• Title, Summary, Keyword: Flammulina velutipes

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Ash Reduction and the Change of Fuel Properties for Spent Mushroom Substrates by Acid Solution Extraction (산(acid) 첨가 용매 추출에 의한 폐버섯배지 회분 감소 및 연료특성 변화)

  • Lee, Eun-Jee;Oh, Doh-gun;Kim, Sun-Mee;Park, Eun-Suk;We, Sung-Gook
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2010
  • The ash reduction effects and fuel property changes of spent mushroom substrates by acid solution extraction, and the production possibilities of wood pellet fuel using them were studied. The ash weight of spent Pleurotus eryngii substrates was reduced from 8.81%(w/w) to 3.33%(w/w), and calorific value was increased from 3,958.3 kcal/kg to 4219.2 kcal/kg when extracted with a mixture of Acetic acid 2%(w/w) and Anhydrous citric acid 1%(w/w) in condition of liquid ratio 1:8, extraction temperature $55^{\circ}C$ and extraction time 180 min. The ash weight of spent Flammulina velutipes substrates was reduced from 14.91%(w/w) to 4.07%(w/w), and calorific value was increased from 4,190.3 kcal/kg to 4,219.2 kcal/kg when extracted with a mixture of Acetic acid 3%(w/w) and Anhydrous citric acid 1%(w/w) in condition of liquid ratio 1:8, extraction temperature $65^{\circ}C$ and extraction time 180 min. The ash weight of spent Pleurotus osteratus substrates was reduced from 3.31%(w/w) to 0.59%(w/w), and the smallest reduction was in calorific value from 4,558.6 kcal/kg to 4,216.2 kcal/kg when extracted with a mixture of Acetic acid 1%(w/w) and Anhydrous citric acid 1%(w/w) in condition of liquid ratio 1:8, extraction temperature $65^{\circ}C$ and extraction time 180 min.

Pseudomonas azotoformans HC5 Effective in Antagonistic of Mushrooms Brown Blotch Disease Caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii (버섯 세균갈색무늬병균(Pseudomonas tolaasii)에 항균활성을 가지는 미생물 Pseudomonas azotoformans HC5)

  • Lee, Chan-Jung;Yoo, Young-Mi;Han, Ju-Yeon;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Cheong, Jong-Chun;Moon, Ji-Won;Gong, Won-Sik;Suh, Jang-Sun;Han, Hye-Su;Cha, Jae-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2014
  • A gram-negative bacterium was isolated from spent substrate of Agaricus bisporus and showed marked antagonistic activity against Pseudomonas tolaasii. The bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans by based on the cultural, biochemical and physiological characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolated bacterium was saprophytic but not parasitic nor pathogenic to cultivation mushroom. The isolated bacterium for P. tolaasii cell was not sufficient for inhibition in vitro. Control efficacy of Pseudomonas azotoformans HC5 to brown blotch of P. tolaasii was 73, 78, and 71% on A. bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. In the future, the suppressive bacterium may be useful for development of a biocontrol system.

Occurrences of Major Mushroom Diseases and Microbial Densities of Mushroom Cultivation Facilities (국내 주요 버섯류의 병해 발생과 재배사의 미생물 밀도 조사)

  • An, Yu-Na;Jang, Bo-Ra;Kim, Myun-Su;Weon, Hang-Yeon;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Cheon, Se-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.144-149
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    • 2009
  • The occurrences of the major diseases and the densities of air-born microbes were surveyed in the cultivation facilities for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii), and enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) in different areas of Korea. Green mold disease was most often developed in oyster mushroom bed cultivation with the disease incidence rate of approximate 10% while the disease incidences from bottle and plastic envelop cultivation were less than 1~2%. In the bed cultivation, the major air-born microbes in the growth room were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Curvularia with the total fungal population density of 567~1,297 CFU/$m^3$ . However, only Trichoderma and Penicillium were detected in the growth rooms and innoculation rooms of bottle and plastic envelop cultivation with the densities of 350~700 CFU/$m^3$ and 160~260 CFU/$m^3$, respectively. The bacterial diseases become evident in the growth rooms of bottle and plastic envelop cultivation with the approximate incidence rate of 10%. The identified bacterial species were Brevibacillus levelkil, Rhizobium radiobacter, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas mosselii, Microbacterium testaceum. Sphingomonas panmi, Sphingomonas yabuuchiae, Paracocus dinitrificans, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens and some unidentified bacteria with the densities of 40~6,359 CFU/$m^3$ in the growth rooms and 9 CFU/$m^3$ in the inoculation room. This study indicated that the green mold disease by fungal strains was the major mushroom disease in the bed cultivation and suggested that the contamination of bacteria and fungi together in the growth media could result in severe production loss. The plastic envelope and bottle cultivation were evidenced to be less susceptible to such contaminations.

Effect of Fermentation Periods on the Qualities and Physiological Functionalities of the Mushroom Fermentation Broth (발효기간이 버섯 발효액의 품질과 생리 기능성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Na-Mi;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.28-33
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    • 2003
  • To establish the optimal fermentation periods in the manufacture of mushroom fermentation foods using sugar, changes of quality characteristics of the mushrooms fermentation broth were investigated with changes of enzyme activity and physiological functionality during fermentation. Viscosity, L value (lightness), a value (redness) and b value (yellowness) were significantly decreased after 3 months of fermentation and after that, increased. In sensory evaluation test, unique flavors and tastes of mushrooms in the fermented broth were decreased during fermentation, whereas the other tastes and flavors were gradually increased. Overall acceptability was the highest in the 3 months of fermentation broth. ${\alpha}-Amylase$ activities of the fermented broth were significantly increased to 1 month of fermentation, however invertase and cellulose activities were low or not detected in the fermented broth. Antioxidant activities were the highest in 4 months of fermentation and after that, decreased. Tyrosinase inhibitory activities were high in all samples and they were not changed during fermentation. SOD-like activity was high in the fermentation broth of Flammulina velutipes and it was also not changed during fermentation. In conclusion, optimal fermentation periods in the manufacture of mushroom fermentation foods using sugar was 3 or 4 months.

Monitoring of Artificial Radionuclides in Edible Mushrooms in Korea (식용 버섯류에서의 인공 방사능 농도 조사)

  • Cho, Han-Gil;Kim, Ji-eun;Lee, Sung-nam;Moon, Su-kyong;Park, Yong-Bae;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.488-494
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    • 2018
  • To ensure food-safety of mushrooms from radioactive contamination, edible mushroom samples distributed in Gyeonggi province in Korea were collected according to species and country of origin. A total of 284 mushrooms, belonging to 10 species (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Phellinus linteus, Inonotus Obliquus (Chaga), Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma lucidum and Tricholoma matsutake) were subjected to radioactivity testing. The concentration of artificial radionuclides, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, was analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. 131I and 134Cs were not detected more than MDA value from all samples. Among 204 domestic mushrooms, however, 137Cs were detected in 0.21~2.58 Bq/kg from six cases (3 Lentinula edodes, 1 Ganoderma lucidum and 2 Tricholoma matsutake), whereas 137Cs were detected in 0.21~53.79 Bq/kg from 38 cases (22 Inonotus Obliquus(Chaga), 14 Phellinus linteus, 1 Lentinula edodes and 1 Tricholoma matsutake) among 80 imported mushrooms. In addition, average concentration of 137Cs in 10 Chaga mushroom-processed products was more than twice as much as dried Chaga mushroom, and maximum concentration was 123.79 Bq/kg. Results suggest that radioactivity monitoring system for imported mushrooms and mushroom-processed products should be continuously intensified to secure food-safety in Korea.

Physicochemical components of Astragalus membranaceus fermented with mushroom mycelia (담자균 균사체가 배양된 황기의 이화학적 성분분석)

  • Jang, Yeon-Jeong;Lee, Yun-Hye;Lee, Chan-Jung;Kim, Jae-Hyeon;Kim, Eun-Ju;Ji, Soo-Jeong;Park, Shin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzed the physicochemical characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) fermented with seven different mushroom mycelia. Physicochemical characteristics, such as contents of moisture, pH, total reducing sugars, free sugar, and isoflavonoid, were investigated. The moisture content was increased in most of the samples. The pH values of AM fermented with Phellinus linteus and Flammulina velutipes were increased, while the pH of other samples were similar to that of non-fermented AM. The reducing sugar content was in the range of 211.69~391.74 mg/100 g. The extraction yield using water was higher than that when extracted with 80% ethanol. The free sugar content was increased through fermentation with mushroom mycelia. However, the glucose contents of the 80% ethanol and water extracts were decreased. Finally, the calycosin and formononetin contents in 80% ethanol and water extracts of AM fermented with Phellinus linteus were 2,549.24 mg/g, and 827.66 mg/g for calycosin, and 1,366.69 mg/g and 221.28 mg/g for formononetin, respectively. These results suggest that fermentation with mushroom mycelia could be used to increase the bioactivity of AM. The mycelium-fermented AM might be a valuable source of functional material and edible resource for industry.

Quality standard of Agaricus bisporus in a market and changes of mushroom quality during storage (유통 양송이버섯의 등급별 품질규격 및 저장기간별 품질 변화)

  • Lee, Chan-Jung;Oh, Jin-A;Cheong, Jong-Chun;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Moon, Ji-Won;Kong, Won-Sik;Suh, Jang-Sun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to improve standardization of agricultural products and investigate quality changes during preservation at various treatments. The standardization does much to improve merchantable quality, distribution efficiency and fair dealings by shipping of the standard agricultural products. Mushrooms notified as the standard are five; Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Agaricus bisporus and Ganoderma lucidum. But many farmers are suffering from strict standards. Therefore, modification of these standards is required to fit farmhouse situations. Fruit-body weight of A, B and C grades of the marketed Agaricus bisporus was 19.3g, 12.2g and 10.4, respectively. Average pileus diameter of A grades was 43.3mm but B and C grades did not show significant difference. Average stipe length of A, B and C grades was 9.8mm, 13.1mm and 11.6mm, and stipes thick was the highest in A grades. The weight loss rate of stipe cutting of Agaricus bisporus was 12.6% in harvested mushrooms and the rate of stipe cutting length was 60.8%. The diameter of Agaricus bisporus stored for 5 days was 3.5~4.5cm but decreased rapidly in 15 days. The weight loss rate of the high temperature samples lowered rapidly than that of the low temperature samples. Conversely, the L value of the low temperature samples was higher than that of the high temperature samples.