• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gyeonggi-Bay coastal area

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Synergic Effect of using the Optical and Radar Image Data for the Land Cover Classification in Coastal Region

  • Kim, Sun-Hwa;Lee, Kyu-Sung
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.1030-1032
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    • 2003
  • This study a imed to analyze the effect of combined optical and radar image for the land cover classification in coastal region. The study area, Gyeonggi Bay area has one of the largest tidal ranges and has frequent land cover changes due to the several reclamations and rather intensive land uses. Ten land cover types were classified using several datasets of combining Landsat ETM+ and RADARSAT imagery. The synergic effects of the merged datasets were analyzed by both visual interpretation and an ordinary supervised classification. The merged optical and SAR datasets provided better discrimination among the land cover classes in the coastal area. The overall classification accuracy of merged datasets was improved to 86.5% as compared to 78% accuracy of using ETM+ only.

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Storm Surge Vulnerability Assessment due to Typhoon Attack on Coastal area in Korea (태풍 내습으로 인한 연안역 해일 취약성 평가)

  • Kang, Tae-Soon;Oh, Hyeong-Min;Lee, Hae-Mi;Eum, Ho-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.608-616
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we have estimated the storm surge heights using numerical modeling on coastal area, and then evaluated the vulnerability index by applying the vulnerability assessment techniques. Surge modelling for 27 typhoons affected from 2000 to 2014 were simulated by applying the ADCIRC model. The results of validation and verification was in significant agreement as compared with observations for the top 6 ranking typhoons affected. As results, the storm surge heights in Jinhae Bay, Sacheon Bay, Gwangyang Bay, Cheonsu Bay and Gyeonggi Bay were higher than other inner coastal areas, then storm surge vulnerability assessment was performed using a standardization, normalization and gradation of storm surge heights. According to results of storm surge vulnerability assessment, index of Jinhae Bay, Sacheon Bay, Gwangyang Bay etc. are estimated to be vulnerable(4~5) because of the characteristics of storm surge such as inner bay are vulnerable compared with exposed to the open sea areas. However, index in the inner bay of western Jeonnam are not vulnerable(1~3) relatively. It may not appear the typhoons affected significantly for the past 15 years. So, the long-term vulnerability assessment with the sensitivity of geomorphology are necessary to reduce the uncertainty.

Temporal-spatial Variations of Water Quality in Gyeonggi Bay, West Coast of Korea, and Their Controlling Factor (한국 서해 경기만 연안역에서 수질환경의 시.공간적 변화 특성과 조절 요인)

  • Lim, Dhong-Il;Rho, Kyoung-Chan;Jang, Pung-Guk;Kang, Sun-Mi;Jung, Hoi-Soo;Jung, Rae-Hong;Lee, Won-Chan
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.135-153
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    • 2007
  • Temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions and variations of various physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, COD, SPM, POC, silicate, DIP, DIN) in surface and bottom waters were studied in the coastal environment with typical macro-tidal range and monsoonal weather condition, Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea. Spacial distribution patterns of these factors were generally similar to each other, and appeared to be inversely related to the distribution pattern of salinity, suggesting that water quality of the study area was primarily controlled by the physical mixing process of Han-River freshwater with nearby coastal seawater. During flooding season, silicate- and nitrogen-rich Han River water directly flowed into offshore as far as $20\sim30\;km$ from the river mouth, probably causing serious environmental problems such as eutrophication and unusual and/or noxious algal bloom, etc. Except the surface water during summer flooding season, high concentrations of nutrients appeared generally in dry season, whereas low values in spring, possibly because of the occurrence of spring phytoplankton bloom. On the other hand, nutrient flux through the estuary seems to be primarily depending on river discharge, sewage discharge and agricultural activities, especially during the rainy season. Also, nutrients in this coastal waters are considered to be supplied from the sediments of tidal-flats, which developed extensively around the Han-River mouth, especially during fall and winter of dry and low discharge seasons, possibly due to the stirring of tidal flat sediments with highly enriched pore-water nutrients by storm. And also, COD and DIN concentrations in the study area consistently increased during the last 20 years, probably because of agricultural activities and increasing discharge of industrial and domestic wastes.

Status of Marine Sand Mining and Assessment System in Korea (우리나라 바다골재채취 및 협의제도 현황 평가)

  • Lee, Dae-In;Park, Dal-Soo;Eom, Ki-Hyuk;Kim, Gui-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.357-365
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    • 2010
  • This study evaluated current status of marine sand mining and related assessment systems in Korea for supporting effective policy development. The estimated total deposit of sand was ca. 10 billion $m^3$, while the estimated minable amount was ca. 5.5 billion $m^3$, in which marine sand accounted for 21%. The proportion of marine sand to the total mined aggregates has steadily increased by 15% in 1992 to 28% in 2002, but recently slightly decreased. Marine sand mining is regulated under a consultation system on the coastal development according to the "Marine Environmental Management Act". During 2002-2009, a total of 184 million $m^3$ of marine sand was mined, and the annual amount ranged from 17,440,000-33,698,000 $m^3$ the coastal area accounted for 64.5% and the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) 35.5%. In the coastal area, the major area supplying the marine sand was Gyeonggi Bay (>62%) followed by some southwestern coastal areas. The South and the West EEZ explained 23.9% and 11.6% of the total mined sand. The extent of marine sand mining in Korea was evaluated to be greater compared with other countries. Large-scale concentrated and repeated sand mining can damage environmental changes and ecology with long-term accumulated impacts.

Uncertainty Analysis of the Net Flow Discharge and Diffusion Model in Gyeonggi Bay and Han River Estuary (경기만 및 한강하구의 순유량 및 확산모형의 불확실성 분석)

  • Kim, Jeong-Dae;Jeong, Shin-Taek;Cho, Hong-Yeon;Kim, Tae-Heon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.344-351
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    • 2010
  • Uncertainty analysis on the net flow discharge (NFD) influencing the long-term material transport and the simulation results of the salinity and COD concentration distribution using the MIKE21 diffusion model in Gyeonggi bay and Han-River estuary is carried out. The NFD flowing the Gyodongdo - Seokmodo channel via the North channel of Ganghwado is estimated about 97% of the total NFD and the NFD of the Yeomha channel is estimated as only $2.5{\sim}3.0%$. On the other hand, the uncertainty defined as the difference by the different time-scale data input is analysed by the comparison of the model simulation result of the salinity and COD concentration distribution. One is computed based on the daily river flow data, and the other is computed based on the monthlymean river flow data. The results show that the salinity and COD concentration differences are about -10~20 psu and ${\pm}1.0\;mg/L$ during the summer season having a high flow discharge in Yeomha channel, respectively. The difference is clearly negligible in the open sea area.

Impacts of Land Cover Change of Tidal Flats on Local Meteorology in Gyeonggi Bay, West Sea of Korea (경기만 갯벌의 지표면 토지피복 변화가 국지기상에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • An, Hye Yeon;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Jeong, Ju-Hee
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.399-409
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    • 2017
  • The impact of land cover changed by tidal flats on local meteorology in Gyeonggi Bay was quantitatively evaluated based on a numerical modeling approach during 18 days (21 June to 9 July 2013). The analysis was carried out using three sets of simulation scenarios and the land cover of tidal flats for each simulation was applied as follows: (1) the herbaceous wetland representing coastal wetlands (i.e., EXP-BASE case), (2) the barren or sparsely vegetated representing low tide (i.e., EXP-LOW case), (3) the water bodies representing high tide (i.e., EXP-HIGH case). The area of tidal flats was calculated as about $552km^2$ (the ratio of 4.7% for analysis domain). During the daytime, the change (e.g. wetlands to water) of land cover flooded by high tide indicated the decrease of temperature (average $3.3^{\circ}C$) and the increase of humidity (average 13%) and wind speed (maximum $2.9m\;s^{-1}$). The changes (e.g. wetlands to barren or sparsely vegetated) of land cover induced by low tide were smaller than those by high tide. On the other hands, the effects of changed land cover at night were not apparent both high tide and low tide. Also, during the high tide, the meteorological change in tidal flats affected the metropolitan area (about 40 km from the tidal flat).

Periodic characteristics of long period tidal current by variation of the tide deformation around the Yeomha Waterway (염하수로 인근에서 조석 변형과 장주기 조류성분의 변동 특성)

  • Song, Yong-Sik;Woo, Seung-Buhm
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.393-400
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    • 2011
  • The mass transport is very complicated at the area which has the macro tide and complex geometry such as Gyeonggi bay. Especially, the long period current has a strong influence on the estuarine ecosystem and the long-term distribution of substances. The long period current is caused by several external forcing, whose unique characteristic varies spatially and temporally. The variation characteristics of long period current is analysed and its generation mechanism is studied. The tidal nonlinear constituents such as overtide and compound tide are generated due to nonlinear interaction and it causes mean sea level setup. The tidal wave propagating up into estuary is transformed rapidly by decrease of cross-sectional area and depth. Therefore the mean sea level is getting rise toward upriver. The high and low tide level is similar between down-river(Incheon) and up-river(Ganghwa) during neap tide when the tidal deformation is decreased. The tidal phase difference between two tidal stations causes a periodic fluctuation of sea level difference. The low water level of Ganghwa station during spring tide does not descend under EL(-)2.5 m, but the low water level of Incheon fall down under EL(-)4.0 m. The variation of tidal range and its sea level are increased during spring tide. It is found that the long period current $M_{sf}$ is quite similar to that of sea level difference between the two tidal stations. It means that the sea surface inclination caused by the spatial difference of tidal deformation is important forcing for the generation of long period current.

Long Term Changes in Sea Surface Temperature Around Habitat Ground of Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the East Sea (동해 명태(Gadus chalcogrammus) 서식처 표층수온 장기 변동 특성)

  • Seol, Kangsu;Lee, Chung-Il;Jung, Hae-Kun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 2020
  • Oceanic conditions in walleye pollock habitat in the East Sea have shown decadal fluctuations between warm and cold periods in turn. Specifically, sea surface temperature (SST) has shown a dramatic increase between the late 1980s and the middle 2000s, and abrupt decreasing patterns after the late 2000s. Oceanic conditions in the Dong-han Bay (spawning ground) and middle eastern coastal waters (fishing ground), however, indicated different fluctuation trends in SST, increasing in the Dong-han Bay after the late 1980s, and decreasing after the late 2000s. These fluctuation patterns were especially clear in February and March. Sea surface temperature in the middle eastern coastal waters of Korea soared continuously after the late 1980s, but did not show a distinct decreasing pattern after the late 2000s compared with Dong han Bay, except for February SST values. These long term water temperature changes in both walleye pollock spawning and fishing ground are related to variation in walleye pollock landings. Especially, abrupt changes in spawning ground SST can be one of the factors influencing survival in the early ontogenesis of walleye pollock, including egg and yolk larval stages. During the 1980s, the area of suitable spawning temperature (2-5℃) was wider, and the length of Walleye pollock egg and larval stages greater compared with past and present oceanographic environments. However, such patterns did not correspond with the optimal spawning temperature range and greater length of development of walleye pollock during the late 1980s likely triggering a decline in pollock stock. In conclusion, it has been supposed that the dramatic decrease in walleye pollock landings in the East Sea since the late 1980s was caused by increasing water temperature leading to both early mortality and unsuitable spawning conditions.

Monitoring the Coastal Waters of the Yellow Sea Using Ferry Box and SeaWiFS Data (정기여객선 현장관측 시스템과 SeaWiFS 자료를 이용한 서해 연안 해수환경 모니터링)

  • Ryu, Joo-Hyung;Moon, Jeong-Eon;Min, Jee-Eun;Ahn, Yu-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.323-334
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    • 2007
  • We analyzed the ocean environmental data from water sample and automatic measurement instruments with the Incheon-Jeju passenger ship for 18 times during 4 years from 2001 to 2004. The objectives of this study are to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of ocean environmental parameters in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea using water sample analysis, and to compare and analyze the reliability of automatic measurement sensors for chlorophyll and turbidity using in situ measurements. The chlorophyll concentration showed the ranges between 0.1 to $6.0mg/m^3$. High concentrations occurred in the Gyeonggi Bay through all the cruises. The maximum value of chlorophyll concentration was $16.5mg/m^3$ in this area during September 2004. The absorption coefficients of dissolve organic matter at 400 nm showed below $0.5m^{-1}$ except those in August 2001 During 2002-2003, it did not distinctly change the seasonal variations with the ranges 0.1 to $0.4m^{-1}$. In the case of suspended sediment (SS) concentration, most of the area showed below $20g/m^3$ through all seasons except the Gyeonggi Bay and around Mokpo area. In general SS concentration of autumn and winter season was higher than that of summer. The central area of the Yellow Sea appeared to have lower value $10g/m^3$. The YSI fluorometer for chlorophyll concentration had a very low reliability and turbidity sensor had a $R^2$ value of 0.77 through the 4 times measurements comparing with water sampling method. For the automatic measurement using instruments for chlorphlyll and suspended sediment concentration, McVan and Choses sensor was greater than YSI multisensor. The SeaWiFS SS distribution map was well spatially matched with in situ measurement, however, there was a little difference in quantitative concentration.

The Regional Classification of Tidal Regime using Characteristics of Astronomical Tides, Overtides and Compound Tides in the Han River Estuary, Gyeonggi Bay (천문조, 배조 및 복합조 특성을 이용한 경기만 한강하구 구역별 조석체계 분류)

  • Yoon, Byung Il;Woo, Seung-Buhm;Kim, Jong Wook;Song, Jin Il
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we investigate tidal wave propagation characteristics, and classify regional tidal regime using tidal form number considered distribution of astronomical tide, overtides, and compound tides in the Han River Estuary, Gyeonggi Bay. The characteristics of the tidal wave propagation in main channels show dominance of major tidal constituents (e.g., $M_2$, $S_2$, $N_2$, $K_1$ and $O_1$) contributing to the astronomical tide however, distinct increasing of shallow water (e.g., $M_4$) and long period (e.g., $MS_f$) components toward up-estuary. Using the characteristics of tidal form number to astronomical tide, overtides, and compound tides, the regional tidal regime could be assorted into three regions. Firstly, a dominance area of astronomical tide was presented from open sea to a front of Incheon Harbor (Yeomha channel) and to north entrance of Seokmo channel. The area between south and north entrance of Yeomha channel and Ganghaw north channel classified into zone of showing strong shallow water components. It could be separated into upper estuary, upstream the Singok underwater dam, showed dominance of shallow overtides (e.g., $M_4$ and $MS_4$) water and long-term compound tides (e.g., $MS_f$) larger magnitude than astronomical tide. The shallow water components was earlier generated in lower part (south entrance) of Yeomha channel have strong bottom by effect of shallower and narrower compared with Seokmo channel. Tidal asymmetries of upper estuary cause by a development of overtides and compound tides are mainly controlled by influence of man-made structure.