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Properties of the Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Dongchunghacho, a Newly Developed Korean Medicinal Insect-borne Mushroom: Mass-production and Pharmacological Actions (한국에서 개발된 곤충유래 약용버섯인 누에동충하초의 생산기술개발 및 약리학적 특성)

  • Lee, Sang Mong;Kim, Yong Gyun;Park, Hyean Cheal;Kim, Keun Ki;Son, Hong Joo;Hong, Chang Oh;Park, Nam Sook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.247-266
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    • 2017
  • Cordyceps is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb well-known in China, Korea and Japan since B.C. 2,000. The original entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps sinensis belonging to the genus Cordyceps could not be found inside Korean peninsula due to the absence of the host insect for the corresponding entomogenous fungus. The development of artificial production methods of Korean type Cordyceps using the silkworm Bombyx mori as in vivo culture medium for the the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes is the first, and wonderful occasion in the research history of insect industry of this global world. The aim of this article is to review the historical research background, mass-production methods, and pharmacological effects of the silkworm-dongchunghacho (Paecilomyces tenuipes) which is a newly developed Korean medicinal insect-borne mushroom, and another non-insect-borne medicinal mushroom (Cordyceps militaris and Cordyceps pruinosa). Their biological actions include anti-tumor, immunostimulating, anti-fatigue, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombosis, hypolipidaemic and insecticidal effects. The bioactive principles are protein-bound polysaccharides (hexose, hexosamin), cordycepin, D-manitol, acidic polysaccharide etc. Protein-bound polysaccharides and n-butanol fractions were demonstrated to show a significant anti-tumor activities but did not show a cytotoxicities. D-mannitol exhibited a significant prolongation of the life span in tumor bearing mice. Ergosterol did not show an efficient anti-tumor activity, but showed a significant phagocytosis enhancing activity. Anti-tumor activity of silkworm-dongchunghacho might be attributed to immuno-stimulating activities rather than cytotoxic effects [164]. Also this review comprises the breeding of Dongchunghacho varieties, optimization of culture conditions, improvement of learning and memory by Dongchunghacho, application of them as foods and chemical constituents.

Effect of Fermented Cirsium japonicum Extract on Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (엉겅퀴 발효 추출물을 통한 남성 갱년기 증상 개선 효과)

  • Jeong, Byung Seo;Kim, Seong Hoon;Kim, Hyun Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.790-800
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    • 2017
  • As men get older, total testosterone levels decline gradually, and concentrations of free and bioavailable testosterone decline sharply with each decade beyond their 30s. Andropause or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is defined as a decrease in sexual satisfaction or decline in general well-being accompanied by low levels of testosterone in older men. This male climacteric is characterized by nervousness, reduced potency, decreased libido, irritability, fatigue, depression, memory problems, sleep disturbances, and hot flushes. Cirsium japonicum (CJ) is used as a traditional medicine for hemorrhage, blood congestion, and inflammation in Korea. However, there is no report on the efficacy of CJ treatment for TDS. In this study, we observed the mitigating effect of CJ extract (CE) and fermented CJ extract (FCE) on symptoms of TDS. In elderly male rats, total and testosterone levels, hind limbs muscles, forced swimming time, and total and motile sperm counts significantly increased after daily intake of CE and FCE for 6 weeks. In contrast, sex hormone binding globulin, retroperitoneal fat, total serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in CE and FCE groups. However, there was no difference in prostate specific antigen, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels among all groups, which means CE and FCE did not have putative adverse effects. In a cell experiment, we also observed that CE and FCE enhanced expression of genes related to testosterone biosynthesis but reduced genes involved in testosterone conversion. On the whole, these positive effects on TDS were greater in FCE compared to CE. Thus, these results suggest the potential of FCE as a promising natural product for recovering testosterone levels and alleviating TDS.

Application of Ultrasonic Nano Crystal Surface Modification into Nitinol Stent Wire to Improve Mechanical Characteristics (나이티놀 스텐트 와이어의 기계적 특성 향상을 위한 초음파 나노표면 개질 처리에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Ho;Suh, Tae-Suk;Lee, Chang-Soon;Park, In-Gyu;Cho, In-Sik;Pyoun, Young-Shik;Kim, Seong-Hyeon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.80-87
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    • 2009
  • Phase transformation, superelastic characteristics and variation of surface residual stress were studied for Nitinol shape memory alloy through application of UNSM technology, and life extension methods of stent were also studied by using elastic resilience and corrosion resistance. Nitinol wire of ${\phi}1.778$ mm showed similar surface roughness before and after UNSM treatment, but drawing traces and micro defects were all removed by UNSM treatment. It also changed the surface residual stress from tensile to compressive values, and XRD result showed less intensive austenite peak and clear martensite and additional R-phase peaks after UNSM treatment. Fatigue resistance could be greatly improved through removal of surface defects and rearrangement of surface residual stress from tensile to compressive state, and development of surface modification system to improve not only bio-compatability but also resistance to corrosion and wear will make it possible to develop vascular stent which can be used for circulating system diseases which run first cause of death of recent Koreans.

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Immunogenicity and Safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescent (한국의 건강한 소아청소년을 대상으로 한 인플루엔자 사백신의 면역원성과 안전성 연구)

  • Ri, Soohyun;Kim, Mi Jeong;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods: From October to December 2008, 65 healthy patients aged 6 months to 18 years who visited Korea University Ansan Hospital for influenza vaccination were enrolled in this study. We measured the hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers at baseline and 30 days after vaccinating enrollees with split influenza vaccine and calculated the seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers, and seroconversion rates. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed after vaccination. Results: The seroprotection rates against all three viral strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) were 87.7%, 89.2%, and 89.2% (${\geq}70%$), respectively; seroconversion rates were 44.6%, 73.8%, and 63.1% (${\geq}40%$), respectively; and seroconversion factors were 4.5, 8.4, and 10.5 (>2.5), respectively. The TIV immunogenicity was acceptable according to the CPMP (Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products) criteria. Although 48 patients (73.8%) reported one or more adverse events, no severe adverse events such as anaphylaxis and convulsion were observed. Forty-two patients (64.6%) reported a local skin reaction, including redness (29.2%), pain (43.1%), or swelling (41.5%) of the injected site, and 26 (40.0%) reported a systemic reaction: fatigue (23.1%), myalgia (20.0%), headache (10.8%), arthralgia (10.8%), chills (9.2%), or fever (7.7%). Conclusions: This study shows that the immunogenicity of the TIV vaccine is acceptable. As there were no serious adverse events aside from local reactions and mild systemic reactions, this vaccine can be safely used among healthy Korean children and adolescents.

Development of High-Functional Hyaluronic Acid/Salmon Extract Formulation Using Gamma-Ray (감마선을 이용한 고기능성 히알루론산/연어추출물 제형개발)

  • Kweon, Dong-Keon;Shim, Jae-Goo;Ha, Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2018
  • Hangover after drinking is different from person to person symptoms and degree, but usually thirst, fatigue, headache, general boredom, gastrointestinal disorder, vomiting, diarrhea, deficiency of vitamin appears. This hanging phenomenon is caused by the action of precursors such as ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde, which are the by products of fermentation contained in alcohol and alcohol accumulated in hepatocytes and body. In order to solve the hangover phenomenon, the same Origin as polysaccharide Polydeoxyribonucleotide, which is a nucleic acid-sugar-phosphate complex, which is a semen or testicular extract in salmon extract, and a water soluble salmon extract powder having the same structure and lower price than Polydeoxyribonucleotide And D-Glucuronic acid and N-Acetyl glucosamine. It has excellent biocompatibility, viscoelasticity and moisturizing power. It has effect on reduction of body water loss and skin moisture content in hangover phenomenon. It is antioxidant and skin moisturizing effect Hyaluronic acid was irradiated with gamma rays, and the composition was prepared by using the salmon extract powder and the main raw material. The ethanol degradation, the acetaldehyde reduction amount, the blood acetaldehyde concentration and the acetic acid concentration were measured to evaluate the alcoholysis effect, Skin moisture evaporation rate To examine the evaluation unit water content of the skin was improved determine whether the antioxidant and provide skin moisturizing effect. The addition of ethanol extracts of salmon extracts showed a decrease of 5 to 7 times compared with no addition, and a decrease of 3 to 5 times of acetaldehyde. In addition, the change of acetaldehyde concentration and acetic acid concentration in blood showed a rapid decrease compared to the no - added control group. In addition, when the raw material of hyaluronic acid was used, skin moisture content was high and skin moisture evaporation amount was decreased. Therefore, hyaluronic acid, which is a polysaccharide polymer, has excellent viscoelasticity and moisturizing ability, It is considered to provide antioxidant and skin moisturizing effect. Therefore, it can be said that the composition containing salmon extract powder and hyaluronic acid as a main ingredient is effective for the hangover phenomenon which occurs after drinking.

The Purchasing Trends of Purchase of Functional Progressive Addtions Lenses and Correlation Analysis of Binocular Function Value (기능성누진렌즈 구매고객의 구매동향 및 양안시기능값 상관성 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-min;Lee, Gi-yung;Park, Hyun-ju
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: purchasing status and understanding trends of Functional progressive addtions lenses buyers', Correlation analysis of the Binocular Function value to determine ADD then can be apply sales and prescriptions. Methods: Years 2011 to 2014, 298 patients who were prescribed functional progressive lenses were analysed based on the prescription data and SPSS (Ver. 20.0) was treated using the statistics. Results: Results: The average age of our customers are $27.66{\pm}11.55$ years, average addition power is $+0.73{\pm}0.36D$, customers are using take a prescription of ADD $+0.75{\pm}0.28D$ was the highest 44.33% to 132 people. Near point of convergence of 276 people (92.62%) was mostly less than 10 cm, and near point of accommodation of 134 people (44.97%) was also below 10 cm, within 11~15 cm were 122 people (40.94%). Most of people were within normal range in terms of Near point of convergence and near point of accommodation, near point of accommodation tend to be longer than Near point of convergence. As you can see this result shows most of customers need extra help in their near point of accommodation instead of they are leak at it. FCC (Fused cross cylinder) check Value and ADD (addition power) tests showed that the value of a strong correlation (p=0.00), NPC and NPA were also p=0.001, the correlation of the NPC and ADD is p=0.003, In addition, NPA and ADD also showed a significant correlations (p=0.005). Near Point of Accommodation, negative relative accommodation, and positive relative accommodation are all significantly correlated (p=0.00). The short distance-related variables of the ADD which are NPC, NPA, Age, also appeared to side correlate significantly with each other. Conclusion: Binocular function values of the subjects were highly correlated with each other so precise examination is required. when Age young people are working at short distance, low ADD values was prescribed for solving discomfort. So, in the case of early presbyopia, accommodative insufficiency, or people feel fatigue when they often working at near although their accommodation function is normal, when functional progressive lenses are prescribed, expectation of this should be exactly notified.

Induced Prism by the Categories of Spectacle Frames (안경테 종류에 따른 유발프리즘)

  • Park, Woo-Jung;Kim, Soo Woon;Hwang, Hae-Young;Yu, Dong-Sik;Son, Jeong-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.311-319
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: One of the critical aspects on dispensing glasses is to match the center of pupils to the optical center of lenses as the mismatched glasses are able to induce uncomfortable effects called prism which has been known to induce phoria, a main cause for asthenopia in many cases. Therefore, we investigated the induced prism occurred by mismatching centers between the center of pupils and the optical center of lenses. Methods: In this study, total 103 subjects were examined whether the center of pupils and the optical center of lenses are matched in horizontal and vertical directions, and then, the data was categorized into 4 groups based on the structural components of glasses. Total amount of prism was compared to show the effect of the glasses frame on the prism induction, and the value of measured prism was compared with the German RAL-RG 915 regulations. Results: The results in respect to the horizontal component showed that the induced prism was not found in 10.7% of total subjects. 73.8% of total subjects were influenced by induced prism, the range of prism was in a tolerance level. However, the 15.5% of total subjects seemed to be influenced by prism which is out of the criterion of tolerance. In case of vertical component, 23.3% of total subjects showed no effects of prism while early adopting glasses, 54.4% of total subjects showed a little prism effect within the criterion of tolerance, and 22.3% of total subjects showed the prism effect out of the tolerance range. This data indicates that group A and B that are less likely adjustable by fitting induce more prism than group C and D in horizontal and vertical components. Conclusions: In higher refractive error condition, it was found that aligning the optical center of lenses with the center of pupils by pre-fitting of glasses frame minimized prism induction in horizontal and vertical components, which ameliorates ocular fatigue. Therefore, appropriate optometric dispensing through fitting by opticians and precise design about monocular PD and monocular Oh are necessary to improve visual perception.

The Relationship between Opioids Use, Cortisol and DHEAS (마약성 진통제 사용과 Cortisol 및 DHEAS와의 관계)

  • Jung, Ji Hoon;Choi, Youn Seon;Kim, Seon Mee;Lee, June Young;Kim, Eun Hye;Kim, Jung Eun;Kim, E Yeon;Park, Hee Jin;Yoon, Dong Jin
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Fatigue, energy loss, feeling of helplessness, poor appetite, pain besides general weakness are major symptoms presented to terminally ill cancer patients. These symptoms are similar to those that appeared with adrenal insufficiency. Also, for terminally ill cancer patients who are hospitalized for palliative care, opioid agents are prescribed to control moderate to severe pain. We studied the relationship of opioid agents and adrenal insufficiency. Methods: From November 2013 through June 2014, we monitored the serum level of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, serum) in 55 cancer patients who were over 18 years old and were treated at a hospice center. We also checked the treatment period and dosage of opioid agents. Results: The DHEAS level, treatment period and dosage of opioid agents did not have significant correlation. Correlation between the serum cortisol level and the opioid agent treatment period was not significant either, but the serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the dosage of opioid agents (P value 0.0322). Conclusion: This study did not identify a novel link between treatment period, dosage of opioid agents and adrenal insufficiency. But, the DHEAS level was mostly below the normal level in patients who were treated with opioid agents.

Physical Symptoms and Psychiatric, Social, Spiritual and Economical Care Needs of Patients under Home-based Cancer Service (재가암환자의 신체 증상들과 정신적, 사회적, 영적, 그리고 경제적 돌봄 요구도)

  • Kang, Myung Hee;Moon, Young Sil;Lee, Young Joon;Kang, Yoon Sik;Kim, Hoon Gu;Lee, Gyeong Won;Lee, Won Sup;Kang, Jung Hun
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was performed to identify the symptoms and care needs of home-based cancer patients in Korea and to add to the scarce literature on this topic. Methods: Data were collected from patients who subscribed to home-based cancer care services in Jinju. Assessments were performed by nurses at the local public health center. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System with a numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to identify symptoms, and a four-point Likert scale was used to assess psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Results: Cross-sectional data were collected in October 2013. A total of 209 patients participated and their median age was 65 years (range, 17~89 years). Most patients were diagnosed in the early stage of cancer (n=188); only 19 patients were diagnosed in the advanced stage. More than half the patients lived alone (n=115, 55.0%) and took care of themselves (n=128, 61.2%). Anorexia and fatigue were the most common symptoms (median NRS, 5 and 4, respectively). Patients needed economic support the most, whereas spiritual care was least needed (n=138 [67.3%] vs. n=128 [62.1%], respectively). Conclusion: Patients who signed up for home-based cancer care services in Jinju are struggling with a financial issue and physical symptoms. A customized approach is needed to improve the quality of the home-based care services.

A Survey on the Use and Perception of Environmentally-friendly Organic Materials among Korean Farmers (친환경유기농자재에 대한 농업인의 사용실태 및 인식도 조사)

  • Paik, Min-Kyoung;Park, Sung-Eun;Kim, Bong-Hoe;Kim, Yong-Ki;Oh, Jin-Ah;Kim, Doo-Ho;Lee, Je-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to investigate the cultivation pattern and perception, such as safety awareness, of environmentally-friendly organic materials among Korean farmers. The main reason for participation of the environmentally-friendly agriculture was for the production of safe agricultural crops. Compared to small-acreage farmer were more aware about the safety of environmentally-friendly organic materials to the subjects. Accordingly, 23.6% among the respondents with environmentally-friendly agriculture certification experienced the adverse effect by using the environmentally-friendly organic materials, compared to 33.8% of among the respondent without the certification. The experienced type of adverse effects consisted mainly 'eyes itch', 'hands and feet itch' and 'fatigue'. Also, respondent experiencing the adverse effects by using the environmentally-friendly organic materials more comply with the usage standard as how to use marked in wrapping paper, compared to the respondent without experiencing the adverse effects, which indicate that the compliance with the usage standard as how to use marked in wrapping paper is closely related the experience the adverse effects. Further study should be needed for more precise investigation of comment for the farmers in order to suggest the effective improvement in terms of policy or education for their safety.