• Title, Summary, Keyword: Environmental hazardous detection

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Evaluationof Exposure Levels and Detection Rate of Hazardous Factors in the Working Environment, Focused on the Aluminum Die Casting Process in the Automobile Manufacturing Industry (자동차 부품제조 사업장의 유해인자 노출 농도수준 및 검출율 - 알루미늄 다이캐스팅 공정을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Duk-Hee;Moon, Chan-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study examines exposure to hazardous substances in the working environment caused by exposure to toxic substances produced in the aluminum die casting process in the automobile manufacturing industry. Materials and Methods: The exposure concentration levels, detection rates and time-trend of 15 hazardous factors in the aluminum die casting process over 10 years(from 2006 to 2016) were used as a database. Results: The study found that hazardous factors in the aluminum die casting process were mostly metals. The rate for detected samples was 70.6%(405 samples), and that for not detected samples was 29.4%. The noise for an eight-hour work shift showed a 49.7% exceedance rate for TLV-TWA. Average noise exposure was 89.0 dB. The maximum exposure level was 105.1 dB. Conclusion: The high numbers of no-detection rates for hazardous substance exposure shows that there is no need to do a work environment measurement. Therefore, alternatives are necessary for improving the efficiency and reliability of the work environment measurement. Moreover, to prevent noise damage, reducing noise sources from automation, shielding, or sound absorbents are necessary.

Future Challenges for Risk-Based Management of 135 Environmental Hazardous Substances in Children's Products (위해성에 근거한 어린이용품 함유가능 환경유해인자 135종의 관리를 위한 향후 과제)

  • Kim, Jungkon;Seo, Jung-Kwan;Kim, Taksoo;Park, Gun-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.1277-1287
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    • 2014
  • As concerns have been raised about health effects of children's products containing hazardous chemicals on children, the Korea Ministry of Environment announced 135 environmental hazardous substances in children's products (EHSCP) which were subject to risk assessment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the current status of EHSCP for management due to their various exposure routes and types. In this study, we investigated the exposure assessment of EHSCP as well as relevant policies implemented in domestic and foreign countries. Domestic and foreign cases of detection of EHSCP were reviewed in the literature and websites of related agencies. Due to the lack of reference values for child-specific toxicity of EHSCP, those for adults and regulatory status of EHSCP were also investigated and reviewed with literature. The related agencies of foreign countries provided 13 child-specific reference doses (RfDs), 76 RfDs, and 42 reference concentrations as toxicity reference values of the EHSCP. Among substances investigated in the studies to assess exposure of hazardous substances in children's products by the Korea Ministry of Environment, 23 substances were included in 135 EHSCP. The same studies identified 9 substances which were excluded from the 135 EHSCP. For regulatory status for hazardous substances in children's products, 44 substances (32.6 %) and 84 substances (62.2 %) of 135 EHSCP were under regulation in Korea and foreign countries, respectively. In the present study, we found that a list of 135 EHSCP should be revised to ensure children's safety.

Comparative Study of Hazardous Heavy Metal Contents by Cosmetic Type (화장품 유형별 유해 중금속 함량 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Jin hee;Kim, Ji Yeon;Park, Sang Gyu;Lee, Jae Ho;Yoon, Jong Ho;Kim, Gyoung Tae;Kim, Hae Jung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The hazardous heavy metal contents of cosmetics were investigated and the resulting values were compared by type of cosmetics: skin care preparations (SCP), hair preparations (HP), makeup preparations (MP), and eye makeup preparations (EMP). Methods: The hazardous heavy metal contents (Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Ni and Hg) were analyzed for 358 cosmetics products (187 SCP, 82 HP, 56 MP, and 33 EMP). Hg was measured by the amalgamation method, and other hazardous heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after decomposition using the microwave method. Results: The mean contents of Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Ni, and Hg in cosmetics were 0.424, 0.068, 0.024, 0.398, $0.567{\mu}/g$, and Not Detected, respectively. All of the hazardous heavy metals were detected in most products, but below the recommended maximums of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The level of Cd was the lowest at 14.8%, and Sb was the highest at 41.2%. Pb, Sb and Ni showed the highest mean value and detection rate in EMP. As, Cd, and Hg showed the highest in SCP, HP, and MP, respectively. Conclusion: Hazardous heavy metals were detected in most products. In particular, Pb, Sb, and Ni were broadly detected in EMP, meaning more stringent quality control is required.

Investigation of Norovirus Occurrence and Influence of Environmental Factors in Food Service Institutions of ChungCheong Area (충청지역 집단급식소의 노로바이러스 실태조사와 환경요인의 영향)

  • Jung, Woo-Young;Eom, Joon-Ho;Kim, Byeong-Jo;Yun, Min-Ho;Ju, In-Sun;Kim, Chang-Soo;Kim, Mi-Ra;Byun, Jung-A;Park, You-Gyoung;Son, Sang-Hyuck;Lee, Eun-Mi;Jung, Rae-Seok;Na, Mi-Ae;Yuk, Dong-Yeon;Gang, Ji-Yeon;Heo, Ok-Sun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the appearance of norovirus in the water for food in food service institutions and the influence of physicochemical and microbial factors of norovirus in order to work out basic data to predict the detection of norovirus. Among 82 samples of water for food in food service institutions, norovirus appeared in 7 samples and the rate of appearance was 8.5%. As for the type of norovirus, one samples contained GI type (genotype GI-6) and six samples contained GII type (genotype GII-2, GII-4, GII-12). In the regression model of prediction of norovirus, the rate of appearance was correlated with $NH_3$-N, total solids and the consumption of $KMnO_4$, out of such variables as $NH_3$-N, total solids, the consumption of $KMnO_4$, depth, chloride and total colony counts, and its contribution rate for effectiveness was 78.60%. In order to examine the influential factor of environment upon the detection of norovirus, Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out. The predictable regression formula for appearance rate of norovirus was expressed as -1.818 + 42.677 [$NH_3$-N] + 0.023 [total solids] + 0.762 [consumption of $KMnO_4$] -0.009 [depth] -0.146 [chloride] + 0.007 [total colony counts] (R = 0.904, $R^2$ = 0.818, adjusted $R^2$ = 0.786, p < 0.05). The most influential factors upon the detection of norovirus were $NH_3$-N, total solids and the consumption of $KMnO_4$. In other words, when the measured values of $NH_3$-N, total solids and the consumption of $KMnO_4$ were higher, the possibility of appearance of norovirus increased.

Types of Hazardous Factors and Time-trend of Exposure Levels from the Working Environment at a Shock Absorber Manufacturing Facility (자동차 쇼크업소바 제조사업장의 작업자 노출 유해인자의 종류 및 노출수준의 경시적 변화)

  • Na, Gyu-Chae;Moon, Chan-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.393-405
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study examines the types of hazardous factors in the working environment and the time-trend for their exposure levels over 10 years (2007 to 2016). Study Design and Method: The types of hazardous factors and exposure levels were drawn from the 19 measurement reports on the working environment over 10 years at a shock absorber manufacturing facility. Risk assessment of the types of factors and time-trend of exposure levels were evaluated using the factors and exposure levels. Results: A total of 34 hazardous factors were evaluated. The types were noise, 15 organic compounds, seven kinds of acid sand alkalis, eight kinds of heavy metals, and three other compounds. Special management materials used were nickel, hexavalent chrome, and sulfuric acid. Human carcinogens (1A) used were trichloroethylene, nickel, and sulfuric acid. There were six types of substances belonging to the IARC's 2B (body carcinogens) classification or higher, including, methyl isobutyl ketone, ethyl benzene, and trichloroethylene. No detection was found for 627 out of the 2065 total measurements in 19 exposure survey reports, representing 30.4%. Organic solvents, acid and alkali products, and heavy metals showed continuous low exposure concentrations. Noise, welding fumes, and the evaluation of mixed solvents show a gradual decrease in geometric mean and maximum over the time-trend of 10 years. Conclusions: In the case of a shock absorber manufacturing facility, the hazardous factors of noise and the evaluation of mixed solvents still indicate high concentrations exceeding the exposure limits and necessitate reduction studies. These two factors and welding fumes showed a continuous decrease in their ten-year tendency. Organic compounds, acids/alkalis, and heavy metals were managed smoothly in a work environment of continuous low concentrations.

Biomarkers available in workplaces

  • Maeng, Eung-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.31-34
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    • 2003
  • The monitoring of genotoxic effect or oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to hazardous materials is increasingly applied for hazard identification or risk assessment purposes in workplaces. The current generation of biomarkers has the potential to allow for the earlier detection of occupational disease, for the reduction of misclassification of exposure and outcome. (omitted)

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PDA Sensors for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria and Hazardous Substances (병원성미생물 및 유해물질 검출을 위한 PDA 센서)

  • Lim, Min-Cheol;Kim, Young-Rok
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2011
  • The increasing number of analytes in concern and the alarming health and environmental consequences have required effective means of monitoring for safety control. Biosensors offer advantages as alternatives to conventional analytical methods because of their inherent specificity, simplicity, and quick response. Colorimetric biosensor, one of biosensor group, is one of the easiest and the most convenient methods because detection can be done using naked eye. Recently, a novel method for rapid detection and read-out of specific immunoassays with naked eye using polydiacetylene (PDA) was developed. Polydiacetylene has recently been in the limelight as a transducing materials because of its special features that allow optical transduction of sensory signals and inherent simplicity and ease of use in supramolecular chemistry. Various forms of PDA are used as a sensor platform for detection of various biological analytes such as viruses, DNA, proteins, bacteria and hazardous molecules.

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A Study on Photovoltaic Panel Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 InSAR Coherence (Sentinel-1 InSAR Coherence를 이용한 태양광전지 패널 모니터링 효율화 연구)

  • Yoon, Donghyeon;Lee, Moungjin;Lee, Seungkuk
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.233-243
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    • 2021
  • Photovoltaic panels are hazardous electronic waste that has heavy metal as one of the hazardous components. Each year, hazardous electronic waste is increasing worldwide and every heavy rainfall exposes the photovoltaic panel to become the source of heavy metal soil contamination. the development needs a monitoring technology for this hazardous exposure. this research use relationships between SAR temporal baseline and coherence of Sentinel-1 satellite to detected photovoltaic panel. Also, the photovoltaic plant detection tested using the difference between that photovoltaic panel and the other difference surface of coherence. The author tested the photovoltaic panel and its environment to calculate differences in coherence relationships. As a result of the experiment, the coherence of the photovoltaic panel, which is assumed to be a permanent scatterer, shows a bias that is biased toward a median value of 0.53 with a distribution of 0.50 to 0.65. Therefore, further research is needed to improve errors that may occur during processing. Additionally, the author found that the change detection using a temporal baseline is possible as the rate of reduction of coherence of photovoltaic panels differs from those of artificial objects such as buildings. This result could be an efficient way to continuously monitor regardless of weather conditions, which was a limitation of the existing optical satellite image-based photovoltaic panel detection research and to understand the spatial distribution in situations such as photovoltaic panel loss.

Sol-gel Material Optimization for Aptamer Biosensors

  • Ahn, Ji-Young;Cho, Min-Jung;Lee, Se-Ram;Park, Jun-Tae;Hong, Seok-Jin;Shin, Sung-Ho;Jeong, Min-Ku;Lee, Dong-Ki;Kim, So-Youn
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 2008
  • Biochips are a powerful emerging technology for biomedical, environmental applications. Especially, making use of bioseonors in the evaluation of toxicity becomes increasingly important. For biosensor as a toxicity detection, biomolecules like antibodies or aptamers have been developed to specifically capture the toxic target molecules. In addition, the development of optimal chip materials capable of maintaining the activity of embedded biomolecules such as proteins or aptamers has proven challenging. Here, using sol-gel materials, new chip material, whose ability for immobilizing the embedded aptamers and maintaining the ability of embedded aptamers is optimal, was searched. We used sol-gel formulation screening methods previously developed and found the best formulation which shows high sensitive and specific interactions of aptamers. This study results will support the technological advancement for diagnosis and environmental sensor.

A Exposure Concentration and Composition of Organic Solvents by the type of workplace in Mixed Organic Solvents use Companies (혼합 유기용재 취급작업장의 공정별 유기용제 구성성분 및 노출농도)

  • 원정일;김기환;신창섭
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the composition, detection rate, and exposure concentration of the airborne organic solvents from the working environmental measurements of total 4181 different type of workplace in 3280 workshops in which organic solvents are used. The results are as follows : 1. For all workplaces except washing, the detection rate of toluene and benzene were 80% and 20%, respectively. 2. The number of detection of aromatic hydrocarbon and ketone were ranged 1.41-2.39 and 0.62-0.90 per a sample in all workplaces except that showed 1.01 in washing. 3. The mean of detection frequency was $3.3{\pm}2.5$ in all workplaces and there was no significant difference among that of each workplaces. 4. The airborne concentrations of methyl methacrylate, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and ethyl ether were $43.5{\pm}47.0{\;}ppm,{\;}22.5{\pm}51.0{\;},{\;}19.8{\pm}57.6{\;}ppm,{\;}19.8{\pm}40.14{\;}ppm, respectively. And those of cellosolve, methyl cellosolve acetate, and N,N-dimethyl formamide were $4.1{\pm}4.5$ ppm, $4.0{\pm}18.5{\;}ppm$, and $5.6{\pm}7.7{\;}ppm$, respectively and exceeded the occupational exposure limits enforced by Ministry of Labor in Korea. As the above results, it is suggested that the components of organic solvents should be indentified to efficient management, of working environment and conducted the engineering control for the workplaces using the hazardous materials.

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