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Membrane Lipids of a Marine Ciliate Protozoan Uronema marinum

  • Seo Jung Soo;Kim Ki Hong;Lee Hyung Ho;Chung Joon Ki
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2003
  • Lipid composition and fatty acid composition were characterized in the membrane of a marine ciliate protozoan (Uronema marinum). Phospholipids accounted for 70% of total lipid, and the remainder was neutral lipids. Total phospholipids were separated as phosphatidylcholine $(24.26\%)$, phosphatidylethanolamine $(22.21\%)$, phosphatidylinositol $(6.14\%)$, phosphatidyl­serne $(5.11\%)$, cardiolipin $(3.07\%)$ and unidentified phospholipids $(28.72\%)$ through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography (GC), based solely on comparision of retention times. In neutral lipids, the most abundant fatty acid group was monounsaturated fatty acid $(48.3\% of total fatty acids)$ with oleic acid (18:1) and nervonic acid (24:1). Saturated fatty acids comprised $29.6\%$ of total fatty acids, with palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) ane myristic acid (14:0), and polyunsaturated fatty acid accounted for $33.0\%$ with $Di-homo-\gamma-linolenic$ acid (20:3) and linoleic acid (18:2). Wherease phospholipids predominantly contained the fatty acid group in the following order: polyunsaturated fatty acids $(52.7\%\;of\;total\;fatty\;acids)$ with linoleic acid (18:2) and $\gamma-linolenic$ acid (18:3) > monounsaturated fatty acids $(28.5\%\;of\;total\;fatty\;acids)$ with oleic acid (18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) > saturated fatty acids $(25.5\%\;of\;total\;fatty\;acids)$ with palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) and myristic acid (14:0).

Whole-cell Biotransformation of Chlorella Oil Hydrolysates into Medium Chain Fatty Acids

  • Seo, Joo-Hyun;Min, Won-Ki;Lee, Jung-Hoo;Lee, Sun-Mee;Lee, Choul-Gyun;Park, Jin-Byung
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2018
  • A synthetic pathway, which consisted of fatty acid double bond hydratase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, was applied to Chlorella oil to produce ester fatty acids, which can be hydrolyzed into medium chain fatty acids. Since linoleic acid is a major fatty acid constituent of Chlorella oil, a fatty acid double bond hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus NBRC13951, which is able to convert linoleic acid into 13-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid, was used. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the fatty acid double bond hydratase from L. acidophilus NBRC13951 successfully transformed linoleic acid in Chlorella oil hydrolysates into 13-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid with approximately 60% conversion yield. 13-Hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid was further converted into ester fatty acids by the recombinant E. coli expressing a long chain secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase. The resulting ester fatty acids were then hydrolyzed into medium chain fatty acids by a lipase. Overall, industrially relevant medium chain fatty acids were produced from Chlorella oil hydrolysates. Thereby, this study may contribute to biosynthesis of medium chain fatty acids from microalgae oils as well as long chain fatty acids.

Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk Oil. (난황유의 지방산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • 고무석;김종숙;최옥자;김용두
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 1997
  • Egg yolk oil was obtained by roasting and Pressing egg yolks of hen's egg breeding on the open bin system and the cage system, respectively. Lipids in egg yolk oil were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2 : 1, V/V), and fractionated into neutral lipid, glycolipid, and phospholipid by silicic aicd column chromatography. Fatty acid composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of total lipids and neutral lipids are in sequence of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid. The major fatty acids of the glycolipids are palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and lauric acid successively. The major fatty acids of phospholipids are oleic acid, lauric acid, and Palmitic acid consecutively. About the fatty acids composition of egg yolk oil in the open barn system, the contents of saturated fatty acid are lower and the contents of unsaturated fatty acid are higher than that of the case system. The contents of unsaturated fatty acid in egg yolk oil is higher than that of saturated fatty acid in total lipids and nutral lipids. Unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid of e99 yolk oil in the open barn system is higher than that of the cage system in glycolipids and phospholipids.

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Esterification of High Concentration Free Fatty Acid in Rice Bran Oil (미강유 중 고농도 자유지방산의 에스테르화)

  • Shin, Yong-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.211-224
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    • 2008
  • Characteristics of the esterification reaction between free fatty acid in rice bran oil and methanol was investigated in the presence of catalysts, such as PTS(p-toluene sulfonic acid), Amberlyst 15 dry and SCX(silica gel based strong cation exchange resin). While reaction temperature was kept constant at $65^{\circ}C$, initial feed content of free fatty acid was varied from 100% to 1% by addition of pure free fatty acid which was previously made from rice bran oil. Also, the effect of mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid on the final conversion was examined. When esterification of pure free fatty acid was catalyzed by several acids, final conversions were increased in order of Amberlyst 15 dry, SCX and PTS. Using PTS catalyst, initially the reaction proceeded in homogeneous 2nd oder reaction mechanism. However, phase of reaction mixture changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous along the reaction time and then reaction rate was retarded by mass transfer resistance of methanol. Final conversion of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was depended on initial feed content of free fatty acid, and had maximum value at 30% of initial feed free fatty acid content for all kinds of catalysts used. And the final conversion was increased with mole ratio of methanol by the improvement of reaction rate. When initial feed free fatty acid content below 10% and the reaction was catalyzed by PTS, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture was increased in the middle of reaction time by hydrolysis of triglyceride in reaction mixture. Also, if silica gel was added into the reaction mixture which had initial feed free fatty acid content below 50%, final conversion was increased by the adsorption of moisture produced. The SCX catalyst made the esterification reaction of free fatty acid to progress like in case of PTS catalyst. However, when initial feed free fatty acid content below 10%, concentration of free fatty acid in. reaction mixture was decreased monotonically and not increased in the middle of reaction time on the contrary to the case of PTS. Thus, SCX catalyst accomplished more high value of final conversion than PTS catalyst for the initial feed fatty acid content range from 50% to 5% In case of initial feed free fatty acid content of 1% and mole ratio of methanol was 2, concentration of free fatty acid in reaction mixture increased over the initial feed free fatty acid content for all kind of catalysts used. Although SCX catalyst was added into reaction mixture which had 1% of initial feed fatty acid content, final conversion was hardly raised by mole ratio of methanol.

Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Meat Products

  • Yilmaz, Ismail;Gecgel, Umit
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2009
  • In this research, fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 22 selected meat products produced by Turkish companies were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Total fat contents of the meat products ranged from 11.60-42.50%. Salami had the lowest fat content 11.60% and sucuk (soudjuk) the highest 42.50%. Major fatty acids were C$_{16:0}$, C$_{18:0}$, trans C$_{18:1}$, cis C$_{18:1}$, and C$_{18:2}$ in the samples. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents have changed from 38.73 to 70.71% of total fatty acids, and sausage had the highest percentage among the samples. The majority of samples contain trans fatty acids and the level ranged from 2.28 to 7.95% of the total fatty acids. The highest amount of total trans fatty acids was determined in kavurma (Cavurmas) (7.95%), and total trans fatty acids of meat products such as pastrami contained more than 5% of the total fatty acids.

Trans Fatty Acid Content in Commercial Processed Food in Jeon-Buk Area (전북지역 유통 가공식품 트랜스지방 함량)

  • Jeong, Ju-Ri;Seo, Kyu-Seok;Lee, Seog-Gyu;Jo, Eun-Ja;Na, Mun-Su;Jeong, Jin-Hoa;Oh, Se-Il;Son, Myong-Ok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to examine the proportion of fatty acids and contents of trans fatty acid in commercial processed foods in Jeon-Buk area. Contents of trans fatty acid in bakery products ranged from 0.2% to 1.0% per 100 g food. Especially garlic bread and pastry contained the highest amount. Popcorns contained trans fatty acid from 0.0% to 13.4%. Among them, instant popcorns for microwave contained the highest amount, while trans fatty acid was hardly detected in popcorns for theater. And trans fatty acid detected in popcorns was mostly in the form of 18 : 1 trans. The content of trans fatty acid in pizza was nearly 0.2%. Amounts of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid were similar between each type of pizza and frozen pizza. Fritters such as fried chickens and vegetables contained trans fatty acid less than 0.2% per 100 g food.

The Change in Content of Constitutive Lipid and Fatty Acid of Pacific Saury during Natural Freezing Dry(Kwa Mae Kee) (꽁치 자연동결건조(과메기)중 지방함량과 지방산 조성 변화)

  • 오승희;김덕진
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.239-252
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    • 1995
  • The results which were examined changes In contents of constitutive lipid and fatty acid during the natural drying of Pacific Saury were as follows. During the natural drying of Pacific Saury, offal lipid and moisture contents gradually decreased. In the survey of rancidity degree extracted lipid of Pacific Saury, peroxide value was gradually Increased, TBA and acid value were radically increased thereafter 9 days of drying. Neutral lipid, phospholipid and glycolipid contents of total lipid were 95%, 4% and 2%, respectively, and in the neutral lipid, content of TG was more than 90%, and in the phospholipid, contents of PC and PE were 45∼85%, 27∼34%, respectively. Fatty acid composition of total lipid was substantially higher in C18:0 and C20:1, C22:1, C22:6 contents and fatty acid composition of neutral lipid was higher In C22:1, C22:1, contents and fatty acid composition of phospholipid was the highest in C22:6 content. In the fatty acid composition of glycolipid, monounsaturated fatty acid content has substantially higher, C16:0 content was gradually Increased In saturated fatty acid and C22:1 content was gradually decreased in monounsaturated fatty acid. It showed that fatty acid composition of triglyceride has higher in monounsaturated fatty acid content and contents of C20:1, C22:1 was gradually decreased.

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Relationships between Fatty Acid Intake and Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women (폐경 후 여성의 지방산 섭취실태와 혈청 지질농도와의 관련성)

  • 이보경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.437-447
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    • 1999
  • The intake of fatty acids, and the effects of fatty acid intake patterns on serum lipid concentrations was investigated in 112 postmenopausal women. Dietary intakes of fatty acids were assessed by means of a semi-quantitative food questionnaire with food models and other measuring tools. The intakes of saturated fatty acid(SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid(MFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid(PUFA) were 10.85g, 11.89g and 12.09g, respectively. The ratios of P/M/S and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 fatty acid were 1.19 : 1.10 : 1 and 6.65 ; 1, respectively. Serum lipid concentrations were adjusted for age, menopausal period, BMI, stress scores, exercise habit and energy intake and the relationship between fatty acid intake and serum lipids was measured using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Serum cholesterol concentration was positively correlated with dietary intake of SFA (p<0.10), MUFA(p<0.05), palmitic acid(p<0.10), stearic acid(p<0.05), oleic aicd(p<0.05), and arachidonic acid(p<0.10). Serumk LDL-cholesterol concentration was positively correlated with MUFA(p<0.10), oleic acid(p<0.10), oleic acid(p<0.10), and arachidonic acid (p<0.10). Serum triglyceride concentration was positively correlated with arachidonic acid(p<0.10). However, serum HDL-cholesterol concentration was not found to be significantly correlated with any fatty acids.

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Dietary Fatty Acid Increases Body Weight Gain without a Change in Rumen Fermentation in Fattening Cattle

  • Kita, K.;Oka, M.;Yokota, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2003
  • Dietary fatty acid including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid was fed to fattening cattle and its effect on body weight gain, plasma lipid contents and rumen liquid fermentation in vitro was examined. In expt. 1, the effect of dietary fatty acid on body weight gain and plasma lipid concentrations was examined. In the control diet group, cattle were fed 1 kg/day of rice straw and concentrate which satisfied the requirement. In the fatty acid group, cattle were given 250 g/d of fatty acid with the same diet of the control diet group. In the excess concentrate group, cattle were given the same diet of the control diet group plus 735 g/d of concentrate corresponding to the same TDN of 250 g/d of fatty acid. Diets were given for 7 days. Body weight gain of cattle given dietary fatty acid was significantly greater than that of cattle fed only rice straw and concentrate. When dietary fatty acid was added to cattle feed, plasma NEFA and HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased. In expt. 2, the influence of dietary fatty acid on gas production and VFA profile in the rumen liquid was investigated in vitro. In the control group, 10 mg of rice straw and 90 mg of concentrate were incubated in the rumen fluid. In the excess concentrate group, 10 mg of rice straw and 97.5 mg of concentrate were incubated. In the fatty acid group, 10 mg of rice straw, 90 mg of concentrate and 2.5 mg of fatty acids were incubated. The rumen liquid mixed with feed materials was incubated for 24 h and the cumulative gas volume was measured. The VFA profile was also measured. Cumulative gas volume in the rumen liquid with fatty acid was equal to the control. Excess concentrate increased cumulative gas volume compared to the fatty acid group. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration between experimental diet groups. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid has the potency to improve growth performance in fattening cattle without failure in rumen fermentation.

A Study on Fatty Acid Profiles of Eggs in Older Laying Hens fed Diets Supplemented with Bentonite (벤토나이트를 산란노계 사료에 첨가시 계란의 지방산조성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, In Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.341-344
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary bentonite supplementation on the fatty acid profiles of eggs in older laying hens. A total of 90 Hy-line Brown layers, 74 weeks of age, were confined in 6 wire cages and then assigned randomly to two groups to receive one of the two diets (3 replicates of 15 older layers each) containing 0 and 0.2% bentonite for 4 weeks. After the 4-week feeding trial, no remarkable differences in individual fatty acid, saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), and mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels were found. However, linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and UFA/SFA ratio were influenced by 0.2% bentonite. In conclusion, supplementation with 0.2% bentonite improved the profiles of PUFA more than those of SFA, UFA, and MUFA inthe eggs of the older laying hens.