• Title, Summary, Keyword: Generated aerosols

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Experiment on Collection Characteristics of Sub micron Particles in Two-Stage Parallel-Plate Electrostatic Precipitators (2단 평행판 전기집진기의 서브마이크론 입자 포집특성 실험)

  • Oh, M.D.;Yoo, K.H.
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.237-246
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    • 1994
  • Experimental data are reported for charging and collection of NaCl aerosols in the 0.03- to $0.2{\mu}m$-geometric-mean-diameter range in 2-stage parallel-plate electrostatic precipitators. The NaCl aerosols are generated with geometric standard deviation of about 1.74 and particle generation rate of about 10^9 particles/see by the constant output atomizer and injected into the air flow in the clean wind-tunnel. The 2-stage parallel-plate electrostatic precipitator installed in the test section of the wind-tunnel is operated with a positive corona discharge. The NaCl aerosols in the channel flow are sampled and transported to the aerosol particle number concentration measurement system by using the isoaxial sampling and transport system constructed based on the Okazaki and Willeke design. The aerosol particle number concentration measurement system measures the size distribution of submicrometer aerosols by an electrical mobility detection technique. It is confirmed from comparing the measured collection efficiencies in this study and the predicted ones by our previous theoretical analysis that the predicted collection efficiencies agree well with the experimental ones. It is also found from the comparison that below about $0.02{\mu}m$ all particles are not charged and the uncharged particles are not collected, and consequently 2-stage parallel-plate electrostatic precipitators are not suitable for that particle size range.

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Internal Dose Assessment of Worker by Radioactive Aerosol Generated During Mechanical Cutting of Radioactive Concrete (원전 방사성 콘크리트 기계적 절단의 방사성 에어로졸에 대한 작업자 내부피폭선량 평가)

  • Park, Jihye;Yang, Wonseok;Chae, Nakkyu;Lee, Minho;Choi, Sungyeol
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 2020
  • Removing radioactive concrete is crucial in the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. However, this process generates radioactive aerosols, exposing workers to radiation. Although large amounts of radioactive concrete are generated during decommissioning, studies on the internal exposure of workers to radioactive aerosols generated from the cutting of radioactive concrete are very limited. In this study, therefore, we calculate the internal radiation doses of workers exposed to radioactive aerosols during activities such as drilling and cutting of radioactive concrete, using previous research data. The electrical-mobility-equivalent diameter measured in a previous study was converted to aerodynamic diameter using the Newton-Raphson method. Furthermore, the specific activity of each nuclide in radioactive concrete 10 years after nuclear power plants are shut down was calculated using the ORIGEN code. Eventually, we calculated the committed effective dose for each nuclide using the IMBA software. The maximum effective dose of 152Eu constituted 83.09% of the total dose; moreover, the five highest-ranked elements (152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 239Pu, 55Fe) constituted 99.63%. Therefore, we postulate that these major elements could be measured first for rapid radiation exposure management of workers involved in decommissioning of nuclear power plants, even if all radioactive elements in concrete are not considered.

Visualization of Artificially Deposited Submicron-sized Aerosol Particles on the Surfaces of Leaves and Needles in Trees

  • Yamane, Kenichi;Nakaba, Satoshi;Yamaguchi, Masahiro;Kuroda, Katsushi;Sano, Yuzou;Lenggoro, I. Wuled;Izuta, Takeshi;Funada, Ryo
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2012
  • To understand the effect of aerosols on the growth and physiological conditions of trees in forests, it is important to know the state of aerosols that are deposited on the surface of the leaves or needles. In this study, we developed methods of visualization of submicron-sized aerosols that were artificially deposited from the gas-phase or liquid phase onto tree leaves or needles in trees. Firstly, we used field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to observe black carbon (BC) particles that were artificially sprayed onto the leaves or needles. The distribution of BC particles deposited on the leaves and needles were distinguished based on the size and morphological features of the particles. The distribution and agglomerates size of BC particles differed between two spraying methods of BC particles employed. Secondly, we tried to visualize gold (Au) particles that were artificially sprayed onto the leaves using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) coupled to FE-SEM. We detected the Au particles based on the characteristic X-ray spectrum, which was secondarily generated from the Au particles. In contrast to the case of BC particles, the Au particles did not form agglomerates and were uniformly distributed on the leaf surfaces. The present results show that our methods provide useful information of adsorption and/or behavior of fine particles at the submicron level on the surface of the leaves.

A Study on the Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth according to Aerosol Types in Northeast Asia using Aeronet Sun/Sky Radiometer Data (AERONET 선포토미터 데이터를 이용한 동북아시아 지역 대기 에어로졸 종류별 광학적 농도 변화 특성 연구)

  • Noh, Youngmin
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.668-676
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    • 2018
  • This study has developed a technique to divide the aerosol optical depth of the entire aerosol (${\tau}_{total}$) into the dust optical depth (${\tau}_D$) and the pollution particle optical depth (${\tau}_P$) using the AERONET sun/sky radiometer data provided in Version 3. This method was applied to the analysis of AERONET data observed from 2006 to 2016 in Beijing, China, Seoul and Gosan, Korea and Osaka, Japan and the aerosol optical depth trends of different types of atmospheric aerosols in Northeast Asia were analyzed. The annual variation of ${\tau}_{total}$ showed a tendency to decrease except for Seoul where observation data were limited. However, ${\tau}_D$ tended to decrease when ${\tau}_{total}$ were separated as ${\tau}_D$ and ${\tau}_P$, but ${\tau}_P$ tended to increase except for Osaka. This is because the concentration of airborne aerosols, represented by Asian dust in Northeast Asia, is decreased in both mass concentration and optical concentration. However, even though the mass concentration of pollution particles generated by human activity tends to decrease, Which means that the optical concentration represented as aerosol optical depth is increasing in Northeast Asia.

Carbonaceous Aerosols Generated from Wood Charcoal Production Plants in the South Korea Context

  • Magnone, Edoardo;Park, Seong-Kyu;Park, Jung Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.277-289
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    • 2019
  • Herein, a case study discussing the effect of carbonaceous aerosol pollution, which is emitted during the charcoal kiln manufacturing processes or carbonization processes, on the atmospheric environment is presented . In South Korea, in situ analysis of different charcoal production plants specialized in the production of charcoal sauna indicate that the emitted organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) aerosols are significantly influenced by the nature of the biomass and technological processes, i.e., treatment or emissions abatement systems for the exhaust effluent gases. In detail, total carbon (TC), which is calculated as the sum of OC and EC emission factors, varied widely from a charcoal production site to another ranging from 21.8 to 35.8 gTC/kg-oak, where the mean value for the considered production sites was approximately 28 gTC/kg-oak (N = 7 and sum = 196.4). Results indicate that the emission factors from a modern charcoal production process in South Korea are quantitatively lower in comparison with the traditional kiln. This study aims to propose advanced wood processes for the production of charcoal from the viewpoint of environmental protection policy and green engineering.

Generation of Nano/Submicron Particles Using an Electrically Heated Tube Furnace (전기가열 튜브로를 이용한 나노/서브마이크론 입자의 발생)

  • Ji, Jun-Ho;Pae, Yang-Il;Hwang, Jung-Ho;Bae, Gwi-Nam
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1734-1743
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    • 2003
  • Aerosol generator using an electrically heated tube furnace is a stable apparatus to supply nanometer sized aerosols by using the evaporation and condensation processes. Using this method, we can generate highly concentrated polydisperse aerosols with relatively narrow size distribution. In this work, characteristics of particle size distribution, generated from a tube furnace, were experimentally investigated. We evaluated effects of several operation parameters on particle generation: temperature in the tube furnace, air flow rates through the tube, size of boat containing solid sodium chloride(NaCl). As the temperature increased, the geometric mean diameter increased and the total number concentration also increased. Dilution with air affected the size distribution of the particles due to coagulation. A smaller sized boat, which has small surface area to contact with air, brings smaller particles of narrow size distribution in comparison of that of a larger boat. Finally, we changed the electrical mobility diameter of aggregate sodium chloride particles by varying relative humidity of dilution air, and obtained non-aggregate sodium chloride particles, which are easy to generate exact monodisperse particles.

Design and Performance Evaluation of Electrical Impactor for Nano Environmental Aerosols (나노 환경입자 측정용 전기적 임팩터의 설계 및 성능평가)

  • Ji, Jun-Ho;Cho, Myung-Hoon;Bae, Gwi-Nam;Hwang, Jung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1417-1422
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    • 2003
  • An electrical cascade impactor is a multistage impaction device to separate airborne particles into aerodynamic size classes using electrical method. We designed a real-time three-stage electrical low-pressure impactor, which is proper to nanometer sized environmental aerosols. Performance evaluation was carried out for stage 1 and 2. The monodisperse liquid dioctyl sebacate (DOS) particles were generated using condensation-evaporation followed by electrostatic classification using DMA (differential mobility analizer) for particles with diameters in the range of $0.04{\sim}0.8{\mu}m$. The evaluation of the electrical impactor is based on the use of two electrometers, one connected to the impaction plate of the impactor, and the other to the faraday cage as backup filter. The results showed that the experimental 50% cutoff diameters in the operation pressure were 0.53 and $0.12{\mu}m$ for stage 1 and stage 2. The effect of operation pressure on the cutoff diameter and the steepness of collection effcieicy curves is investigated.

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Comparison of Toxicity and Deposition of Nano-Sized Carbon Black Aerosol Prepared With or Without Dispersing Sonication

  • Kang, Mingu;Lim, Cheol-Hong;Han, Jeong-Hee
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.121-127
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    • 2013
  • Nanotoxicological research has shown toxicity of nanomaterials to be inversely related to particle size. However, the contribution of agglomeration to the toxicity of nanomaterials has not been sufficiently studied, although it is known that agglomeration is associated with increased nanomaterial size. In this study, we prepared aerosols of nano-sized carbon black by 2 different ways to verify the effects of agglomeration on the toxicity and deposition of nano-sized carbon black. The 2 methods of preparation included the carbon black dispersion method that facilitated clustering without sonication and the carbon black dispersion method involving sonication to achieve scattering and deagglomeration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to carbon black aerosols 6 hr a day for 3 days or for 2 weeks. The median mass aerodynamic diameter of carbon black aerosols averaged $2.08{\mu}m$ (for aerosol prepared without sonication; group N) and $1.79{\mu}m$ (for aerosol prepared without sonication; group S). The average concentration of carbon black during the exposure period for group N and group S was $13.08{\pm}3.18mg/m^3$ and $13.67{\pm}3.54mg/m^3$, respectively, in the 3-day experiment. The average concentration during the 2-week experiment was $9.83{\pm}3.42mg/m^3$ and $9.08{\pm}4.49mg/m^3$ for group N and group S, respectively. The amount of carbon black deposition in the lungs was significantly higher in group S than in group N in both 3-day and 2-week experiments. The number of total cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and the number of total white blood cells and neutrophils in the blood in the 2-week experiment were significantly higher in group S than in normal control. However, differences were not found in the inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-$1{\beta}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6, etc.) and protein indicators of cell damage (albumin and lactate dehydrogenase) in the BAL fluid of both group N and group S as compared to the normal control. In conclusion, carbon black aerosol generated by sonication possesses smaller nanoparticles that are deposited to a greater extent in the lungs than is aerosol formulated without sonication. Additionally, rats were narrowly more affected when exposed to carbon black aerosol generated by sonication as compared to that produced without sonication.

Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2, Cu2O and Al2O3 Aerosol Nanoparticles Produced by the Multi-Spark Discharge Generator

  • Efimov, Alexey;Lizunova, Anna;Sukharev, Valentin;Ivanov, Victor
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 2016
  • The morphology, crystal structure and size of aerosol nanoparticles generated by erosion of electrodes made of different materials (titanium, copper and aluminum) in a multi-spark discharge generator were investigated. The aerosol nanoparticle synthesis was carried out in air atmosphere at a capacitor stored energy of 6 J, a repetition rate of discharge of 0.5 Hz and a gas flow velocity of 5.4 m/s. The aerosol nanoparticles were generated in the form of oxides and had various morphologies: agglomerates of primary particles of $TiO_2$ and $Al_2O_3$ or aggregates of primary particles of $Cu_2O$. The average size of the primary nanoparticles ranged between 6.3 and 7.4 nm for the three substances studied. The average size of the agglomerates and aggregates varied in a wide interval from 24.6 nm for $Cu_2O$ to 46.1 nm for $Al_2O_3$.

A study on characteristics and internal exposure evaluation of radioactive aerosols during pipe cutting in decommissioning of nuclear power plant

  • Kim, Sun Il;Lee, Hak Yun;Song, Jong Soon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.1088-1098
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    • 2018
  • Kori unit #1, which is the first commercial nuclear power plant in Korea, was permanently shutdown in June 2017, and it is about to be decommissioned. Currently in Korea, researches on the decommissioning technology are actively conducted, but there are few researches on workers internal exposure to radioactive aerosol that is generated in the process of decommissioning nuclear power plants. As a result, the over-exposure of decommissioning workers is feared, and the optimal working time needs to be revised in consideration of radioactive aerosol. This study investigated the annual exposure limits of various countries, which can be used as an indicator in evaluating workers' internal exposure to radioactive aerosol during pipe cutting in the process of decommissioning nuclear power plants, and the growth and dynamics of aerosol. Also, to evaluate it, the authors compared/analyzed the cases of aerosol generated when activated pipes are cut in the process of nuclear power plants and the codes for evaluating internal exposure. The evaluation codes and analyzed data conform to ALARA, and they are believed to be used as an important indicator in deriving an optimal working time that does not excess the annual exposure limit.