong;Jung, Song Hie;Nam, Kyeong Bae;Lee, Chang Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.49 no.4
    • /
    • pp.296-307
    • /
    • 2016
  • Ecological restoration is an eco-technology, which heals the nature damaged by human activity by imitating organization and function of the integrate nature and thereby provide an inhabitable space for diverse organisms. Such an ecological restoration has to be carried out by applying restoration plan prepared based on the results of diagnostic evaluation discussed in the diversified respects. This study aims to prepare an ecological restoration plan of the damaged forest ecosystem in Mt. Moodeung National Park. To arrive at the goal, first of all, we diagnosed quality of forest landscape established in Mt. Moodeung National Park based on natural (topography, climate, and distribution of vegetation) and artificial (land use, linear landscape element) factors. In addition, we evaluated the integrity of each zone divided by linear landscape element quantitatively based on geometric property and land use intensity. As the result of analysis, topography of Mt. Moodeung National Park tended to be depended on weathering property of parent rock and vegetation zones were divided to three vegetation zones. Based on land use pattern, deciduous broad-leaved forest, evergreen needle-leaved forest, and mixed forest occupied about 90% of Mt. Moodeung National Park. Mean score of forest landscape quality was shown in $69.86{\pm}11.41$. As a result, forest landscape elements in Mt. Moodeung National Park were influenced greatly by human activity and the degree was depended on topographic condition. This study suggested the synthetic restoration plan to improve ecological quality of Mt. Moodeung National Park based on the results of diagnostic evaluation.

Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessments on Fish Compositions and the Ecological Health of Jeokbyeok River on the Road Construction of Muju-Geumsan Region (무주-금산간 도로건설에 따른 적벽강의 어류 종 조성 분석 및 생태건강도 사전환경성평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Jae;Park, Hee-Sung;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.27-43
    • /
    • 2017
  • The objectives of the study were to evaluate fish compositions, endangered species, community structure, physical habitat, and general water quality for a preliminary environmental impact assessment of Jeokbyeok River on the road construction between two regions. Total number of species and total number of individuals, based on CPUE, were 23 and 1186, respectively. The endangered species (I, II) as the legal protection species were Pseudopungtungia nigra (79 samples) Gobiobotia brevibarba) (5) Gobiobotia macrocephala (2), indicating a requiring of endangered species conservation. In the meantime, exotic species and ecological disturbing species such as Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus, were not present, indicating a well conserved area. According to fish community analysis, values of species diversity index were high (range: 0.788 - 1.030), and the dominance index were low (range: 0.097 - 0.183), indicating that the fish community in this area was maintained well without high dominacne by specific species. Also, fish analysis on tolerance guilds and trophic guilds showed that the proportions of sensitive species were largely exceeded the proportions of the tolerant species, while the proportions of insectivore species were largely exceeded the proportions of the omnivore species. This outcome suggests that the ecosystem was well maintained in terms of tolerance and trophic compositions (food chain). Ecological health, based on the multi-metric fish model of Fish Assessment Integrity (FAI), reflected those fish conditions. In other words, values of FAI model averaged 82.4, which means a "good condition" in the criteria of ecological health by the Minstry of Environment, Korea. In addition, general water quality and physical habitat analyses showed that the system was in good condition. Under these conditions, if the road constructions between the two regions happen in the future, inorganic suspended solids may increase in the waterbody, and this may result in indirect or direct influences on the physical habitats and food chain as well as fish compositions, so the ecological protections and prevention strategy from the soil erosion are required in the system.

A Study on the Functional Feeding Groups and Community Stability of Benthic Macroinvertebrate in Forest Fire Area (산불지의 저서성대형무척추동물 섭식기능군 및 군집안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Sim, Kwang Sub;Kim, Myoung Eun;Lim, Joo Hoon;Seo, Eul Won;Lee, Jong Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.100 no.1
    • /
    • pp.112-117
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was conducted for searching the functional feeding groups, and community stability of the macroinvertebrate on forest fire area of Uljin-gun. The samples were collected from 2 sites of control area and 2 sites of experimental area during 2007 to 2009. The identified species were 89 belonged to 47 families, 16 order, 6 class, and 4 phylum in control area. And 84 belonged to 43 families, 16 order, 6 class, and 4 phylum were identified in experimental area. As a result of changes in species and individuals of E.P.T. taxa investigated in experimental area by year, Ephemeroptera was 21 species, $2,434.6inds./m^2$, Plecoptera was 3 species, $199.8inds./m^2$, and Trichoptera 14 species, $540.2inds./m^2$ in 2007. And in 2009, Ephemeroptera was 9 species, $296inds./m^2$, Trichoptera was 4 species, $44.4inds./m^2$, and Plecoptera was none, showing that species and individuals belonging to E.P.T. taxa decrease rapidly every year. Community analysis by year, in 2008 when the water system started to be influenced by the fire directly, it showed a trend that H' and RI decreased in the experimental area. Functional feeding group by year, it showed a trend that species and individuals of GC type which is a functional group picking up and eating FPOM (fine particulate organic matter) from deposits in the bottom of water or benthic areas and performs an important function of material circulation in ecosystem decrease every year. Community stability by year, an environment of water system in forest fire area started to be somewhat destroyed, from 2008, it is shown that both species in I area which have great ability of resistance and recovery and species in III area which live in relatively stable water system decreased a little.

A Study on Air Temperature Reduction Effect and the Functional Improvement of Street Green Areas in Seoul, Korea (서울 도심 가로수 및 가로녹지의 기온 저감 효과와 기능 향상 연구)

  • Jung, Hee-Eun;Han, Bong-Ho;Kwak, Jeong-In
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.43 no.4
    • /
    • pp.37-49
    • /
    • 2015
  • The goal of this research is to examine air temperature changes according to tree type, plantation type, roadside green area structure, and green volume of street green area within a city. The plantation type that could be analyzed for comparison by tree type with over 3 species was 1 rows of tree+shrubs. The results of analysis of average air temperature difference between pedestrian and car streets vis-a-vis 1 row of tree+shrub in high air temperature areas were: Pinus densiflora, $1.35^{\circ}C$; Zelkova serrata, $1.84^{\circ}C$; Ginkgo biloba, $2.00^{\circ}C$; Platanus occidentalis, $2.57^{\circ}C$. This standard large wide canopy species was analyzed by the roadside to provide shade to have a significant impact on air temperature reduction. In terms of analysis of the relationship between plantation type of roadside trees and air temperature, the average air temperature difference for 1 row of tree type was $1.80^{\circ}C$; for 2 rows of trees it was $2.15^{\circ}C$. In terms of analysis of the relationship between the roadside green area structure and air temperature, for tree type, average air temperature $1.94^{\circ}C$: for tree+shrub type, average air temperature $2.49^{\circ}C$; for tree+mid-size tree+shrub type, average air temperature $2.57^{\circ}C$. That is, air temperature reduction was more effective in a multi-layer structure than a single layer structure. In the relationship analysis of green volume and air temperature reduction, the air temperature reduction effect was enlarged as there was a large amount of green volume. There was a relationship with the green volume of the road, the size of the tree and number of tree layers and a multi-layer structured form of planting. The canopy volume was large and there were a great number of rows of the tree layer and the plantation type of multi-layer structure, which is what is meant through a relationship with the green volume along the roadside. Green composition standards for air temperature reduction effects and functional improvement were proposed based on the result. For a pedestrian street width of 3m or less in the field being ideal, deciduous broadleaf trees in which the canopy volume is small and the structure of the tree+shrub type through the greatest 1m green bend were proposed. For a pedestrian street width of over 3m, deciduous broadleaf trees in which the canopy volume is large and is multi-layer planted with green bend over 1m, tree+mid-size tree+shrub type was proposed.

A Study of the Functional Improvement for Comfortable Expressway Service Areas - Metropolitan Expressway Service Areas - (고속도로 휴게소 환경개선을 위한 기능 증진 방안 연구 - 수도권 휴게소를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Won-Myoung;Han, Bong-Ho;Kim, Jong-Yup;Park, Seok-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.43 no.3
    • /
    • pp.63-76
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to suggest improvement plans for problems with the landscape areas of highway service areas. The survey factors were land use, placement of green area and land coverage in terms of spatial and environmental property. Noise and topographic structure in detached green areas were surveyed in terms of impact factor. The status of the planting area around each service area was analysed in regards to planting structure and planting landscape. As a result, the mean of rations of land use were 81.6% building and 18.4% green areas, which were composed of 5.4% landscape area, 9.1% buffer area, etc. Planting areas as usable space accounted for only 0.7%, and the result of noise measurement was different according to the distribution of highway and service area and type of detached green area. The mean of ratio of planting area was 18.4%, which consists of 6.7% landscape planting, 3.4% other green area, 4.6% buffer area, 2.0% buffer and landscape area, 1.1% shade planting and 0.5% landscape and shade planting. Most planting areas aim at landscape appreciation and areas in which visitors can relax and gain recreation were insufficient. The planting structures of service areas were 52.2% canopy layer, 11.8% shrubs and 9.4% canopy and shrub layers, and most of the planting areas were a single layer of green area. Multi-layered planting structures in the landscape and buffer areas were required and a shade planting area was needed to improve amenities as planting canopy layered trees. This study suggested improvement methods for based environments, spatial function and planting function in landscape areas.

A Study on the Traditional Geographic System Recognition and Environmental Value Estimate of Hannamkeumbuk-Keumbuk Mountains for the Establishment of a Management Plan (관리계획 수립을 위한 한남금북.금북정맥의 전통적 지리체계인식과 환경가치 추정 연구)

  • Kang, Kee-Rae;Kim, Dong-Pil
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.40 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-33
    • /
    • 2012
  • In this study, how much users of Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains are aware of Baekdaegan and its attached mountain chains, a traditional geographic system, according to Sangyungpyo and basic data like the degree of awareness and use-behaviors, etc. have been studied. In addition, the environmental value of Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains separating the central and the southern part of Korea among attached mountain ranges, secondary mountain chains, which act as an ecosystem buffer in the Baekdudaegan Range, has been estimated at the current amount of currency. In the questions of the perception of the traditional classification standard of mountain chains and Baekdudaegan, more than 70% of respondents answered that they had heard of or known them but 66.8% werenot aware of Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains. While the awareness for Baekdudaegan is high, the perception of its attached mountain chains was very poor. DBDC responder system and CVM, which is used widely for the value estimate method of environment goods, were used. As the result, an additional benefit got when a person visits Hannamkeumbuk Keumbuk mountains was estimated as 5,813 won. It could find out that this amount was very low compared with 51,984 won, average visit cost. It judged that the reason was that damage of environmental conditions, the monotony of the trails and progress of indiscriminate environmental destruction, etc. The results of this study will offer a new perspective on public relations activities and resource conservation of Baekdudaegan and its attached mountain chains and estimate perceptions and efficient services for visitors to HannamKeumbuk Keumbuk Mountains. This study will act as data for basic planning and management to increase the mountains' value and to preserve them. Further studies are needed to make a frame of work division and management with various organizations so that the management of Hannamkeumbuk-Keumbuk Mountains may be properly established and their value may been hanced.

Converting Lands that are damaged by Graveyards into Tree Burial Sites in order to Restore Green Areas (산지묘지의 훼손지 복원을 위한 수목장지로의 전환)

  • Woo, Jae-Wook;Byun, Woo-Hyuk;Kim, Hak-Beom;Park, Won-Kyoung;Kim, Min-Su;Norsyuhada, Norsyuhada
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.69-80
    • /
    • 2012
  • The purpose of this paper was to study the issues related to converting the graveyards within forests into spaces intended for tree burials by means of planting, given the situation that the graveyards have encroached on land and damaged the environment. For the reason, a field survey was performed to determine the width, length, and distance to the nearest tree of 205 graveyards in the capital area. Through this, it was determined that the domestic lands damaged by graveyards amounted to $862km^2$, including the areas that were deforested to manage the graves. This only confirms that land encroachment by graveyards is a serious issue. The methods for making tree burial sites were examined from the perspective of how to meet public demands given the graveyard's spatial distinctiveness. As a result, this study suggested different methods to establish tree burial sites according to the degree of transformation and the term of its formation. This study also classified the graveyards into three types, and identified the planting methods that harmonized the safe growth of trees and the scenic beauty of memorial places based on the standard. This is in order to plant trees that are shade-tolerant and suitable to the forest line, along with which other tree line was and also, to plant aesthetic trees around the empty space. Through applying the developed methods, this study established and monitored two exemplary sites in Yongin and Boryeng. Aesthetic trees were planted in Yongin site which was located in an open area, aod the shade-tolerant trees were planted in Boryeong, which was located in a forest area. As a result, the image of a garden appeared at Yongin site and the image of a tree colony harmonized with the near forest emerged at Boryeong site. Therefore, it is confirmed that the method of planting according to the distribution status of neighboring trees was effective. As a result of monitoring, mulching wood chips were suitable for sites that were small or easy to approach. This is because the weeds were controlled in Yongin site by mulching. Furthermore, by monitoring the growth of 11 species of vegetation, this study confirmed that low and cover-type vegetations were suitable for tree burial sites. In Boryeong site, the wild cherry trees, which were planted as adult trees, all died, and the tilling of snake's beard, which were planted as cover vegetation, was slow. Therefore, this study found that seedlings were more suitable to plant in forest graveyards than adult trees, which were large and difficult to approach, and it was effective to use the remaining lawn and form a low vegetation after the crown of trees had expanded to such places.