• Title/Summary/Keyword: Heat pump

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The Outlet Temperature Prediction of In-Situ Thermal Response Test using CFD Analysis (CFD 해석을 이용한 현장 열응답 시험의 출구온도 예측)

  • Sim, Yong-Sub;Lee, Hee-Sang
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2016
  • The in-situ thermal response test for the design of a ground heat exchanger of geothermal heat pumps have difficulty in predicting the outlet temperature according to the variation of conditions due to the expense and time. This paper suggests a 3-D CFD analysis method to predict the heat transfer performance of vertical type ground heat exchanger, which is mostly used in national, and the outlet temperature and the slope of two in-situ thermal response tests were compared to test the proposed CFD reliability. The results of CFD analysis showed that the outlet temperature was predicted to within $0.5^{\circ}C$ of the actual value and the slope was predicted to within 1.6%. The reliability of the CFD analysis method was confirmed using this process, and the outlet temperature prediction of the two in-situ thermal response tests was obtained by changing ${\pm}20%$ of the flow rate and the effective thermal conductivity conditions, respectively. The results of CFD analysis showed that the outlet temperature of Case 1 was 28.0 (-20%) and $29.6^{\circ}C$ (+20%) for the flow rate variation and $29.6^{\circ}C$ (-20%) and $28.0^{\circ}C$ (+20%) for the effective thermal conductivity variation, and the outlet temperature of Case 2 was 28.4 (-20%) and $29.8^{\circ}C$ (+20%) for the flow rate variation and $29.7^{\circ}C$(-20%) and $28.4^{\circ}C$(+20%) for the effective thermal conductivity variation.

Research Background and Plan of Enhanced Geothermal System Project for MW Power Generation in Korea (MW급 EGS 지열발전 상용화 기술개발사업의 추진 배경 및 계획)

  • Yoon, Woon-Sang;Song, Yoon-Ho;Lee, Tae-Jong;Kim, Kwang-Yeom;Min, Ki-Bok;Cho, Yong-Hee;Jeon, Jong-Ug
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2011
  • Geothermal energy is believed to be an important source among the renewable energy sources to provide the base load electricity. Although there has been a drastic increase in the use of geothermal heat pump in Korea, there is no geothermal power plant in operation in Korea. Fortunately, the first EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) Project in Korea has started in Dec 2010. This five year project is divided into two stages; two years for exploration and drilling of 3 km depth to confirm the minimum target temperature of 100 degrees, and another three years composed drilling 5 km doublet, hydraulic stimulation of geothermal reservoir with expected temperature of 180 degrees (40 kg/s) and construction of MW geothermal power plant in the surface. This EGS project would be a landmark effort that invited a consortium of industry, research institutes and university with expertises in the fields of geology, hydrogeology, geophysics, geomechanics and plant engineering.

GIS spatial D/B formation of geothermal data and Distribution of Heat Flow of Korea (한국의 지열자료 GIS 공간 D/B 구축과 지열류량 분포)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Chan;Lee, Young-Min;Park, Jeong-Min
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2006.06a
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    • pp.459-460
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    • 2006
  • 현재 남한의 지열류량 측정값으로는 총 363개 지점의 자료가 측정 및 수집되어 있다. 이것은 Mizutani et at. (1970), 장정진 외(1970), 그리고 서정희(1976) 등의 자료, 총 35개의 자료도 추가된 것이다. 1989년 이후부터 측정된 지열류량 자료는 217개 자료이며(임정웅 외, 1989; 임정웅 외, 1996; Lim and Kim, 1997; 염병우 외, 1997), 모두 직접 측정한 것이나, 1989년 이후 보고된 지열류량 자료에 약간의 오류가 있어 이번 연구에서 수정 보완하였다. 또한 과거의 자료 35개 자료는 이미 지열류량 측정치가 논문화 되어 있는 것으로 암석시료는 없다 1989년 이후 2004년까지 자료 217개 2005년도 추가 자료 111개의 지열류량 자료는 암석시료도 있으며, 측정기기가 서로 달라 오차가 있을 수 있어 서로 보정을 해야 할 필요가 있어 시추공 주변 암석을 새로 수집해서 신장비로 다시 측정 보정하였다. 지열류량 D/B 구축은 각 자료의 일련번호, 고유번호 (Sn.), 위경도 좌표 (longitude, lattitude), 암석의 열전도도(thermal conductivity), 지온경사 (thermal gradient), 지열류량 (heat flow)등으로 구성되어 있다. 지열류량 자료 공간 데이터베이스는 점 속성을 가지며 자료형태는 각종 소프트웨어와 호환성이 좋은 shape 파일 형태로 작성하였다. 또만 최근 천부 토양 및 암석 열물성을 이용한 냉난방시스템 즉, Heat Pump System 설계를 위하여 반드시 들어가야 하는 요소인 열확산율, 공극율, 밀도, 비열 등 열물성 특성을 추가하여 GIS 공간 D/B구축하였다. 대륙붕 자료 4개 자료를 제외하고 359개의 지열류량 자료를 이용하여 한반도 남부, 즉 남한의 지열류량 분포도를 작성 분석해 본 결과(그림 1), 우리나라의 지열류량 이상대는 아산만 주변, 보령, 유성, 진안, 울진, 포항, 부산 지역과 포천, 속초, 충주, 수안보 등 지역에서 나타난다 이러한 이상대 주변에는 대개 온천이 발달되어 있었거나 새로 개발되어 있는 곳이다. 온천에 이용하고 있는 시추공의 자료는 배제하였으나 온천이응으로 직접적으로 영향을 받지 않은 시추공의 자료는 사용하였다 이러한 온천 주변 지역이라 하더라도 실제는 온천의 pumping 으로 인한 대류현상으로 주변 일대의 온도를 올려놓았기 때문에 비교적 높은 지열류량 값을 보인다. 한편 한반도 남동부 일대는 이번 추가된 자료에 의해 새로운 지열류량 분포 변화가 나타났다 강원 북부 오색온천지역 부근에서 높은 지열류량 분포를 보이며 또한 우리나라 대단층 중의 하나인 양산단층과 같은 방향으로 발달한 밀양단층, 모량단층, 동래단층 등 주변부로 NNE-SSW 방향의 지열류량 이상대가 발달한다. 이것으로 볼 때 지열류량은 지질구조와 무관하지 않음을 파악할 수 있다. 특히 이러한 단층대 주변은 지열수의 순환이 깊은 심도까지 가능하므로 이러한 대류현상으로 지표부근까지 높은 지온 전달이 되어 나타나는 것으로 판단된다.

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Air-side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of a Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Under Low Temperature Condition (저온 조건에서 핀-관 열교환기의 공기측 열전달 및 압력손실)

  • Kim, Nae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2017
  • Currently, residential air conditioners operate as a heat pump during winter. In this case, the outdoor heat exchanger acts as an evaporator obtaining heat from cold air. On the other hand, it acts as a condenser during summer transferring heat to hot air. The outdoor temperature changes significantly from high to low. Generally, the air-side j and f factors are obtained at a standard outdoor temperature. Therefore, the applicability of the j and f factors under different outdoor conditions needs to be checked. In this study, tests were conducted for a two-row louver finned heat exchanger changing the outdoor temperature to subzero. The effects of the tube-side brine flow rate were also checked. The results showed that air-side j and f factors were essentially constant and independent of the outdoor temperature, suggesting that an extension of j and f factors obtained under standard conditions to a low outdoor temperature is acceptable. All j and f factors agreed within 9% and 3%, respectively. Tests were also conducted by changing the coolant flow rate. Both the j and f factors did not change according to the flow rate, suggesting that the tube-side heat transfer correlation is acceptable.

Prediction of adiabatic capillary tube length of a vehicle heat pump using carbon dioxide (수송기계 $CO_2$ 히트펌프용 단열 모세관 길이 예측에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hoo-Kyu;Choi, Kwang-Hwan;Son, Chang-Hyo;Jeon, Min-Ju
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Marine Engineers Conference
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    • 2011.06a
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    • pp.277-277
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    • 2011
  • 본 논문은 $CO_2$ 히트펌프용 모세관의 기초 설계자료를 제공하기 위해서 모세관 길이 예측에 대해서 이론 및 실험적으로 조사하였다. 본 연구에서 고려된 작동변수로는 증발온도, 가스냉각기 냉각압력, 냉매유량, 모세관의 관경 등이다. 몇몇연구자들의 자료를 바탕으로 $CO_2$ 모세관 길이를 예측할 수 있는 수학적 모델식을 작성하였다. 그리고 단열 모세관 팽창장치내 $CO_2$의 증발온도, 냉매유량, 냉각압력 등에 대해서 실험한 결과, Fig. 1에 나타낸 것처럼, 모세관 길이가 증가할수록 증발온도는 감소하는 것을 알 수 있다. 그리고 증발온도에 대한 실험값과 예측값의 비교 결과, 실험값이 예측값보다 약간 높게 나타났다. $CO_2$냉매가 모세관내를 통과할 때 플래쉬 가스(flash gas)의 발생으로 인해 액상의 양보다 기상의 양이 많아지고 액상의 압력강하보다 기상의 압력강하가 휠씬 더 크기 때문이다. 또한 증발온도에 대한 실험값과 예측값은 6.5~9.9% 이내에서 좋은 일치를 보였다. Fig. 2에 나타낸 것처럼, 모세관 길이가 증가할수록 냉매유량은 감소하는 것을 알 수 있다. 이는 전술한 바와 같이 모세관 길이가 증가할수록 냉매 압력강하가 더욱더 증가하기 때문이다. 그리고 냉매유량에 대한 실험값과 예측값의 비교 결과, 실험값이 예측값보다 약간 높게 나타났다. 이는 전술한 증발온도와 동일한 이유로 실제 $CO_2$냉매가 모세관내를 통과할 때 플래쉬 가스의 발생량이 많아지기 때문이다. 또한 냉매유량에 대한 실험값과 예측값은 0.64~10.9% 이내에서 좋은 일치를 보였다. Fig. 3에 나타낸 것처럼, 모세관 길이가 증가할수록 냉각압력은 증가하는 것을 알 수 있다. 이는 증발온도가 일정한 경우 모세관 길이가 증가할수록 냉매유량이 감소하여 압축기 토출측 온도(압력)가 상승하기 때문이다. 그리고 냉각압력에 대한 실험값과 예측값의 비교 결과, 실험값이 예측값보다 약간 낮게 나타났으며 실험값과 예측값은 1.04~3.7% 이내에서 좋은 일치를 보였다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 수송기계용 $CO_2$ 열펌프 단열 모세관에 대한 기초설계 자료로서, 냉각압력, 증발온도, 모세관 직경, 냉매유량 등의 조건으로부터 모세관 길이를 계산해낼 수 있는 예측 상관식을 제안하였다.

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Design Guidlines of Geothermal Heat Pump System Using Standing Column Well (수주지열정(SCW)을 이용한 천부지열 냉난방시스템 설계지침)

  • Hahn, Jeong-Sang;Han, Hyuk-Sang;Hahn, Chan;Kim, Hyong-Soo;Jeon, Jae-Soo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.5 s.180
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    • pp.607-613
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    • 2006
  • For the reasonable use of low grade-shallow geothermal energy by Standing Column Well(SCW) system, the basic requirements are depth-wise increase of earth temperature like $2^{\circ}C$ per every 100m depth, sufficient amount of groundwater production being about 10 to 30% of the design flow rate of GSHP with good water quality and moderate temperature, and non-collapsing of borehole wall during reinjection of circulating water into the SCW. A closed loop type-vertical ground heat exchanger(GHEX) with $100{\sim}150m$ deep can supply geothermal energy of 2 to 3 RT but a SCW with $400{\sim}500m$ deep can provide $30{\sim}40RT$ being equivalent to 10 to 15 numbers of GHEX as well requires smaller space. Being considered as an alternative of vertical GHEX, many numbers of SCW have been widely constructed in whole country without any account for site specific hydrogeologic and geothermal characteristics. When those are designed and constructed under the base of insufficient knowledges of hydrgeothermal properties of the relevant specific site as our current situations, a bad reputation will be created and it will hamper a rational utilization of geothermal energy using SCW in the near future. This paper is prepared for providing a guideline of SCW design comportable to our hydrogeothermal system.

Design Method for Cast-in-place Energy Pile Considering Equivalent Heat Exchange Rate (등가열교환율을 적용한 현장타설 에너지파일 설계법)

  • Min, Sunhong;Park, Sangwoo;Jung, Kyoungsik;Choi, Hangseok
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.1049-1061
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, a relative heat exchange rate is numerically compared for cast-in-place concrete energy piles with different heat exchange pipe configurations, and a new design method for energy piles is proposed. An equivalent heat exchange rate was estimated for the W-type (one series loop), multiple U-type (four parallel loops), and coil-type heat exchanger installed in the same large-diameter drilled shaft. In order to simulate a cooling operation in summer by a CFD analysis, the LWT (leaving water temperature) into a energy pile was fixed at $35^{\circ}C$ and then the EWT (entering water temperature) into a heat pump was monitored. In case of continuously applying the artificial maximum cooling load for 100 hours, all of the three types of heat exchangers show the marginally similar heat exchange rate. However, in case of intermittently applying the cooling load with a cycle of 8 hours operation-16 hours off for 7 consecutive days, the coil type heat exchanger exhibits a heat exchange rate only 86 % of the multiple U-type due to measurable thermal interference between pipe loops in the energy pile. On the other hand, the W-type possesses the similar heat exchange rate to the multiple U-type. The equivalent heat exchange rates for each configuration of heat exchangers obtained from the CFD analysis were adopted for implementing the commercial design program (PILESIM2). Finally, a design method for cast-in-place concrete energy piles is proposed along with a design chart in consideration of typical design factors.

An Analysis on the Bleeding Effect of SCW Ground Heat Exchanger using Thermal Response Test Data (열응답시험 데이터를 이용한 SCW형 지중열교환기 블리딩 효과 분석)

  • Chang, Keun-Sun;Kim, Min-Jun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.512-520
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    • 2020
  • Recently, the applications of the standing column well (SCW) ground heat exchanger (GHX) have increased significantly in Korea as a heat transfer mechanism of ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) because of its high heat capacity and efficiency. Among the various design and operating parameters, bleeding was found to be the most important parameter for improving the thermal performance, such as ground thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance. In this study, a bleeding analysis model was developed using the thermal response test data, and the effects of bleeding rates and bleeding locations on the thermal performance of anSCW were investigated. The results show that, when the ground water flows into the top of anSCW, the time variation of circulating water temperature decreased with increasing bleeding rate, and the ground thermal conductivity increases by as much as 179% with a 30% bleeding rate. When the ground water flows into the bottom of the SCW, the circulating water temperatures become almost constant after the increase in the beginning time because the circulating water exchanges heat with the ground structure before mixing with the ground water at the bottom.

Energy Economic Analysis of Standard Rural House Model with PV System (PV 시스템이 적용된 농어촌 주택 표준모델의 에너지 경제성 분석)

  • Lee, Chan Kyu;Kim, Woo Tae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.1540-1547
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    • 2013
  • The energy economic analysis of the standard rural house model with PV system was performed based on annual energy demand calculation using the EnergyPlus to contribute in reducing building energy which occupies 25% of national energy consumption and in developing a low-energy & eco-friendly house model. Two types of PV system installation was considered to cover electricity demand for cooling, electric, and heating devices. For the selected house model, heating energy demand is 7 times higher than cooling energy demand. For the Case1, it is favorable to use electricity from PV system for cooling and electric devices and to sell surplus electricity. For the Case2, it is favorable to use electricity from PV system for cooling, electricity and heating devices and to sell surplus electricity. Considering the installation cost of PV system and heat pump air conditioning system, the break-even point of Case1 and Case2 are about 13 and 11 years respectively. Although the installation cost of Case2 is more expensive, Case2 provides three times more profit than Case1 after the break-even point. Because the expected average life time of the selected PV system is 25 years, Case2 is more favorable option for the given standard rural house model.

Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Desiccant Cooling System Driven by District Heating (지역난방에 연계된 하이브리드 제습냉방시스템의 경제성 분석)

  • Ahn, Joon;Kim, Jaeyool;Kang, Byung Ha
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.38 no.9
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    • pp.721-729
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    • 2014
  • A hybrid desiccant cooling system (HDCS) that uses a heat pump driven by district heating instead of a sensible rotor can provide an increased energy efficiency in summer. In this paper, the summer operation costs and initial costs of both the HDCS and traditional systems are analyzed using annual equal payments, and national benefits are found from using the HDCS instead of traditional systems. In the analysis results, the HDCS reduces the operation cost by 30 compared to the traditional systems, and each HDCS unit has 0.079 TOE per year of primary energy savings and 0.835 $TCO_2$ per year of $CO_2$ emission reduction more than the traditional systems. If HDCSs were to be installed in 680,000 households by 2020, this would produce a replacement power effect of 463 MW. Despite this savings effect, HDCSs require a government subsidy before they can be supplied because the initial cost is higher than that of traditional systems. Thus, this paper calculates suitable subsidies and suggests a supply method for HDCSs considering the national benefits.