• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fatigue Damage Monitoring

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Fatigue damage monitoring and evolution for basalt fiber reinforced polymer materials

  • Li, Hui;Wang, Wentao;Zhou, Wensong
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.307-325
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    • 2014
  • A newly developed method based on energy is presented to study the damage pattern of FRP material. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) is employed to monitor the damage under fatigue loading. In this study, acoustic emission technique (AE) combined with scanning electronic microscope (SEM) technique is employed to monitor the damage evolution of the BFRP specimen in an approximate continuous scanning way. The AE signals are analyzed based on the wavelet transform, and the analyses are confirmed by SEM images. Several damage patterns of BFRP material, such as matrix cracking, delamination, fiber fracture and their combinations, are identified through the experiment. According to the results, the cumulative energy (obtained from wavelet coefficients) of various damage patterns are closely related to the damage evolution of the BFRP specimens during the entire fatigue tests. It has been found that the proposed technique can effectively distinguish different damage patterns of FRP materials and describe the fatigue damage evolution.

Evaluation of typhoon induced fatigue damage using health monitoring data for the Tsing Ma Bridge

  • Chan, Tommy H.T.;Li, Z.X.;Ko, J.M.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.655-670
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    • 2004
  • This paper aims to evaluate the effect of typhoons on fatigue damage accumulation in steel decks of long-span suspension bridges. The strain-time histories at critical locations of deck sections of long-span bridges during different typhoons passing the bridge area are investigated by using on-line strain data acquired from the structural health monitoring system installed on the bridge. The fatigue damage models based on Miner's Law and Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) are applied to calculate the increment of fatigue damage due to the action of a typhoon. Accumulated fatigue damage during the typhoon is also calculated and compared between Miner's Law and the CDM method. It is found that for the Tsing Ma Bridge case, the stress spectrum generated by a typhoon is significantly different than that generated by normal traffic and its histogram shapes can be described approximately as a Rayleigh distribution. The influence of typhoon loading on accumulative fatigue damage is more significant than that due to normal traffic loading. The increment of fatigue damage generated by hourly stress spectrum for the maximum typhoon loading may be much greater than those for normal traffic loading. It is, therefore, concluded that it is necessary to evaluate typhoon induced fatigue damage for the purpose of accurately evaluating accumulative fatigue damage for long-span bridges located within typhoon prone regions.

Monitoring of Fatigue Damage of Composite Laminates Using Embedded Intensity-Based Optical Fiber Sensors (광강도형 광섬유 센서를 이용한 복합재 적충판의 피로손상 감시)

  • 이동춘;이정주;서대철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.124-127
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    • 2000
  • In this study, a technique for monitoring of fatigue damage of composite laminates by measuring the stiffness change using embedded intensity-based optical fiber sensors was investigated. Firstly, the underlying measurement principle and structure of intensity-based sensors and then a simple stiffness conversion process was explained. The monitoring technique was evaluated by fatigue tests of composite laminates with an embedded intensity-based sensor. From the test results, the response of the intensity-based sensor showed good correlation with that of surface mounted extensometer. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensity-based sensors have good potential for the monitoring of fatigue damage of composite structures under fatigue loading. In addition, it could be confirmed that the intensity-based sensors have higher resistance to fatigue than the commercial electrical strain gauge.

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Analysis of acoustic emission signals during fatigue testing of a M36 bolt using the Hilbert-Huang spectrum

  • Leaman, Felix;Herz, Aljoscha;Brinnel, Victoria;Baltes, Ralph;Clausen, Elisabeth
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.13-25
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    • 2020
  • One of the most important aspects in structural health monitoring is the detection of fatigue damage. Structural components such as heavy-duty bolts work under high dynamic loads, and thus are prone to accumulate fatigue damage and cracks may originate. Those heavy-duty bolts are used, for example, in wind power generation and mining equipment. Therefore, the investigation of new and more effective monitoring technologies attracts a great interest. In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technology was employed to detect incipient damage during fatigue testing of a M36 bolt. Initial results showed that the AE signals have a high level of background noise due to how the load is applied by the fatigue testing machine. Thus, an advanced signal processing method in the time-frequency domain, the Hilbert-Huang Spectrum (HHS), was applied to reveal AE components buried in background noise in form of high-frequency peaks that can be associated with damage progression. Accordingly, the main contribution of the present study is providing insights regarding the detection of incipient damage during fatigue testing using AE signals and providing recommendations for further research.

FATIGUE TEST TO THE BLADES AXLE OF ROTARY TILLER

  • Mao, Hanping;Chen, Cuiying
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 1993
  • Taking a bledes axle of rotary tiller as a example, this paper discusses influences of four loading essential factors, which are strengthened amplitude, cycle times, loading sequence and loading frequency. in fatigue life. Determination principles of above four factors and monitoring methods of fatigue damage by local strain are dealt with. The actual field testing check of farm machinery is rapidly simulated by laboratory program fatigue test can shorten the period of development and improvement of a product. In the time of in-door simulation test, damage monitoring and four loading essential factors, which are strengthened amplitude , cycle times, loading sequence and loading frequency, have to be dealt with . If these problems are solved successfully, it is possible to accelerated test speed, reduce costs and manhours, and raise accuracy of test result. However strengthening method, loading pattern and influence of loading frequency on test result have not so far been discu sed systematically, damage monitoring is even more a difficult problem. Authors have studied above problems with the object of blades axle of rotary tiller.

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Smart sensors for monitoring crack growth under fatigue loading conditions

  • Giurgiutiu, Victor;Xu, Buli;Chao, Yuh;Liu, Shu;Gaddam, Rishi
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.101-113
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    • 2006
  • Structural health monitoring results obtained with the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance techniqueand Lamb wave transmission methods during fatigue crack propagation of an Arcan specimen instrumented with piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are presented. The specimen was subjected in mixed-mode fatigue loading and a crack was propagated in stages. At each stage, an image of the crack and the location of the crack tip were recorded and the PWAS readings were taken. Hence, the crack-growth in the specimen could be correlated with the PWAS readings. The E/M impedance signature was recorded in the 100 - 500 kHz frequency range. The Lamb-wave transmission method used the pitch-catch approach with a 3-count sine tone burst of 474 kHz transmitted and received between various PWAS pairs. Fatigue loading was applied to initiate and propagate the crack damage of controlled magnitude. As damage progressed, the E/M impedance signatures and the waveforms received by receivers were recorded at predetermined intervals and compared. Data analysis indicated that both the E/M impedance signatures and the Lamb-wave transmission signatures are modified by the crack progression. Damage index values were observed to increase as the crack damage increases. These experiments demonstrated that the use of PWAS in conjunction with the E/M impedance and the Lamb-wave transmission is a potentially powerful tool for crack damage detection and monitoring in structural elements.

Health Monitoring of a Composite Actuator with a PZT Ceramic during Electromechanical Fatigue Loading

  • Woo, Sung-Choong;Goo, Nam-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.541-549
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    • 2007
  • This work describes an investigation into the feasibility of using an acoustic emission (AE) technique to evaluate the integrity of a composite actuator with a PZT ceramic under electromechanical cyclic loading. AE characteristics have been analyzed in terms of the behavior of the AE count rate and signal waveform in association with the performance degradation of the composite actuator during the cyclic tests. The results showed that the fatigue cracking of the composite actuator with a PZT ceramic occurred only in the PZT ceramic layer, and that the performance degradation caused by the fatigue damage varied immensely depending on the existence of a protecting composite bottom layer. We confirmed the correlations between the fatigue damage mechanisms and AE signal types for the actuators that exhibited multiple modes of fatigue damage; transgranular micro damage, intergranular fatigue cracking, and breakdown by a short circuiting were related to a burst type signal showing a shortly rising and slowly decaying waveform with a comparably low voltage, a continuous type signal showing a gradual rising and slowly decaying waveform with a very high voltage and a burst and continuous type signal with a high voltage, respectively. Results from the present work showed that the evolution of fatigue damage in the composite actuator with a PZT ceramic can be nondestructively identified via in situ AE monitoring and microscopic observations.

A Study on Fatigue Damage Modeling Using Neural Networks

  • Lee Dong-Woo;Hong Soon-Hyeok;Cho Seok-Swoo;Joo Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.1393-1404
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    • 2005
  • Fatigue crack growth and life have been estimated based on established empirical equations. In this paper, an alternative method using artificial neural network (ANN) -based model developed to predict fatigue damages simultaneously. To learn and generalize the ANN, fatigue crack growth rate and life data were built up using in-plane bending fatigue test results. Single fracture mechanical parameter or nondestructive parameter can't predict fatigue damage accurately but multiple fracture mechanical parameters or nondestructive parameters can. Existing fatigue damage modeling used this merit but limited real-time damage monitoring. Therefore, this study shows fatigue damage model using backpropagation neural networks on the basis of X -ray half breadth ratio B / $B_o$, fractal dimension $D_f$ and fracture mechanical parameters can estimate fatigue crack growth rate da/ dN and cycle ratio N / $N_f$ at the same time within engineering limit error ($5\%$).

Realtime Detection of Damage in Composite Structures by Using PVDE Sensor (압전고분자 센서를 이용한 복합재 구조의 실시간 손상탐지)

  • ;Y. A. Dzenis
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.118-121
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    • 2002
  • Polyvinylidene di-fluoride (PVDF) film sensor appeared to be practically useful for the structural health monitoring of composite materials and structures. PVDF film sensors were either attached to or embedded in the graphite/epoxy composite (CFRP) samples to detect the fatigue damage at the bondline of single-lap joints or the tensile failure of unidirectional laminates. PVDF sensors were sensitive enough to detect and determine the crack front in linear location since composites usually produce very energetic acoustic emission (AE). PVDF sensors are extremely cost-effective, as flexible as other plastic films, in low profile as thin as a few tens of microns, and have relatively wide-band response, all of which characteristics are readily utilized for the structural health monitoring of composite structures. Signals due to fatigue damage showed a characteristics of mode II (shear) type failure whereas those from fiber breakage at DEN notches showed that of mode I (tensile) type fracture.

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Active-Sensing Based Damage Monitoring of Airplane Wings Under Low-Temperature and Continuous Loading Condition (능동센서 배열을 이용한 저온 반복하중 환경 항공기 날개 구조물의 손상 탐지)

  • Jeon, Jun Young;Jung, Hwee kwon;Park, Gyuhae;Ha, Jaeseok;Park, Chan-Yik
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 2016
  • As aircrafts are being operated at high altitude, wing structures experience various fatigue loadings under cryogenic environments. As a result, fatigue damage such as a crack could be develop that could eventually lead to a catastrophic failure. For this reason, fatigue damage monitoring is an important process to ensure efficient maintenance and safety of structures. To implement damage detection in real-world flight environments, a special cooling chamber was built. Inside the chamber, the temperature was maintained at the cryogenic temperature, and harmonic fatigue loading was given to a wing structure. In this study, piezoelectric active-sensing based guided waves were used to detect the fatigue damage. In particular, a beamforming technique was applied to efficiently measure the scattering wave caused by the fatigue damage. The system was used for detection, growth monitoring, and localization of a fatigue crack. In addition, a sensor diagnostic process was also applied to ensure the proper operation of piezoelectric sensors. Several experiments were implemented and the results of the experiments demonstrated that this process could efficiently detect damage in such an extreme environment.