• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ecosystem & Environment

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A study on Improvement and Invigoration of Cooperation Charge on Conservation Ecosystem Fund (생태계보전협력금 제도 활성화를 위한 부과금 개선 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Gyung-Ho;Lee, Sang-Houck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.97-109
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    • 2011
  • Korea introduced the cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem for minimizing damage of ecosystem due to development projects and their effects and for preparing resources for natural environment conservation projects. Advanced countries have made efforts by expanding investment in natural environment conservation and restoring projects to promote prevention of global warming and improvement of biological diversity, are establishing nationwide strategies and plans. To examine the reality of projects by returns of the cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem, microsite projects in schools and public facilities take the largest share while their project budgets are only about 100~300 KRW, relatively small, which might be attributable to budget restrictions in accordance with the calculating method of levying cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem and problems of project proceeding in the system of returning fund for projects in general. The conclusion which this study suggests on invigoration of cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem and its operation are as followings. First, although the cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem has been introduced in 2001, the amount of imposition per unit area remains unchanged. It is desirable to increase the amount into $1,400KRW/m^2$ as of August, 2011 as the price index has been continuously rising for the past 10 years and the upward adjustment of imposition per unit area should be notified by the decree of the Ministry of Environment every January. Second, the ceiling amount of the cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem should be abolished. Now the ceiling amount is defined as 1 billion KRW but it was found that there was not any ceiling amount specified according to the comparative analysis of similar systems with the Korean environmental improvement fund. The ceiling should be abolished so that medium level businesses are carried out and ecosystem recovering projects in the true sense of the word can be made smoothly. Third, weight should be introduced in calculating amounts in accordance with ecologic and economic values. Harmony between development and environment can be achieved by applying differentiated weights of constant regional coefficient by use zone and ecologic and economic values. Continuous efforts of improving cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem should be made more than anything else so that projects by returns of cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem get effectiveness.

Definition and Classification of Ecosystem Services for Decision Making (의사결정지원을 위한 생태계서비스의 정의와 분류)

  • Ahn, SoEun
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.3-16
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    • 2013
  • This review paper examines various terms used for the definitions and classifications of ecosystem services, often times mixed and confused, in the literature and re-establishes the concepts of important terms, including ecosystem functions, services and benefits, to enhance communication among the stake-holders in the process of decision making. The definitions and scopes of ecosystem services are differentiated depending on the policy purposes such as environmental accounting, environmental valuation and natural resource management. The importance of identification and enumeration of final outputs associated with a particular policy is addressed. In addition, the usefulness of an alternative pathway-analysis beginning from benefits, via services and function, to process/structure of ecosystem is emphasized.

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A Study on the Forest Classification for Ecosystem Services Valuation - Focused on Forest Type Map and Landcover Map - (생태계 서비스 가치평가를 위한 산림 유형 분류 방안 - 임상도와 토지피복지도 활용을 중심으로 -)

  • Jeon, Seong Woo;Kim, Jaeuk;Jung, Huicheul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2013
  • Some researcher started studies of natural capital from 1980's. But many researches are going along with the theme lately. Most assessment of ecosystem services are approaching a general assessment using a land-cover map. Therefore they have some problems such as overestimate, underestimate, and double counting, and so on. This study suggested a detailed typology for quantitative assessment about ecosystem services. It compared land-cover map and forest type map to select a based map and made criteria with reference to the literature and field survey. It subdivided a forest typology using ecological feature (natural forest, artifical forest), forest type (coniferous forest, mixed forest, hardwood forest) and age of stand in forest type map. Each forest type is widely distributed 21~40 ages of forests and biggest area is 21~40 ages of mixed forest in all forest typology. Further researches have to progress consistently assessment using detailed typology and function of forest ecosystem services.

Temporal and Spatial Change in Microbial Diversity in New-developed Wetland Soil Covered by Tamarix chinesis Community in Chinese Yellow River Delta

  • Chen Weifeng;Ann Seoung-Won;Kim Hong-Nam;Shi Yanxi;Mi Qinghua
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.367-371
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    • 2005
  • Soil samples were collected from new-developed wetland soil ecosystem of Tamarix chinesis plantation in Chinese Yellow River Delta in different months of 2003. Soil characteristics, temporal change and spatial distribution of microbial community composition and their relationship with nitrogen turnover and circling were investigated in order to analyze and characterize the role of microbial diversity and functioning in the specific soil ecosystem. The result showed that the total population of microbial community in the studied soil was considerably low, compared with common natural ecosystem. The amount of microorganism followed as the order: bacteria> actinomycetes>fungi. Amount of actinomycetes were higher by far than that of fungi. Microbial population remarkably varied in different months. Microbial population of three species in top horizon was corrected to that in deep horizon. Obvious rhizosphere effect was observed and microbial population was significantly higher in rhizosphere than other soils due to vegetation growth, root exudation, and cumulative dead fine roots. Our results demonstrate that microbial diversity is low, while is dominated by specific community in the wetland ecosystem of Tamarix chinesi.

Modeling Virtual Ecosystems that Consist of Artificial Organisms and Their Environment (인공생명체와 그들을 둘러싸는 환경으로 구성 되어지는 가상생태계 모델링)

  • Lee, Sang-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 2010
  • This paper introduces the concept of a virtual ecosystem and reports the following three mathematical approaches that could be widely used to construct such an ecosystem, along with examples: (1) a molecular dynamics simulation approach for animal flocking behavior, (2) a stochastic lattice model approach for termite colony behavior, and (3) a rule-based cellular automata approach for biofilm growth. The ecosystem considered in this study consists of artificial organisms and their environment. Each organism in the ecosystem is an agent that interacts autonomously with the dynamic environment, including the other organisms within it. The three types of model were successful to account for each corresponding ecosystem. In order to accurately mimic a natural ecosystem, a virtual ecosystem needs to take many ecological variables into account. However, doing so is likely to introduce excess complexity and nonlinearity in the analysis of the virtual ecosystem's dynamics. Nonetheless, the development of a virtual ecosystem is important, because it can provide possible explanations for various phenomena such as environmental disturbances and disasters, and can also give insights into ecological functions from an individual to a community level from a synthetic viewpoint. As an example of how lower and higher levels in an ecosystem can be connected, this paper also briefly discusses the application of the second model to the simulation of a termite ecosystem and the influence of climate change on the termite ecosystem.

Trace Metals in Surface Seawaters and Mussels around the Dokdo, Korea

  • Kim, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Eun-Soo;Lee, Soo-Hyung;Cho, Sung-Rok
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.399-406
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    • 2002
  • Trace metals were investigated for the surface seawaters and mussels collected in adjacent sea to the Dokdo during 1999-2000. This study reports the temporal and spatial distributions of trace metals in seawaters and mussels of the Dokdo coastal areas. Clean technique for trace metal analyses was employed in all manipulations including the sampling and pretreatment procedures. The concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd and Pb in the surface seawaters were similar to those of the previous data in the East Sea. Contents of particulate Al, Fe, Mn and Co were influenced by input of detrital materials from the Dokdo. The average EFs of particulate metals were to the order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Fe, and the high values in Cd and Zn may be closely related to the preferential uptake of biogenic particles. With the exception of Cd, all metal contents in the mussels were in the same ranges with those from other world coastal areas. The Cd accumulation factor of mussel/seawater in this study was abnormally much higher than previous data from the Korean coasts.

Evaluation of Riverine Microbial Diversity using the Culture-Independent Genetic Fingerprinting Technique (T-RFLP) (유전자지문분석법(T-RFLP)을 이용한 하천 미생물의 다양성 평가)

  • Jeong, Ju-Yong;Lee, Kyong-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2008
  • To analyze the riverine microbial community structure, genetic fingerprints and ecological indexes such as species abundances, diversity, evenness, dominance of targeted rivers in Gyeonggi Province were acquired and evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique. Genetic fingerprinting technique such as T-RFLP, which is able to show the microbial community clearly unlike traditional culture-dependent techniques, was thought to be useful to analyse the riverine microbial ecosystem under various factors. Riverine ecosystem evaluation using visible organisms would give biased results with time, targeted organism and researcher. But, T-RFLP, which can exclude the subjected biases such as culture condition and identification, would be an option to understand natural ecosystem by including the microorganisms that defy culture but perform important functions.

Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Services Apply to Local Stakeholders (지역 이해당사자 참여 생태계서비스 간이평가)

  • Kim, Byeo-Ri;Lee, Jae-Hyuck;Kim, Il-Kwon;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kwon, Hyuk-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2019
  • This study suggested that various stakeholder can be participated in regional Environment planning and practical use of policy with rapid assessment of Ecosystem Services(ES). We applied to the rapid assessment of ES method to Ansan city and local registers selected Ecosystem assets that considered to space of ES. Ecosystem assets were measured 5 types Likert scale about 37 indicators of ES and confirm the main ES through the basic statistics. Furthermore Ecosystem assets classified according to similar character of ES. Ecosystem assets of Ansan were selected 47 site and Local climate regulation, Research and education, Primary production was high among the ES indicators. As a result two main group deduced that ecological education group(such as Research and education, Habitat) and safety regulation group(such as Air regulation, Fire regulation) through the factor analysis. In terms of location characteristics of each group, the ecological education-centered ecosystem assets were located near the downtown area, while the safety regulation group was located at the outskirts, such as mountains and coasts. This indicates that the ecological education about the habitat provision can be achieved in Ansan city downtown area and that outskirts should be approached from the aspect of ecological function to establish a plan. The result of Rapid assessment of ES, which can be lead a balanced and developmental consultation when establishing polices for environment planning and management in region.

Healthiness of a Business Ecosystem;Its Structure and the Role of IT

  • Kim, Hye-Young;Lee, Jae-Nam;Han, Jae-Min
    • 한국경영정보학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2007
  • In a customer-driven economy, single-business level analysis may not be sufficient. A large number of loosely interconnected participants who depend on one another for their mutual effectiveness and survival make up a business ecosystem. A business ecosystem is a holistic view of vital flows and relationships that sustain business activity. Businesses need to understand their physical condition in a business ecosystem to evaluate their capabilities. This paper defines the healthiness of business ecosystems in order to understand their competitiveness. It can give business an actionable guide. Healthy ecosystem means a business environment that has had four capabilities to survive. IT plays a leading part in healthy business ecosystem. It looks into business strategies and the role of IT in business ecosystems.

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생태계 관점에서 본 한국금융시장과 IT의 역할

  • Ju, Yeon-Sun;Han, Jae-Min
    • 한국경영정보학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2008
  • As business environment becomes dynamic, complicated, and networked, viability is important not only for the firm itself but also for its partners. It is needed a broader view to understand and to improve competitiveness of an organization, which is defined as the business ecosystem view. In this research Korean financial market is to be defined as a business ecosystem. The Korean financial market consists of Bank of Korea as the keystone, a number of major financial institutions as flagship entities, and other members in the ecosystem. Since dynamic interactions among members of the ecosystem are done through IT, the financial ecosystem's competitiveness is based on IT competence. In this paper, it is suggested a new view of business ecosystem on the Korean financial market structure and the role of IT to enhance the healthiness of financial ecosystem.

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