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A Experimental Study on the Material Charateristics of Crushed Aggregate Produced in Quarry (석산에서 생산되는 부순골재의 재료 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Baek Dong-Il;Youm Chi-Sun;Kim Myung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.569-579
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    • 2005
  • An investigation for long-term strength characteristics of crushed sand concrete using crushed sands produced in Yang-san, Kim-hae and Jin-hae that can be assumed to respectively represent eastern, middle and western suburbs of Busan has been carried out. Concrete is composed of 70~80% of aggregates in whole volume so the effect of aggregates quality to the characteristics of concrete is very important. Since 1980s, aggregates used in concrete have already been substituted crushed stone because of the exhaustion of natural gravel and sand. Crushed sand tends to increase in using quantity because of the prohibition of sea sand picking and deterioration of river sand. Crushed sand is blended with river sand in order to investigate the quality changes and characteristics of concrete as variation of blend ratio of crushed sand (n, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100%). Slump and air content were measured to investigate the properties of fresh concrete. Unit weight, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity in age of 7, 28, 60, n, 180 days were measured to investigate properties of hardened concrete. Compressive strength, unit weight and modulus of elasticity were increased with a passage of time and they are expected to keep on increasing in long-term age as well. The experimental results of the qualifies of crushed aggregates in each producing area, were all satisfied with Korea Standard. The results of the measurement of slump exposed that slump preferably decreased as mixing rate increased till 70~80% but it increased to mixing rate 70~80%. The air content was exposed that it decreased by micro filler phenomenon according to that crushed sand b)ended ratio increased. According to the result of measuring unit weight in age of 7, 28, 60, 90, 180days, it increased in accordance with that blended ratio of crushed aggregates increases. As a result of measuring compressive strength and modulus of elasticity in age of 7, 28, 50, 90, 180days, compressive strength was highest when it is 70% of blended ratio.

Effects of specimens dimension on the flexural properties and testing reliability of dental composite resin (치과용 복합레진의 굽힘 특성과 시험 신뢰도에 미치는 시편 크기의 영향)

  • Im, Yong-Woon;Hwang, Seong-sig;Kim, Sa-hak;Lee, Hae-Hyoung
    • Korean Journal of Dental Materials
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.273-280
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    • 2017
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of specimen dimension on the flexural properties and testing reliability of dental composite resin. The composite resin was prepared experimentally by mixing a resin matrix with silanated micrometer glass filler at 50 vol%. Flexural specimens with various dimension in specimen's width were fabricated by light curing using a split metal mold; $25{\times}2{\times}2mm$, $25{\times}2{\times}4mm$, $25{\times}2{\times}6mm$ in length ${\times}$ height ${\times}$ width. The flexural strength and modulus were determined according to ISO 4049 test protocol at a span length of 20 mm (normal-flexural strength; NFS). Another flexural test was conducted using mini-sized specimens ($12{\times}2{\times}2mm$, $12{\times}2{\times}4mm$, $12{\times}2{\times}6mm$) from the broken specimens at a span length of 10 mm (mini-flexural strength; MFS). Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test and the test reliability was evaluated by Weibull analysis. Results showed that there are generally no significant difference in flexural strength with the increase in the specimen width in NFS and MFS tests. However, the test reliability of flexural strength based on Weibull analysis was largely changed with the variables in the dimension of width and span length. The flexural modulus of NFS was increased as the dimension of specimens width increased while there was no trend in flexural modulus of MFS test. Overall results recommend that the evaluation of flexural properties and the reliability of dental composite resins should be performed with more than one test method.

Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour-Polypropylene Composites: Effects of Wood Species, Filler Particle Size and Coupling Agent (목분-폴리프로필렌 복합재의 기계적 특성: 목재수종, 충진제 입자크기 및 상용화제의 영향)

  • Kang, In-Aeh;Lee, Sun-Young;Doh, Geum-Hyun;Chun, Sang-Jin;Yoon, Seung-Lak
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.505-516
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    • 2009
  • The effects of wood species, particle size of wood flours and coupling treatment on the mechanical properties of wood plastic composites (WPC) are investigated in this study. Chemical components of wood flour from 3 different wood species were analyzed by the chemical analysis. Wood flours of 40~60 mesh and 80~100 mesh were manufactured from Larix (Larix kaempferi Lamb.), Quercus (Quercus accutisima Carr.), and Maackia (Maackia amuresis Rupr. et Maxim). The wood flours were reinforced into polypropylene (PP) by melt compounding and injection molding, then tensile, flexural, and impact strength properties were analyzed. The order of alpha-cellulose content in wood is Quercus (43.6%), Maackia (41.3%) and Larix (36.2%). The order of lignin content in wood is Larix (31.6%), Maackia (24.7%), and Quercus accutisima (24.4%). The content of extractives in wood is in the order of Larix (8.5%), Maackia (4.4%), and Quercus accutisima (3.9%). As the content of alpha-cellulose increases and the lignin and extractives decreases, tensile and flexural strengths of the WPC increase. At the same loading level of wood flours, the smaller particle size (80~100 mesh) of wood flours showed highly improved tensile and flexural strengths, compared to the larger one (40~60 mesh). The impact strength of the WPC was not significantly affected by the wood species, but the wood flours of larger particle size showed better impact strengths. The addition of maleated polypropylene (MAPP) provided the highly improved tensile, flexural and impact strengths. Morphological analysis shows improved interfacial bonding with MAPP treatment for the composites.

Study on the Development and Properties of Ceramics Restoration Purpose Urethane resin with Excellent Reversibility (가역성이 우수한 도자기 복원용 Urethane resin의 개발 및 물성에 대한 연구)

  • Oh, Seung Jun;Park, Gi Jung;Wi, Koang Chul
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2015
  • In the case of adhesives & restoration agents currently being used for the preservation treatment of ceramics and earthenware, epoxy type, cellulose type and cellulose type are mainly being used. However, they are showing various problems such as re-detachment from severe contraction, color change from yellowing, work inconvenience of staining on tools and hand during usage and irreversibility. For the purpose of solving the issues of yellowing and irreversibility of epoxy resin being used to restore ceramics, urethane synthetic resin with low yellowing excellent reversibility has been developed in this study. The adhesive strength of urethane resin that has been developed has excellent properties with 2.07MPa for undiluted solution, which is 1.5 times higher than that of existing material EPO-$TEK301^{(R)}$ 1.21MPa. The result of workability measurement showed that the wear rate of urethane resin (in Talc 50wt%) was 1.09%, which was somewhat higher than that of existing material Quick $Wood^{(R)}$ (1.02%). In addition, its wear rate is two times higher than that of $EPO-TEK301^{(R)}$ (0.41%) and $L30^{(R)}$ (0.39%), thereby showing an advantage in its forming process compared to existing materials. As for the advantage of urethane resin of reversibility experiment, 12 hours after acetone, ethyl alcohol deposition, urethane resin and filler talc were dissolved 100% while showing powdering phenomenon. Compared to 0% reversibility of existing epoxy resin, it has much superior reversibility. The result of UV rays experiment to evaluate its durability showed that ${\Delta}E^*ab$ color change value based on undiluted solution of urethane resin was 2.76 before & after UV rays exposure, which was a decrease by about 7-20 times compared to that of existing resin, thereby minimizing the issue of heterogeneity.

Particle Size Analysis of Nano-sized Talc Prepared by Mechanical Milling Using High-energy Ball Mill (고에너지 볼 밀을 이용한 나노 활석의 형성 및 입도 분석)

  • Kim, Jin Woo;Lee, Bum Han;Kim, Jin Cheul;Kim, Hyun Na
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2018
  • Talc, hydrous magnesium phyllosilicate, is one of the most popular industrial minerals due to their chemical stability and adsorptivity. While micro-sized talc has long been used as a filler and coating, nano-sized talc recently is attracting attention as additives for improving the stability of nanocomposites. In this study, we produced the nano-sized talc powder by mechanical method using high energy ball mill and investigated the changes in particle size and crystallinity with increasing milling time up to 720 minutes. X-ray diffraction results show that the peak width of talc gradually as the milling proceeded, and after 720 minutes of pulverization, the talc showed an amorphous-like X-ray diffraction pattern. Lase diffraction particle size analysis presents that particle size of talc which was ${\sim}12{\mu}m$ decreased to ${\sim}0.45{\mu}m$ as the milling progressed, but no significant reduction of particle size was observed even after grinding for 120 minutes or more. BET specific surface area, however, steadily increases up to the milling time of 720 minutes, indicating that the particle size and morphology change steadily as the milling progressed. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images shows that layered particles of about 100 to 300 nm was aggregated as micro-sized particles after pulverization for 720 minutes. As the grinding time increases, the particle size and morphology of talc continuously change, but the nano-sized talc particles form micro sized agglomerates. These results suggest that there is a critical size along the a, b axes in which the size of plates is reduced even though the grinding proceeds, and the reduction of plate thickness along the c axis leads the increase in specific surface area with further grinding. This study could enhance the understanding of the mechanism of the formation of nano-sized talc by mechanical grinding.

EXPRESSION OF BMP4, BMP6 FOLLOWING SINUS ELEVATION WITH DBBP IN RABBIT (가토 상악동 점막 거상 후 DBBP를 이식재로 사용시 BMP4, BMP6의 발현)

  • Lee, Hyun-Suk;Heo, Hyun-A;Pyo, Sung-Woon;Lee, Won
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.467-473
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    • 2007
  • The most important factor for successful implantation is osseointegration between the implant and bone. The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation would differ after maxillary sinus elevation. And within the same graft material. the expression of BMPs would change with time after graft. The aim of this study was to compare the relative expressions of BMP4 and BMP6 using real-time RT-PCR when maxillary sinus elevation was performed using deproteinated bovine bone powder (DBBP) as the graft material or absorbable gelatin sponge (AGS) as the filler without any graft material. Fifteen rabbits, each weighing between 3.0 to 3.5 Kg, were divided randomly into 5 groups of 3 animals each based on their time of sacrifice 0, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days). After exposure of the maxillary sinus bilaterally, bone graft was performed in the right maxillary sinus using DBBP ($BBP^{(R)}$ Oct Inc., Cheonan, Korea) and only AGS ($Gelfoam^{(R)}$ Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, MI, U.S.A) was placed into the left without any graft material. Each group of rabbits was sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 days after operation and all specimens were harvested. And the following results were obtained using real-time RT-PCR from isolated total RNA of the samples. 1. The expression of BMP4 increased at postoperative 1 and 3 days in both DBBP group and AGS group. In AGS group. it decreased at postoperative 5 days. increased again at postoperative 7 days, and decreased at postoperative 9 days. In DBBP group, it increased until postoperative 7 days and decreased at postoperative 9 days. Although the expression of BMP4 was higher in DBBP group compared with AGS group, it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). 2. The expression of BMP6 increased at postoperative 1 and 3 days in both DBBP group and AGS group. In AGS group, it decreased at postoperative 5 days, increased again at postoperative 7 days, and decreased at postoperative 9 days. In DBBP group, it increased until postoperative 7 days and decreased at postoperative 9 days. Although the expression of BMP6 was higher in AGS group compared with DBBP group, it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). 3. There was no statistically significant difference in BMP expression in both groups during same period of time. It' s probably because DBBP and AGS both functioned as a space retainer so that the BMP expression in blood clot seemed to be similar. 4. Thus, DBBP would not offer many benefits for early bone regeneration compared with AGS. The expression of BMP in early bone formation seems to be more influenced by physical carrier rather than the graft type.

PROPERTIES OF FLUORIDE-RELEASING RESIN COMPOSITE RESTORATIVE MATERIALS (불소방출성 콤포짓트 레진계 수복재의 특성)

  • Kim, Sang-Hoon;Baik, Byeong-Ju;Kim, Jae-Gon;Yang, Yeon-Mi;Park, Jeong-Yeol
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.418-426
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the properties of fluoride-releasing resin composite restorative materials. Four commercially available compomer materials (Compoglass F: CF, $Dyract^{(R)}$ AP: DA, $Dyract^{(R)}$ flow: DF, F2000: FT) and one fluoride-releasing composite resin ($Tetric^{(R)}$ Ceram: TC) were selected as experimental materials. Rectangular-shaped tensile test specimens were fabricated in a teflon mold giving 5mm in gauge length and 2mm in thickness. Disk-shaped specimens were fabricated in the split teflon mold with diameter of 15mm and thickness of 1mm. After curing for an hour, specimens were immersed in deionized water at $37^{\circ}C{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 30 days. All specimens were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles with 15 seconds of dwelling time in each $5^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$ water baths. Toothbrush abrasion test was conducted under a load of 1.5 N and the abraded surfaces were examined with surface roughness tester (SV-3000, Mitutoyo Co, Japan) and SEM (JSM-5800, JEOL, Japan). Fluoride recharging was done by toothbrushing for 3 min. using a fluoride toothpaste (Perio Alpine Herb, LG Household & Health Care, Korea). The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. The highest tensile strength value of 32.3 MPa was observed in TC group and the lowest value of 16.8 MPa was observed in CF group. The tensile strength of TC group was significantly higher than those of CF and DF groups (P<0.05). 2. The lowest Ra value of 0.287 was observed in TC group and the highest value of 1.516 was observed in FT group. The Ra value of FT group was significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05). 3. The abraded surfaces revealed the increase of surface roughness due to the protrusion and missing of filler particles. 4. The release of fluoride of compomers after tooth brushing by Perio Alpine Herb was initially large and then followed by small and continuously. But it remains small and constant in fluoride-releasing composite resin of TC. 5. The highest value of fluoride release after toothbrushing by Perio Alpine Herb was $2.064{\mu}g/cm^2$ in CF group and the lowest value was $0.1119{\mu}g/cm^2$ in TC group. The amount of fluoride release of CF group was significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05).

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Effect of Fluoride Recharging on Fluoride Release and Surface Properties of Orthodontic Bracket Adhesives (불소 적용 후 교정용 브라켓 접착제 종류에 따른 불소 재흡수성과 표면 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Byeon, Seon Mi
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.218-226
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this study was to compare fluoride release and surface changes according to different orthodontic bracket adhesives the application of fluoride products. We used non-fluoridated composite resin Transbond fluoridated composite resins Blugloo and LightBond, resin-modified glass ionomer Rely $X^{TM}$ Luting 2, and conventional glass ionomer Fuji $I^{(R)}$. Fluoride release of five orthodontic bracket adhesives and fluoride release ability after application of three fluoride products (1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, Tooth Mousse $Plus^{(R)}$, Fluor Protector, and a toothbrush with sodium fluoride-containing toothpaste) were measured using a fluoride electrode that was connected to an ion analyzer. After 4 weeks of fluoride application, the surface roughness and surface morphology were examined using a surface roughness tester and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The amounts of fluoride release were observed not only on application of Tooth Mousse $Plus^{(R)}$ and Fluor Protector on resin-modified glass ionomer Rely $X^{TM}$ Luting 2 and Fuji $I^{(R)}$, but also during tooth brushing using fluoride-containing toothpaste. After application of Tooth Mousse $Plus^{(R)}$, except Transbond XT, the surface roughness increased, and all orthodontic adhesives showed a partial drop of micro-particle filler. On application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel on all orthodontic bracket adhesives, their surface roughness increased. To bond the orthodontic bracket, resin-modified glass ionomer Rely $X^{TM}$ Luting 2 and Fuji $I^{(R)}$ adhesives are highly recommended if the amount of fluoride release is considered to confer a preventative effect on dental caries, and among the fluoride products, Tooth Mousse $Plus^{(R)}$ and Fluor Protector are better than 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, and these are expected to prevent dental caries even during tooth brushing with fluoride-containing toothpaste.

COMPARISON OF POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE AND STRAIN STRESS OF SEVERAL COMPOSITE RESINS USING STRAIN GUAGE (스트레인 게이지를 이용한 수종의 복합레진의 중합수축 및 수축응력의 비교)

  • Kim, Young-Kwang;Yoo, Seung-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.516-526
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    • 2004
  • Polymerization shrinkage of photoinitiation type composite resin cause several clinical problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shrinkage strain stress, linear polymerization shrinkage, compressive strength and microhardness of recently developed composite resins. The composite resins were divided into four groups according to the contents of matrix and filler type. Group I : $Denfil^{TM}$(Vericom, Korea) with conventional matrix, Group II : $Charmfil^{(R)}$(Dentkist, Korea) with microfiller and nanofller mixture, Group III : $Filtek^{TM}$ Z250(3M-ESPE, USA) TEGDMA replaced by UDMA and Bis-EMA(6) in the matrix, and Group IV : $Filtek^{TM}$ Supreme(3M-ESPE, USA) using pure nanofiller. Preparation of acrylic molds were followed by filling and curing with light gun. Strain gauges were attached to each sample and the leads were connected to a strainmeter. With strainmeter shrinkage strain stress and linear polymerization shrinkage was measured for 10 minutes. The data detected at 1 minute and 10 minutes were analysed statistically with ONE-way ANOVA test. To evaluate the mechanical properties of tested materials, compressive hardness test and microhardness test were also rendered. The results can be summarized as follows : 1. Filling materials in acrylic molds showed initial temporary expansion in the early phase of polymerization. This was followed by contraction with the rapid increase in strain stress during the first 1 minute and gradually decreased during post-gel shrinkage phase. After 1 minute, there's no statistical differences of strain stress between groups. The highest strain stress was found in group IV and followed by group III, I, II at 10 minutes-measurement(p>.05). In regression analysis of strain stress, group III showed minimal inclination and followed by group II, I, IV during 1 minute. 2. In linear polymerization shrinkage test, the composite resins in every group showed initial increase of shrinkage velocity during the first 1 minute, followed by gradually decrease of shrinkage velocity. After 1 minute, group IV and group III showed statistical difference(p<.05). After 10 minutes, there were statistical differences between group IV and group I, III(p<.05) and between group II and group III(p<.05). In regression analysis of linear polymerization shrinkage, group II showed minimal inclination and followed by group IV, III, I during 1 minute. 3. In compressive strength test, group III showed the highest strength and followed by group II, IV, I. There were statistical differences between group III and group IV, I(p<.05). 4. In microhardness test, upper surfaces showed higher value than lower surfaces in every group(p<.05).

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Differential Effects of Recovery Efforts on Products Attitudes (제품태도에 대한 회복노력의 차별적 효과)

  • Kim, Cheon-GIl;Choi, Jung-Mi
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.33-58
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    • 2008
  • Previous research has presupposed that the evaluation of consumer who received any recovery after experiencing product failure should be better than the evaluation of consumer who did not receive any recovery. The major purposes of this article are to examine impacts of product defect failures rather than service failures, and to explore effects of recovery on postrecovery product attitudes. First, this article deals with the occurrence of severe and unsevere failure and corresponding service recovery toward tangible products rather than intangible services. Contrary to intangible services, purchase and usage are separable for tangible products. This difference makes it clear that executing an recovery strategy toward tangible products is not plausible right after consumers find out product failures. The consumers may think about backgrounds and causes for the unpleasant events during the time gap between product failure and recovery. The deliberation may dilutes positive effects of recovery efforts. The recovery strategies which are provided to consumers experiencing product failures can be classified into three types. A recovery strategy can be implemented to provide consumers with a new product replacing the old defective product, a complimentary product for free, a discount at the time of the failure incident, or a coupon that can be used on the next visit. This strategy is defined as "a rewarding effort." Meanwhile a product failure may arise in exchange for its benefit. Then the product provider can suggest a detail explanation that the defect is hard to escape since it relates highly to the specific advantage to the product. The strategy may be called as "a strengthening effort." Another possible strategy is to recover negative attitude toward own brand by giving prominence to the disadvantages of a competing brand rather than the advantages of its own brand. The strategy is reflected as "a weakening effort." This paper emphasizes that, in order to confirm its effectiveness, a recovery strategy should be compared to being nothing done in response to the product failure. So the three types of recovery efforts is discussed in comparison to the situation involving no recovery effort. The strengthening strategy is to claim high relatedness of the product failure with another advantage, and expects the two-sidedness to ease consumers' complaints. The weakening strategy is to emphasize non-aversiveness of product failure, even if consumers choose another competitive brand. The two strategies can be effective in restoring to the original state, by providing plausible motives to accept the condition of product failure or by informing consumers of non-responsibility in the failure case. However the two may be less effective strategies than the rewarding strategy, since it tries to take care of the rehabilitation needs of consumers. Especially, the relative effect between the strengthening effort and the weakening effort may differ in terms of the severity of the product failure. A consumer who realizes a highly severe failure is likely to attach importance to the property which caused the failure. This implies that the strengthening effort would be less effective under the condition of high product severity. Meanwhile, the failing property is not diagnostic information in the condition of low failure severity. Consumers would not pay attention to non-diagnostic information, and with which they are not likely to change their attitudes. This implies that the strengthening effort would be more effective under the condition of low product severity. A 2 (product failure severity: high or low) X 4 (recovery strategies: rewarding, strengthening, weakening, or doing nothing) between-subjects design was employed. The particular levels of product failure severity and the types of recovery strategies were determined after a series of expert interviews. The dependent variable was product attitude after the recovery effort was provided. Subjects were 284 consumers who had an experience of cosmetics. Subjects were first given a product failure scenario and were asked to rate the comprehensibility of the failure scenario, the probability of raising complaints against the failure, and the subjective severity of the failure. After a recovery scenario was presented, its comprehensibility and overall evaluation were measured. The subjects assigned to the condition of no recovery effort were exposed to a short news article on the cosmetic industry. Next, subjects answered filler questions: 42 items of the need for cognitive closure and 16 items of need-to-evaluate. In the succeeding page a subject's product attitude was measured on an five-item, six-point scale, and a subject's repurchase intention on an three-item, six-point scale. After demographic variables of age and sex were asked, ten items of the subject's objective knowledge was checked. The results showed that the subjects formed more favorable evaluations after receiving rewarding efforts than after receiving either strengthening or weakening efforts. This is consistent with Hoffman, Kelley, and Rotalsky (1995) in that a tangible service recovery could be more effective that intangible efforts. Strengthening and weakening efforts also were effective compared to no recovery effort. So we found that generally any recovery increased products attitudes. The results hint us that a recovery strategy such as strengthening or weakening efforts, although it does not contain a specific reward, may have an effect on consumers experiencing severe unsatisfaction and strong complaint. Meanwhile, strengthening and weakening efforts were not expected to increase product attitudes under the condition of low severity of product failure. We can conclude that only a physical recovery effort may be recognized favorably as a firm's willingness to recover its fault by consumers experiencing low involvements. Results of the present experiment are explained in terms of the attribution theory. This article has a limitation that it utilized fictitious scenarios. Future research deserves to test a realistic effect of recovery for actual consumers. Recovery involves a direct, firsthand experience of ex-users. Recovery does not apply to non-users. The experience of receiving recovery efforts can be relatively more salient and accessible for the ex-users than for non-users. A recovery effort might be more likely to improve product attitude for the ex-users than for non-users. Also the present experiment did not include consumers who did not have an experience of the products and who did not perceive the occurrence of product failure. For the non-users and the ignorant consumers, the recovery efforts might lead to decreased product attitude and purchase intention. This is because the recovery trials may give an opportunity for them to notice the product failure.

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