• Title/Summary/Keyword: Humanitarian assistance

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Current status and prospects of oral health services exchange from South and North Korea through nongovernmental organizations (비정부기구를 통한 남북한 구강보건의료 교류의 현황과 전망)

  • Han, Dong-Hun;Shin, Teo-Jeon;Myoung, Hoon;Lee, Seung-pyo;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.53 no.10
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    • pp.705-711
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    • 2015
  • South Korea's oral health care non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played a crucial role in South-North relations, although a formal intergovernmental relationship is difficult to establish and also easily breaks down. Humanitarian assistance by NGOs in the oral health care sector is an area that receives wide support from South Korean society for its urgency and for its appeal to humanity. This humanitarian assistance started in the late 1990's and continued to grow until the late 2000's. This assistance continued throughout the tension between the two administrations that resulted in a radical decrease in overall assistance from South Korea to North Korea. However, concerns remain about the transparency and efficiency of NGO activities. In this article, the NGOs and their major activities are delineated, and South Korean legislation is examined. A current act, the Law on the Development of South and North Korean Relations serves as a basis for governmental regulation and support of NGO's. Humanitarian assistance in the oral healthcare area is directly related to the oral health of the North Korean people, and it should not be influenced by political changes. Long-term planning and close discussions between NGOs, their North Korean counterparts, and the South Korean government are needed. NGOs need to overcome their shortcomings such as a lack of expertise and shortage of financial support. For this, NGOs must improve their administration transparency and professionalism.

The Geopolitics of Humanitarian Assistance to North Korea under International Sanctions (대북 제재와 인도적 원조의 지정학)

  • Lee, Jong-Woon
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.405-421
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    • 2019
  • International aid to North Korea remains far below the humanitarian needs of vulnerable people. This paper examines the trajectory of international humanitarian assistance to North Korea over the last two decades with the focus on its decline in the context of the country's nuclear standoff and corresponding stringent sanctions. In so doing, the paper addresses major problems associated with North Korea's reception of foreign aid and operational constraints placed on humanitarian activities in the country. It shows that humanitarian assistance to North Korea has been largely shaped by geopolitical dynamics. A survey of UN reports and statistics also suggests a shifting trend in recent international aid to North Korea. The decline of aid and multiple operational obstacles faced by humanitarian organizations, for instance, have led to a fall in agricultural support and a proportional rise in health and related services. While UN Security Council resolutions include an exemption provision, humanitarian assistance to North Korea has been constrained by stringent sanctions, which have led to adverse consequences for the civilian population. In this regard, the paper suggests some policy directions for international aid to North Korea amidst negotiations over denuclearization, while stressing an urgent need to address the negative impact of sanctions on vulnerable groups in the country.

A Study on Attracting the United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot(UNHRD) (유엔 인도적 지원 물류센터 유치방안에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Seok-Hyun
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.73-92
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    • 2019
  • Disasters and crises are spreading across the globe, and there has been an increase in the number disasters in northeast Asia, such as earthquakes in Sichuan, China, and East Japan. This study aims to propose a plan to attract facilities from the United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (UNHRD). Although there are no prior domestic studies, the study focuses on the role of intangible benefits, values, and economic outcomes in attracting facilities. Based on an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of Korea's host environment, using the UN's annual report and Korea's overseas emergency relief data, the study will analyze the status of relevant UN organizations and derive detailed strategies. In order to attract facilities from the UNHRD, it will be necessary to build and promote a cooperative system with domestic and foreign NGO experts in humanitarian assistance and joint proposals from government departments and local governments. In the long-run, it will be necessary to work closely with the relevant UN agencies to achieve strategic progress.

"Improving women's and children's health in DPRK" project funded by the Republic of Korea (현재 진행되고 있는 남북한 의료협력사업 : 영유아 지원 사업을 중심으로)

  • Shin, Young-Jeon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.671-689
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    • 2008
  • The economic recession of North Korea has been prolonged, the need for humanitarian assistance for the women and children of DPRK has been raised. In March 2006, South Korean government signed MOU with World Health Organization (WHO) to financially support "Improving Women's and Children's Health in DPRK (IWCH)" project. The assistance projects through UNICEF and the non-government organizations of South Korea were also followed. IWCH project consists of three parts; nutrition, disease management, children and maternity care. The first term (2006-2007) of the project leading by WHO was finished, and the second term (2008-2010) is just begun. The projects driven by NGOs have relatively been delayed due to difficulties in negotiating on project contents and places with North Korea. Recently, however, re-modeling processes of an obstetric/gynecology hospital and a children hospital in Nampo were started. Up to recently, South Korean government has played only a limited role in the humanitarian assistance for North Korea. IWCH project is, however, a full-scale initiative driven by government based on a systematic review of need and priorities. A significant amount of budget and relatively long term (five year) project compare to the previous short term and small size programs were expected to make more meaningful achievement. Despite these positive aspects, the project remains a list of unsolved problems a lack of mutual trust, a different decision making process between South and North Korea, a lack of conflict management process, and unpredictability and complexity of international politics. In spite of such kind of political uncertainty, the health care sector will be a leading area in the process of improving relationship between South and North Korea, particularly, humanitarian assistance for women and children will play a crucial role in the process. The successful implementation of IWCH project, therefore, will contribute to provide the reference model in developing the mutually constructive relationship between South and North

May 24 Measures and Future North Korea Policy (5.24 대북조치와 향후 대북정책 과제)

  • Kim, Tae-Woo
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.128-148
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    • 2014
  • In south Korea, the so-called 'conservative-liberal' rivalry over the assessment of the government's North Korean policies is seen to be impeding the road to right policy choices. For example, the liberals accused former President Lee Myung-bak's hardline policy of provoking Pyongyang and leading to a deterioration of inter-Korean relations, while the conservatives appreciated it for helping nurture mutually beneficial inter-Korean relations in the longer term by compelling North Korea to observe international norms. However, such debate over the vices and virtues of Seoul's North Korea policies is hardly meaningful as the measuring sticks used by the liberals and the conservatives are entirely different matters. The two major goals South Korea must pursue with its North Korean policies should be 'peaceful management of division' and 'change in North Korea'. The former is related to maintaining stability within South Korea and promoting co-prosperity with North Korea. For this, the nation needs to engage, encompass and assist the Pyongyang regime. The second goal is also necessary since South Korea, as a divided nation, must seek a unified Korea under the system of democracy and market economies by bringing change in North Korea. For this, South Korea needs powerful leverages with which it can persuade and coerce the North. This means that the nation is destined to simultaneously chase the above-mentioned two goals, while also both recognizing and negating the legitimacy of the North Korean regime. This situation necessitates Seoul to apply flexibility in reconciling with Pyongyang while applying firm principles to sever the vicious circle involving the North's military provocations. The May 25 Measures, which banned trade and economic cooperation with the North except those related to humanitarian assistance, were taken as sanctions against Pyongyang for sinking the South Korean corvette Chonan in March 2010. The Measures were taken by the Seoul government immediately after a multinational investigation team discovered evidence confirming that the South Korean naval ship had been torpedoed by a midget North Korean submarine. Naturally, the May 24 Measures have since then become a major stumbling block in inter-Korean exchange, prompting opposition politicians and concerned entrepreneurs to demand Seoul to unilaterally lift the Measures. Given the significant damages the Measures have inflicted on inter-Korean economic relations, removing them remains as homework for both Koreas. However, the Measures pertains to the 'principles on national security' the Seoul government must adhere to under all circumstances. This is why North Korea's apology and promises not to repeat similar provocations must come first. For now, South Korea has no alternative but to let North Korea solve the problems it has created. South Korea's role is to help the North do so.

A Study on the Development of the Korean Army's International Peace Operation :Based on the analysis of African regional conflicts (한국군의 국제평화활동 발전방안 : 아프리카 지역분쟁 분석을 기반으로)

  • Lee, Kang Kyong;Seol, Hyeon Ju
    • Convergence Security Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 2019
  • Historically, the United Nations supported the establishment of the government of the Republic of Korea after liberation and played a decisive role in defending liberal democracy and peace by sending peacekeepers during the Korean War. With the political and military support of the United Nations, the Republic of Korea was able to grow into the world's 10th largest economy today, and now it is time to fulfill its responsibilities and roles to contribute to peace and prosperity in the international community as a middle power. The international peace operations of the United Nations are comprehensive concepts encompassing conflict prevention, peacemaking, peace enforcement, peacekeeping, and peace building, and are implemented in accordance with the Security Council resolutions based on the UN Charter. In order to effectively respond to changes in the international security environment and conflict factors after the post-Cold War, the UN promoted a paradigm shift in international peace operations through the 2000 Brahim Report and the 2015 High-Level Panel Report on UN Peace Activities. Therefore, this study aims to assess the Korean military's international peace operations at a limited level, such as reconstruction assistance and humanitarian assistance, and to present development measures for more active participation as a middle power in the future. To this end, we reviewed the history and specificities of conflict, the conflicting factors after the post-Cold War, and the new paradigm of UN peace operations, focusing on the African region where a number of UN peacekeeping missions are stationed. And it also suggested ways to develop international peace operations that the Korean military should pursue in the future.