• Title, Summary, Keyword: Essential oils

Search Result 572, Processing Time 0.052 seconds

Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

  • Amini, Jahanshir;Farhang, Vahid;Javadi, Taimoor;Nazemi, Javad
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.16-24
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration ($EC_{50}$) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest $EC_{50}$ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean $EC_{50}$ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds ${\beta}$-geranial (${\alpha}$-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control ($p{\leq}0.05$). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

Studies on Essential Oils of Plants of Angelica Genus in Korea ( II ). -Essential Oils of the Root of Angelica tenuissima- (Angelica속 생약의 정유 성분에 대한 연구 ( II ). -고본의 정유 성분-)

  • Kim, Hyun-Soo;Chi, Hyung-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-20
    • /
    • 1989
  • In continuation of our studies on essential oils of Angelica genus(Umbelliferae), We report on the components of essential oils obtained from the root of Angelica tenuissima Nakai(藁子). Oils were obtained from the dried roots by steam distillation and fractionated by column chromatography. Each isolate or fraction was identified by GC, GC-MS and spectral analysis. Essential oils of the root of A. tenuissima(Gaoben) were found to contain $\alpha-pinene,\;camphene,\;\beta-pinene,\;myrcene,\;\alpha-phellandrene,\;\Delta-3-carene,\;p-cymene,\;limonene,\;\gamma-terpinene,\;terpinolene,\;4-vinylguauacol,\;\gamma-elemene$, one aromatic compound, three unidentified sesquiterpene alcohols, butylidenephthalide, senkyunolide and Z-ligustilide which was the most abundant compound comprising 75% of the whole oil. Also butylphthalide and hydroxybutylidenephalide were tentatively identified.

  • PDF

Changes in the Volatile Compounds of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis Essential Oils During Storage

  • Chung, Mi-Sook
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.481-487
    • /
    • 2009
  • The compositional changes of wormwood (Artemisia princeps var. orientalis) essential oils were studied under 4 different storage conditions i.e., being exposed to air at 20 and $40^{\circ}C$. Sixty-four volatile compounds consisting of 24 terpene hydrocarbons, 18 alcohols, 11 ketones, 6 esters, 1 aldehyde, 2 hydrocarbons, and 2 oxides were identified on the basis of their mass spectra characteristics and retention indices in original wormwood essential oils. Identified compounds constituted 80.53% of the total peak area. Borneol (12.13%) was the most abundant compound, followed by $\alpha$-thujone (8.66%), T-cadinol (6.67%), and 1,8-cineole (6.21%) in original wormwood essential oils. Under the condition of $40^{\circ}C$ of temperature with the cap being opened for 3 min everyday respectively during 6 months of storage, the total amount of functional groups in essential oil determined by peak area percent were decreased by 79.45%, at most. The total level of monoterpene hydrocarbons decreased markedly in the aerobic condition and high temperatures. Whereas the total level of esters increased significantly. Wormwood essential oils were stored in experimental conditions, with the changes in the volatile compounds of essential oils being accelerated by high temperatures and contact with the atmosphere.

Natural Products as Manipulators of Rumen Fermentation

  • Wallace, R. John;McEwan, Neil R.;McIntosh, Freda M.;Teferedegne, Belete;Newbold, C. James
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1458-1468
    • /
    • 2002
  • There is increasing interest in exploiting natural products as feed additives to solve problems in animal nutrition and livestock production. Essential oils and saponins are two types of plant secondary compounds that hold promise as natural feed additives for ruminants. This paper describes recent advances in research into these additives. The research has generally concentrated on protein metabolism. Dietary essential oils caused rates of NH$_3$ production from amino acids in ruminal fluid taken from sheep and cattle receiving the oils to decrease, yet proteinase and peptidase activities were unchanged. Hyper-ammonia-producing (HAP) bacteria were the most sensitive of ruminal bacteria to essential oils in pure culture. Essential oils also slowed colonisation and digestion of some feedstuffs. Ruminobacter amylophilus may be a key organism in mediating these effects. Saponin-containing plants and their extracts appear to be useful as a means of suppressing the bacteriolytic activity of rumen ciliate protozoa and thereby enhancing total microbial protein flow from the rumen. The effects of some saponins seems to be transient, which may stem from the hydrolysis of saponins to their corresponding sapogenin aglycones, which are much less toxic to protozoa. Saponins also have selective antibacterial effects which may prove useful in, for example, controlling starch digestion. These studies illustrate that plant secondary compounds, of which essential oils and saponins comprise a small proportion, have great potential as 'natural' manipulators of rumen fermentation, to the potential benefit of the farmer and the environment.

In vitro cytotoxic evaluation of some essential oils

  • P., Vijayan;Godavarthi, Ashok;Chandrashekhar, Raghu;Badami, Shrishilappa;SA, Dhanaraj;B., Suresh
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
    • /
    • v.3 no.4
    • /
    • pp.187-190
    • /
    • 2003
  • Seven essential oils were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity against the cancerous cell lines A-549, HEp-2 and DLA and normal BRL-3A, NRK-49F and Vero cell lines using standard MTT, SRB and dye exclusion techniques. The A-549 cell line was found to be the most susceptible to all the essential oils. The essential oils of A. nilagirica, A. calamus and O. sanctum were found to be the more active against these cells with mean $CTC_{50}$ values of 17.75, 19.00 and $24.37\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The essential oil of Acorus calamus was found to be the most potent with low $CTC_{50}$ values against the cancerous and comparatively higher $CTC_{50}$ values against the normal cell lines. Artemisia pellens and Pelargonium graveolens oils also showed potent activity. These oils merit further investigation to identify the active principles and nature of the anti tumor activity in animal models.

Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

  • Kim, Sang-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Woo;Kang, Chang-Won;An, Byoung-Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.549-554
    • /
    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

Study on the research trends and future strategy of essential oil (정유의 연구동향(硏究動向)과 향후(向後) 연구전략(硏究戰略)에 대(對)한 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Dong-hee
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.43-56
    • /
    • 2001
  • 1. All Essential oils have antibacterial properties. 2. Essential oils reduce contamination. 3. Most of essential oils acts as an antofungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antimicrobial agent and antioxidants. 4. They contain anions, ozone, and oxygenating molecules. 5. It is belueved that they take chemicals and metallices out of the air by breaking the molecular chain. 6. In France, it was reported that various essential oils prevent a side effect of radiation. 7. The essential oils travel via the olfactory nerve stimulating a emotional and phychological response that is believed to be responsible for releasing genetic blue priting from the cells thus releasing emotional trauma.

  • PDF

Anti-Aspergillus Activities of Plant Essential Oils and Their Combination Effects with Ketoconazole or Amphotericin B

  • Shin, Seung-Won
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.26 no.5
    • /
    • pp.389-393
    • /
    • 2003
  • The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogestemon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin Band ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. fIavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

Management of Tomato Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita by Plant Extracts and Essential Oils

  • Abo-Elyousr, Kamal A.M.;Awad, Magd El-Morsi;Gaid, M.A. Abdel
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.189-192
    • /
    • 2009
  • The effect of plant extracts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus chamadulonsis), garlic (Allium sativium), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and neem (Azadirachta indica) and essential oils were tested on the suppression of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse and field conditions. In vitro study, all tested treatments had nematicidal effect on nematode juveniles after 24 and 48 hours from exposures. The highest percentage of nematode mortality was achieved by application of neem extract (65.4%), essential oils (64.4%) and marigold extract (60.5%), followed by garlic and eucalyptus extracts (38.7-39.5%). Under greenhouse and field conditions, neem extract and essential oils treatments were more effective in reducing population numbers of the M. incognita in soil and root gall index compared to other treatments. In field experiments, the maximum protection of tomato plant against root-knot nematode was obtained by application of neem and essential oil treatments, 44.2 and 32.6%, respectively.

Antifungal Activity of Five Plant Essential Oils as Fumigant Against Postharvest and Soilborne Plant Pathogenic Fungi

  • Lee, Sun-Og;Choi, Gyung-Ja;Jang, Kyoung-Soo;Lim, He-Kyoung;Cho, Kwang-Yun;Kim, Jin-Cheol
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.97-102
    • /
    • 2007
  • A total of 39 essential oils were tested for antifungal activities as volatile compounds against five phytopathogenic fungi at a dose of 1 ${\mu}l$ per plate. Five essential oils showed inhibitory activities against mycelial growth of at least one phytopathogenic fungus. Origanum vulgare essential oil inhibited mycelial growth of all of the five fungi tested. Both Cuminum cyminum and Eucalyptus citriodora oils displayed in vitro antifungal activities against four phytopathogenic fungi except for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris suppressed the mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani and that of Cymbopogon citratus was active to only F. oxysporum. The chemical compositions of the five active essential oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study suggests that both E. citriodora and C. cyminum oils have a potential as antifungal preservatives for the control of storage diseases of various crops.