• Title, Summary, Keyword: Filler

Search Result 1,854, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Cell Radius & Guard Band Requirements by Mutual Interference Investigation between Satellite Digital Systems using Gap-filler (Gap-filler를 이용하는 위성 DMB 시스템 간의 상호간섭분석에 의한 보호대역 및 적정 셀 반경 설정)

  • Cha Insuk;Park SungHo;Chang KyungHi;You Heung-Ryeol
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
    • /
    • v.30 no.6A
    • /
    • pp.499-509
    • /
    • 2005
  • The capacity of Satellite DMB(Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) system is limited mainly by the interference. So, to achieve the expected performance of Satellite DMB system and to minimize the interference from other Satellite DMB system, ACI(Adjacent Channel Interference) should be considered carefully. Satellite DMB system uses the Gap-filler for effective transmission in terrestrial environment, and the Gap-filler can use direct amplification or frequency conversion to satisfy the specific requirements. Therefore, amplified signal causes several effects on interference between System A(Eureka 147 DAB) and System E(ISDB : Integrated services Digital Broadcasting). In this paper, by using the outcome of system-level simulation considering the results of link-level simulation, we analyze the interferences between System A and System E under practical situation based on the exact parameters of ITU-R BO. 1130-4. We also propose the appropriate level of guard band and Cell Radius to optimize system capacity by adapting the spectrum mask given in the spec. and utilizing the interference analysis between System A and System E.

Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zone by Types of Repair Welding Filler Metals and Post Weld Heat Treatment

  • Lee, Sung-Yul;Moon, Kyung-Man;Lee, Yeon-Chang;Kim, Yun-Hae;Jeong, Jae-Hyun
    • International Journal of Ocean System Engineering
    • /
    • v.2 no.4
    • /
    • pp.209-213
    • /
    • 2012
  • Recently, the fuel using in the diesel engines of marine ships has been changed to a low quality of heavy oil because of the steady increase in the price of oil. Therefore, the wear and corrosion in all parts of the engine such as the cylinder liner, piston crown, and spindle and seat ring of exhaust valves has correspondingly increased. The repair welding of a piston crown is a unique method for prolonging its lifetime from an economic point of view. In this case, filler metals with a high corrosion and wear resistance are mainly being used for repair welding. However, often at a job site on a ship, a piston crown is actually welded with mild filler metals. Therefore, in this study, mild filler metals such as CSF350H, E8000B2, and 435 were welded to SS401 steel as the base metal, and the corrosion properties of the weld metals with and without post weld heat treatment were investigated using some electrochemical methods in a 0.1% $H_2SO_4$ solution. The weld metal welded with CSF350H filler metal exhibited the best corrosion resistance among these filler metals, irrespective of the heat treatment. However, the weld metal zones of the E8000B2 and 435 filler metals exhibited better and worse corrosion resistance with the heat treatment, respectively. As a result, it is suggested that in the case of repair welding with CSF350H and 435 filler metals, no heat treatment is advisable, while heat treatment is desirable if E8000B2filler metal is used with repair welding.

Influence of Inorganic Filler on Properties of EPDM Compounds (무기 충전제가 EPDM 배합물의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sung-Seen;Kim, Ok-Bae
    • Elastomers and Composites
    • /
    • v.46 no.2
    • /
    • pp.138-143
    • /
    • 2011
  • EPDM compounds and vulcanizates containing inorganic filler such as talc, calcium carbonate, or clay as well as carbon black were prepared, and the influence of inorganic filler on properties of the EPDM compounds and vulcanizates were investigated. The bound rubber contents did not significantly increase even though the inorganic filler was added. There were big aggregates in the EPDM samples with high loading inorganic filler. By adding the inorganic filler, the cure times tended to increase and the delta torque decreased. The modulus were on the whole decreased, whereas the elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were increased by adding the inorganic filler. The decreased modulus and increased elongation at break can be explained with the decreased delta torque, the increases of tensile strength and tear strength can be explained with the increased elongation at break. By adding the inorganic filler, level of reinforcing in the EPDM compounds did not increase and the crosslink density decreased.

Selection and Conservation for the Filler of Three-storied Stone Pagoda at the West of Gameunsaji Site in Gyeongju (경주 감은사지서삼층석탑 충전제 선정과 보존처리)

  • Lee, Tae-Jong;Kim, Sa-Dug;Gal, Seo-Yeon
    • Journal of Conservation Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.361-370
    • /
    • 2010
  • The open pore of stone cultural heritage is not expected to have an effect only by consolidation, and it has a drawback that only the internal wall adheres and gets consolidated due to the incrase of liquidity caused by the low viscosity and difference of materials in the case of filling with high molecules synthetic resins. Therefore, this research selected the effective filler for Three-storied Stone Pagoda at the West of Gameunsaji Site through the verification of filling effects of materials using the information about various fillers based on minerals. As the result of filler experiment, got filled with the combination of KSE 500 STE + KSE Filler A${\cdot}$KSE Filler B that is the same as the Member or has very similar properties. The total surface area of the west stone is $252.6m^2$ and the area where the internal opening has been developed is $17.77m^2$(7.03%) requiring a task that fills the internal($24,885m{\ell}$).

Effect of Filler Types on Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive for Plywood (충전제의 종류가 합판용 페놀수지 접착제에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Yong-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.48-52
    • /
    • 1998
  • Residues such as walnut, pinenut and peanut shells were used as a filler in adhesive for bonding radiata pine plywood. The nutshell residues were prepared by simply drying to 8% moisture content and grinding the dry material using a laboratory Wiley mill with a $75{\mu}m$ (200 mesh) screen. The nutshells residues were compared to a commercial filler commonly used in adhesives by the structural plywood and laminated veneer lumber industry in the United States. The adhesive mixes were made by following the recommended procedure of Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc., using phenol-formaldehyde resin. For each filler type, three-ply plywoods, 6 mm nominal thickness and 30 by 30 cm in size, were fabricated at two press times (4 and 5 min) and around 30 minute assembly time. Evaluations of the nutshell residues were carried out by tension shear tests after cyclic boil tests on plywood. The results of the performance test included tension shear strength and wood failure. All plywoods made with the nutshell fillers were comparable to those made with the control filler. These results indicate that nutshell residues would be suitable as filler for plywood adhesives.

  • PDF

Starch-Fatty Complex Modified Filler for Papermaking

  • Yoon, Se-Young;Deng, Yulin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.79-84
    • /
    • 2006
  • In order to improve filler-fiber bonding in paper, starch-filler composites were prepared by a starch-fatty acid complex formation method. These composites were used as a papermaking filler to improve the physical properties of the paper, filler retention and the sizing effect. The solubility of the starch-fatty acid complex in water at different temperatures was measured. The results indicated that the starch-fatty acid complexes have very low solubility in water below $70^{\circ}C$, which can be easily coated on clay surface to modify clay-fiber bonding ability. The clay-starch composite filled handsheets showed that paper strength could increase more than $100{\sim}200%$ compared to untreated clay. It was found that ZDT of the handsheet decreased as the clay content increased when unmodified clay was used, but it increased when the starch-fatty acid composite modified filler was used. It was also found that the presence of fatty acide in the complex increased the water-repellant property of the handsheet, which can be used to aid in sizing during papermaking. Filler distribution and bonding characteristics between the composite and fiber were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM).

  • PDF

Study on a Change of Mechanical Property of denture Resin by Carbon Fiber Filler Content (탄소섬유 첨가에 따른 의치상 레진의 탄성력 관찰)

  • Kim, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
    • /
    • v.36 no.3
    • /
    • pp.165-169
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study is a mechanical strength supplementation of denture base resin Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is in general use for denture base resin of the partial and full denture, however, The polymerization process of PMMA is not stabilized. Because of compatibility problems, preceding studies were performed, which were enhancing mechanical strength(Camilo Machado 2007),(Ana M. 2008), addition filler to materials property(Ayse Mese, 2008), self curing method(Hiroshi Shimizu, 2008). Methods: The carbon fiber and polyacetal filler, reinforced the mechanical strength for improving the stability of denture base resin were supplemented to the self cured resin. The Modulus of elasticity and the restoring force were calculated by tensile test. Results: The strengths of the heat and self cured resin were respectively decreased and increased, when the filler was supplemented to the denture base resin and the modulus of elasticity of both heat and self cured resin were not increased, when the filler was supplemented to the denture base resin. Conclusion: The restoring forces of self cured resin containing 10% filler were increased, when the filler was supplemented to the denture base resin.

Recycled Polypropylene (PP) - Wood Saw Dust (WSD) Composites : The Effect of Acetylation on Mechanical and Water Absorption Properties

  • Khalil, H.P.S.A.;Shahnaz, S.B. Sharifah;Ratnam, M.M.;Issam, A.M;Ahmad, Faiz;Fuaad, N.A Nik
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.34 no.2
    • /
    • pp.10-21
    • /
    • 2006
  • Recycled polypropylene (RPP) - Wood Saw Dust (WSD) composites with and without acetylation of filler were produced at different filler loading (15%, 25%, 35% and 45% w/w) and filler size (300, 212 and $100{\mu}m$). The RPP-WSD was compounded using a Haake Rheodrive 500 twin screw compounder at $190^{\circ}C$ at 8 MPa for 30 minutes. The mechanical properties and water absorption properties of modified and unmodified WSD-PP composites were investigated. Acetylation of WSD improved the mechanical and water absorption characteristic of composites. The decrease of filler size (300 to $100{\mu}m$) of the unmodified and acetylated WSD showed increase of tensile strength and impact properties. The composites exhibited higher tensile modulus properties as the filler loading increased (15% to 45%). However tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength showed the opposite phenomenon. Water absorption increased as the mesh number and filler loading increased. With acetylation, lower moisture absorption was observed as compared to unmodified WSD. The failure mechanism from impact fracture of the filler-matrix interface with and without acetylation was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

Effects of filler addition to bonding agents on shear bond strength (FILLER함량이 BONDING AGENT의 전단접착강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Young;Oh, Myung-Hwan;Cho, Byeong-Hoon;Son, Ho-Hyun;Kwon, Hyuk-Choon;Um, Chung-Moon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.44-53
    • /
    • 2002
  • 목적 : 최근 개발된 bonding agent 중 일부는 다양한 함량의 filler를 포함하고 있으며 filler의 첨가는 bonding agent의 기계적인 물성을 향상시킴으로써 접착력의 향상에 기여한다는 주장이 있다. 본 연구에서는 다양한 함량의 filler를 포함한 adhesive를 실험적으로 만들어, filler의 함량이 전단접착강도에 미치는 영향을 살펴보고 임상적으로 가장 적절한 filler의 함량을 알아보고자 하였다. 또 adhesive의 간접인장강도를 측정하여 adhesive의 기계적인 물성과 접착력과의 상관관계를 알아보았다. 방법 : 발거된 건전한 70개의 대구치를 투명 레진에 매몰하고 상아질면을 노출시켰다. 3M사의 Scotchbond Multipurpose의 etchant와 primer를 제조사의 지시대로 적용하고 1$\mu\textrm{m}$크기의 barium glass filler를 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45wt% 포함하도록 실험적으로 제작한 adhesive를 도포한 후 레진을 충전하여 시편을 완성하였다. Instron으로 0.5mm/min의 속도에서 전단접착강도를 측정하고 그 단면을 입체현미경으로 관찰하여 파절의 양상을 확인하였다. Filler함량에 따른 adhesive의 후경을 측정하기 위해 상기한 방법으로 시편을 제작하여 주사 전자현미경으로 관찰한 후 Sigmascan을 이용하여 그 후경을 측정하였다. 또, 지름 4mm 높이 6mm의 원통형 시편을 제작하여 Instron로 간접인장강도의 측정을 시행하였다. 얻어진 결과는 Kruskal-Wallis test와 Mann-Whitney test를 시행하여 분석하였으며, 상관관계를 분석을 위해 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient를 구하였다. 결과 : 1) Filler함유량에 따라 전단접착강도는 유의할 만한 차이를 보였다(p<0.05). 2) Filler함량의 증가에 따라 전단접착강도는 유의하게 증가하여 15% 수준에서 가장 높은 갈(19.9$\pm$1.38Mpa)을 보였으며 20% 이상의 수준에서는 유의하게 감소하였다(p<0.05). 3) Adhesive의 간접인장강도는 20% 수준까지는 증가하는 양상을 보였으나 통계적 유의성은 없었으며(p>0.05), 30% 이상에서는 유의할 만한 감소를 보였다(p<0.05). 4) Adhesive의 후경은 0% 수준에서 5.97$\pm$1.23$\mu\textrm{m}$부터 45%수준에서 73.37$\pm$11.7$\mu\textrm{m}$까지 유의하게 증가하였다(p<0.05). 5) Filler함량에 따른 Adhesive의 간접인장강도와 전단접착강도는 상관관계가 없었다.