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A FEM study on stress distribution of tooth-supported and implant-supported overdentures retained by telescopic crowns (텔레스코픽 크라운 임플란트 지지 피개의치와 치아 지지 피개의치의 하악골내 응력분포에 관한 유한요소분석)

  • Paek, Jang-Hyun;Lee, Chang-Gyu;Kim, Tae-Hun;Kim, Min-Jung;Kim, Hyeong-Seob;Kwon, Kung-Rock;Woo, Yi-Hyung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.10-20
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in mandibular implant-supported overdentures and tooth-supported overdentures with telescopic crowns. Materials and methods: The assumption of this study was that there were 2, 3, 4 natural teeth and implants which are located in the second premolar and canine regions in various distributed conditions. The mandible, teeth (or implants and abutments), and connectors are modeled, and analyzed with the commercial software, ANSYS Version 10.1. Stress distribution was evaluated under 150 N vertical load bilaterally on 3 experimental conditions - between canine areas, canine and $2^{nd}$ premolars, 10 mm posterior to $2^{nd}$ premolars. Results: Overall, the case of the implant group showed more stress than the case of the teeth group in stress distribution to bone. In stress distribution to superstructures of tooth and implants, there was no significant difference between TH group and IM group and the highest stress appeared in TH-IV and IM-IV. The stress caused from bar was much higher than those of implant and tooth. TH group showed less stress than IM group in stress distribution to abutment teeth and implant. Conclusion: The results shows that it is crucial to make sure that distance between impact loading point and abutment tooth does not get too far apart, and if it does, it is at best to set abutment tooth on premolar tooth region. It will be necessary to conduct more experiments on effects on implants, natural teeth and bone, in order to apply these results to a clinical treatment.

Finite element analysis of the effects of a mouthguard on stress distribution of facial bone and skull under mandibular impacts (하악골 충격시 안면 두개골의 응력분산양상에 미치는 구강보호장치의 역할에 관한 유한요소법적 연구)

  • Noh, Kwan-Tae;Kim, Il-Han;Roh, Hyun-Sik;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Woo, Yi-Hyung;Kwon, Kung-Rock;Choi, Dae-Gyun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a mouthguard on stress distribution under mandibular impact. Materials and methods: The FEM model of head consisted of skull, maxilla, mandible, articular disc, teeth, and mouthguard. The impact locations on mandible were gnathion, the center of inferior border, and the anterior edge of gonial angle. And the impact directions were vertical, oblique ($45^{\circ}$), and horizontal. The impact load was 800 N for 0.1 sec. Results: When vertical impact was applied, the similar stress and the distribution pattern was occurred without the relation of the mouthguard use (P>.05). The model with mouthguard was dispersed the stress to the teeth, the facial bone and the skull when the oblique ($45^{\circ}$) impacts were happened. However, the stress was centralized on the teeth in the model without mouthguard(P<.05). The model with mouthguard was dispersed the stress to the teeth, the facial bone and the skull when the horizontal impacts was occurred. However, the stress was centralized on the teeth without mouthguard (P<.05). For all impact loads, stress concentrated on maxillary anterior teeth in model without mouthguard, on the contrary, the stress was low in the model with mouthguard and distributed broadly on maxillary anterior teeth, facial bone, and skull. Conclusion: The mouthguard was less effective at shock absorbing when vertical impact was added. However, it was approved that mouthguard absorbed the shock regarded to the oblique ($45^{\circ}$) and horizontal impact by dispersing the shock to the broader areas and decreasing the stress.

Finite element analysis of the effects of mouthguard produced by combination of layers of different materials on teeth and jaw (다양한 물성을 혼용하여 제작된 구강보호장치가 치아 및 악골에 미치는 영향)

  • So, Woong-Seob;Lee, Hyun-Jong;Choi, Woo-Jin;Hong, Sung-Jin;Ryu, Kyung-Hee;Choi, Dae-Gyun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.324-332
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the stress distribution of teeth and jaw on load by differentiating property of materials according to each layer of widely used mouthguard. Materials and methods: A Korean adult having normal cranium and mandible was selected to examine. A customized mouthguard was constructed by use of DRUFOMAT plate and DRUFOMAT-TE/-SQ of Dreve Co. according to Signature Mouthguard system. The cranium was scanned by means of computed tomography with 1mm interval. It was modeled with CANTIBio BIONIX/Body Builder program and simulated and interpreted using Alter HyperMesh program. The mouthguard was classified as follows according to the layers. (1) soft guard (Bioplast)(SG) (2) hard guard (Duran)(HG) (3) medium guard (Drufomat)(MG) (4) soft layer + hard layer (SG + HG) (5) hard layer + soft layer (HG + SG) (6) soft layer + hard layer + soft layer (SG + HG + SG) (7) hard layer + soft layer + hard layer (HG + SG + HG) The impact locations on mandible were gnathion, the center of inferior border, and the anterior edge of gonial angle. And the impact directions were oblique ($45^{\circ}$). The impact load was 800 N for 0.1 sec. The stress distribution was measured at maxillary teeth, TMJ and maxilla. The statistics were conducted using Repeated ANOVA and in case of difference, Duncan test was used as post analysis. Results: In teeth and maxilla, the mouthguard contacting soft layer of mandibular teeth presented lowest stress measure and, in contrast, in condyle, the mouthguard contacting hard layer of mandibular teeth presented lowest stress measure. Conclusion: For all impact directions, soft layer + hard layer + soft layer, the mouthguard with three layers which the hard layer is sandwiched between two soft layers, showed relatively even distribution of stress in impact.

Evaluation of the stress distribution in the external hexagon implant system with different hexagon height by FEM-3D (임플란트 hexagon 높이에 따른 임플란트와 주위 조직의 응력분포 평가)

  • Park, Seong-Jae;Kim, Joo-Hyeun;Kim, So-Yeun;Yun, Mi-Jung;Ko, Sok-Min;Huh, Jung-Bo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To analyze the stress distribution of the implant and its supporting structures through 3D finite elements analysis for implants with different hexagon heights and to make the assessment of the mechanical stability and the effect of the elements. Materials and methods: Infinite elements modeling with CAD data was designed. The modeling was done as follows; an external connection type ${\phi}4.0mm{\times}11.5mm$ Osstem$^{(R)}$ USII (Osstem Co., Pusan, Korea) implant system was used, the implant was planted in the mandibular first molar region with appropriate prosthetic restoration, the hexagon (implant fixture's external connection) height of 0.0, 0.7, 1.2, and 1.5 mm were applied. ABAQUS 6.4 (ABAQUS, Inc., Providence, USA) was used to calculate the stress value. The force distribution via color distribution on each experimental group's implant fixture and titanium screw was studied based on the equivalent stress (von Mises stress). The maximum stress level of each element (crown, implant screw, implant fixture, cortical bone and cancellous bone) was compared. Results: The hexagonal height of the implant with external connection had an influence on the stress distribution of the fixture, screw and upper prosthesis and the surrounding supporting bone. As the hexagon height increased, the stress was well distributed and there was a decrease in the maximum stress value. If the height of the hexagon reached over 1.2mm, there was no significant influence on the stress distribution. Conclusion: For implants with external connections, a hexagon is vital for stress distribution. As the height of the hexagon increased, the more effective stress distribution was observed.

Analysis of thermal changes in bone by various insertion torques with different implant designs (서로 다른 형태의 임플란트의 식립토크가 골에 미치는 열변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Ho;Yeo, In-Sung;Kim, Sung-Hun;Han, Jung-Seok;Lee, Jai-Bong;Yang, Jae-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.168-176
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study aims at investigating the influence of various insertion torques on thermal changes of bone. A proper insertion torque is derived based on the thermal analysis with two different implant designs. Materials and methods: For implant materials, bovine scapula bone of 15 - 20 mm thickness was cut into 35 mm by 40 - 50 mm pieces. Of these, the pieces having 2 - 3 mm thickness cortical bone were used as samples. Then, the half of the sample was immersed in a bath of $36.5^{\circ}C$ and the other half was exposed to ambient temperature of $25^{\circ}C$, so that the inner and surface temperatures reached $36.5^{\circ}C$ and $28^{\circ}C$, respectively. Two types of implants ($4.5{\times}10\;mm$ Br${\aa}$nemark type, $4.8{\times}10\;mm$ Microthread type) were inserted into bovine scapula bone and the temperature was measured by a thermocouple at 0.2 mm from the measuring point. Finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the thermal changes at contacting surface assuming that the sample is a cube of $4\;cm{\times}4\;cm{\times}2\;cm$ and a layer up to 2 mm from the top is cortical bone and below is a cancellous bone. Boundary conditions were set on the basis of the shape of cavity after implants. SolidWorks was used as a CAD program with the help of Abaqus 6.9-1. Results: In the in-vitro experiment, the Microhead type implant gives a higher maximum temperature than that of the Br${\aa}$nemark type, which is attributed to high frictional heat that is associated with the implant shape. In both types, an Eriksson threshold was observed at torques of 50 Ncm (Br${\aa}$nemark) and 35 Ncm (Microthread type), respectively. Based on these findings, the Microthread type implant is more affected by insertion torques. Conclusion: This study demonstrate that a proper choice of insertion torque is important when using a specific type of implant. In particular, for the Microthread type implant, possible bone damage may be expected as a result of frictional heat, which compensates for initial high success rate of fixation. Therefore, the insertion torque should be adjusted for each implant design. Furthermore, the operation skills should be carefully chosen for each implant type and insertion torque.

Stress distribution in bone surrounding maxillary molar implants under different crown-to-fixture ratio: A 3D FEM analysis (치관/고정체 비에 따른 상악 구치부 임플란트 주변골의 응력 분포에 대한 3차원 유한요소법적 분석)

  • Park, Jong-Chan;Shin, Sang-Wan;Kwon, Kung-Rock
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.479-489
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    • 2008
  • Statement of the problem: Under anatomical limitations on maxillary posterior region, a poor crown-to root ratio acting on dental implants can result in undesirable stress in surrounding bone, which in turn can cause bone defects and eventual failure of implants. Purpose: The purpose is to compare stress distribution due to different crown-root ratio and effect of splinting between natural teeth and implants in maxillary molar area under different loads. Material and methods: Analysis of stress arising supporting bone of the natural teeth and the implant was made with 3-dimensional finite element method. The model simulated naturel teeth was made with 2nd premolar and 1st molar in the maxillary molar region (Model T). The model simulated implants placed on same positions with two parallel implants of Straumann Dental Implant cemented abutment (Model I). Each model was designed in different crown-root ratio (0.7:1, 1:1, 1.25:1) and set cement type gold crown to make it non-splinted or splinted. After that, 300 N force was loaded to each model in five ways (Load 1: middle of occlusal table, Load 2: middle of buccal cusp, Load 3: middle of lingual cusp, Load 4: horizontal load to buccal cusp of anterior abutment only, Load 5: horizontal load to middle of buccal cusp of each abutment), and stress distribution was analyzed. Results and conclusion: On all occasions, stress was concentrated at the cervical region of the implant. Under load 1, 2 and 3, stress was not increased even when crown-root ratio increases, but under load 4 and 5, when crown-root ratio increases, stress also increased. There was difference in stress values between natural teeth and implants when crown-root ratio gradually increases; In case of natural teeth, splinting decreased stress under vertical and horizontal loads. In case of implants, splinting decreased stress under vertical loads 1,2 and 3, but increased maximal stress under loads 2 and 3. Under horizontal loads, splinting decreased stress, however the effect of splinting decreased under load 5 than load 4. Furthermore, the stress was increased, when crown-root ratio is 1.25:1. Clinical implications: This limited finite element study suggests that the stress on supporting bone may be increased under non-axial loads and poor crown-root ratio. Under poor crown-root ratio, excessive stress was generated at the cervical region of the implant, and decreased splinting effect for stress distribution, which can be related to clinical failure.

Structural Analysis of Concrete-filled FRP Tube Dowel Bar for Jointed Concrete Pavements (콘크리트 포장에서 FRP 튜브 다웰바의 역학적 특성 분석)

  • Park, Jun-Young;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Sohn, Dueck-Su
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2011
  • As well known, dowel bars are used to transfer traffic load acting on one edge to another edge of concrete slab in concrete pavement system. The dowel bars widely used in South Korea are round shape steel bar and they shows satisfactory performance under bending stress which is developed by repetitive traffic loading and environment loading. However, they are not invulnerable to erosion that may be caused by moisture from masonry joint or bottom of the pavement system. Especially, the erosion could rapidly progress with saline to prevent frost of snow in winter time. The problem under this circumstance is that the erosion not only drops strength of the steel dower bar but also comes with volume expansion of the steel dowel bar which can reduce load transferring efficiency of the steel dowel bar. To avoid this erosion problem in reasonable expenses, dowers bars with various materials are being developed. Fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) dower that is presented in this paper is suggested as an alternative of the steel dowel bar and it shows competitive resistance against erosion and tensile stress. The FRP dowel bar is developed in tube shape and is filled with high strength no shrinkage. Several slab thickness designs with the FRP dowel bars are performed by evaluating bearing stress between the dowel bar and concrete slab. To calculated the bearing stresses, theoretical formulation and finite element method(FEM) are utilized with material properties measured from laboratory tests. The results show that both FRP tube dowel bars with diameters of 32mm and 40mm satisfy bearing stress requirement for dowel bars. Also, with consideration that lean concrete is typical material to support concrete slab in South Korea, which means low load transfer efficiency and, therefore, low bearing stress, the FRP tube dowel bar can be used as a replacement of round shape steel bar.

A Study on Movement of the Free Face During Bench Blasting (전방 자유면의 암반 이동에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ki-Keun;Kim, Gab-Soo;Yang, Kuk-Jung;Kang, Dae-Woo;Hur, Won-Ho
    • Explosives and Blasting
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.29-42
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    • 2012
  • Variables influencing the free face movement due to rock blasting include the physical and mechanical properties, in particular the discontinuity characteristics, explosive type, charge weight, burden, blast-hole spacing, delay time between blast-holes or rows, stemming conditions. These variables also affects the blast vibration, air blast and size of fragmentation. For the design of surface blasting, the priority is given to the safety of nearby buildings. Therefore, blast vibration has to be controlled by analyzing the free face movement at the surface blasting sites and also blasting operation needs to be optimized to improve the fragmentation size. High-speed digital image analysis enables the analyses of the initial movement of free face of rock, stemming optimality, fragment trajectory, face movement direction and velocity as well as the optimal detonator initiation system. Even though The high-speed image analysis technique has been widely used in foreign countries, its applications can hardly be found in Korea. This thesis aims at carrying out a fundamental study for optimizing the blast design and evaluation using the high-speed digital image analysis. A series of experimentation were performed at two large surface blasting sites with the rock type of shale and granite, respectively. Emulsion and ANFO were the explosives used for the study. Based on the digital images analysis, displacement and velocity of the free face were scrutinized along with the analysis fragment size distribution. In addition, AUTODYN, 2-D FEM model, was applied to simulate detonation pressure, detonation velocity, response time for the initiation of the free face movement and face movement shape. The result show that regardless of the rock type, due to the displacement and the movement velocity have the maximum near the center of charged section the free face becomes curved like a bow. Compared with ANFO, the cases with Emulsion result in larger detonation pressure and velocity and faster reaction for the displacement initiation.

Structural Analysis of PWR(pressurized water reactor) Canister for Applied Impact Force Occurring at the Moment of Falling Plumb Down Collision (추락낙하 충돌 시 가해지는 충격에 대한 경수로(PWR) 처분용기의 구조해석)

  • Kwon, Young-Joo
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 2011
  • In this paper a structural analysis of the PWR(pressurized water reactor) canister with 102cm diameter is carried out to evaluate the structural safety of the canister for the impact force occurring at the moment of collision with the ground in the falling plumb down accident from the carriage vehicle which may happen during the canister handling at the spent nuclear fuel disposal repository. For this, a rigid body dynamic analysis of the canister is executed to compute the impact force using the commercial CAE system, RecurDyn, and a nonlinear structural analysis is performed to compute stresses and deformations occurring inside the canister for this computed impact force using the commercial FEM code, NISA. From these analysis results, the structural safety of the canister is evaluated for the falling plumb down accident from the carriage vehicle due to the inattention during the canister handling at the repository. The rigid body dynamic analysis performed assuming the canister as a rigid body shows that the canister falls plumb down to the ground in two types. And also it shows that early collision impact force is the biggest one and following impact forces decrease gradually. The height of the carriage vehicle in the repository is assumed as 5m in order to obtain the stable structural safety evaluation result. The nonlinear structural analysis of the canister is executed for the biggest early impact force. The structural analysis result of the canister shows that the structural safety of the PWR canister is not secured for the falling plumb down accident from the moving carriage vehicle because the maximum stresses occurring in the cast iron insert of canister are bigger than the yield stress of the cast iron.

A Biomechanical Study on a New Surgical Procedure for the Treatment of Intertrochanteric Fractures in relation to Osteoporosis of Varying Degrees (대퇴골 전자간 골절의 새로운 수술기법에 관한 생체역학적 분석)

  • 김봉주;이성재;권순용;탁계래;이권용
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 2003
  • This study investigates the biomechanical efficacies of various cement augmentation techniques with or without pressurization for varying degrees of osteoporotic femur. For this study, a biomechanical analysis using a finite element method (FEM) was undertaken to evaluate surgical procedures, Simulated models include the non-cemented(i.e., hip screw only, Type I), the cement-augmented(Type II), and the cemented augmented with pressurization(Type III) models. To simulate the fracture plane and other interfacial regions, 3-D contact elements were used with appropriate friction coefficients. Material properties of the cancellous bone were varied to accommodate varying degrees of osteoporosis(Singh indices, II∼V). For each model. the following items were analyzed to investigate the effect surgical procedures in relation to osteoporosis of varying degrees : (a) von Mises stress distribution within the femoral head in terms of volumetric percentages. (b) Peak von Mises stress(PVMS) within the femoral head and the surgical constructs. (c) Maximum von Mises strain(MVMS) within the femoral head, (d) micromotions at the fracture plane and at the interfacial region between surgical construct and surrounding bone. Type III showed the lowest PVMS and MVMS at the cancellous bone near the bone-construct interface regardless of bone densities. an indication of its least likelihood of construct loosening due to failure of the host bone. Particularly, its efficacy was more prominent when the bone density level was low. Micromotions at the interfacial surgical construct was lowest in Type III. followed by Type I and Type II. They were about 15-20% of other types. which suggested that pressurization was most effective in limiting the interfacial motion. Our results demonstrated the cement augmentation with hip screw could be more effective when used with pressurization technique for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. For patients with low bone density. its effectiveness can be more pronounced in limiting construct loosening and promoting bone union.