• Title, Summary, Keyword: IMA(0,1,1)

Search Result 35, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Design of On-line Process Control with Variable Measurement Interval

  • Park, Changsoon
    • Journal of the Korean Statistical Society
    • /
    • v.29 no.3
    • /
    • pp.319-336
    • /
    • 2000
  • A mixed model with a white noise process and an IMA(0,1,1) process is considered as a process model. It is assumed that the process is a white noise in the absence of a special cause and the process changes to an IMA(0,1,1) due to a special cause. One useful scheme in measuring the process level is to use the variable measurement interval (VMI) between measurement times according to the value of the previous chart statistic. The advantage of the VMI scheme is to measure the process level infrequently when in control to save the measurement cost and to measure frequently when out of control to save the off-target cost. This paper considers the VMI scheme in order to detect changes in the process model from a white noise to an IMA(0,1,1). The VMI scheme is shown to be effective compared to the standard fixed measurement interval (FMI) scheme in both statistical and economic contexts.

  • PDF

Ischemia Modified Albumin Levels and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Bladder Cancer

  • Ellidag, Hamit Yasar;Eren, Esin;Aydin, Ozgur;Akgol, Evren;Yalcinkaya, Soner;Sezer, Cem;Yilmaz, Necat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2759-2763
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: Impaired oxidative/antioxidative status plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases like cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the novel marker ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and albumin adjusted-IMA (Adj-IMA) in patients with bladder cancer (BC) as well as its association with total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with BC (mean age, $67.4{\pm}12$ years) and forty age-sex matched healthy persons (mean age $56.0{\pm}1.7$ years) were included in this study. Serum levels of IMA, TAS, TOS were analyzed and Adj- IMA and OSI was calculated. Results: Serum IMA, TOS and OSI values were significantly higher in patients with BC compared to controls (p<0.0001, p=0.01 and p=0.01, respectively), whereas TAS was significantly lower in BC patients (p=0.04). There was no significant difference for serum albumin-adjusted IMA levels between groups (p=0.4). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that there was an impaired oxidative/antioxidant status in favor of oxidative stress in BC patients. This observation was not confirmed by Adj-IMA calculation. There is no published report about serum concentrations of IMA in patients with BC. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship of IMA and oxidative stress parameters in BC and the significance of IMA to other cancers.

Coronary Artery bypass Surgery Using Skeletonization Technique of Left Internal Mammary Aartery (관상동맥 우회술시 근막 및 정맥 등 주위조직이 없는 좌내흉동맥편의 이용)

  • Choe, Jong-Beom;Lee, Sang-Yun
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
    • /
    • v.28 no.7
    • /
    • pp.671-677
    • /
    • 1995
  • Skeletonization of the internal mammary artery [IMA during myocardial revascularization procedures may provide some advantages, compared with the pedicle graft of the artery. In 17 patients undergoing IMA grafting by skeletonization technique, flow through the artery was measured on mean arterial pressure of 50-55 mmHg immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass started [first flow and just before its anastomosis to left anterior descending artery [second flow . In 16 patients except 1 patient whose graft was injured during mobilization, the first flow of IMA graft was 32.3 $\pm$ 7.4 ml/min and the second flow increased to 59.6$\pm$25.9 ml/min without any treatment and the site for anastomosis of the IMA graft was more than 1.0 cm above the bifurcation. On the basis of previous clinical studies, the flow of the skeletonized IMA was greater than that of the pedicle graft [59.6 $\pm$ 25.9 ml/min versus 37.7$\pm$ 14.1 ml/min, p < 0.05 . In comparison between the skeletonized IMA and the IMA graft intraluminally dilated with papaverine solution, there was no significant difference between two flows[59.6 $\pm$25.7 ml/min versus 74.7 $\pm$31.4 ml/min, not significant , but the former showed longer graft and anastomosis of more proximal portion of the graft to left anterior descending artery. In conclusion, the technique of internal mammary artery skeletonization has consistently produced a satifactory conduit for myocardial revascularization procedures. We have adopted IMA skeletonization not only because of the flow, diameter, and vessel length obtained but also because of limited perivascular tissue disruption that occurs during the dissection.

  • PDF

Differences of 1-2 Intermetatarsal Angle between Intra-operative nonweight-bearing and Postoperative weight-bearing in Proximal Metatarsal Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus (무지 외반증의 근위 중족골 절골술에 있어서 수술 중 비체중부하와 수술 후 제중부하 방사선 소견에서의 제 1-2 종족골간 각의 차이)

  • Sung, Il-Hoon;Kim, Joo-Hak;Whang, Khun-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-12
    • /
    • 2003
  • Purpose: To study the relationship of the 1st to 2nd intermetatarsal angle(1-2 IMA) between the intra-operative and weight bearing postoperative anterior-posterior(AP) radiography, and evaluate the intra-operative predictability for the postoperative 1-2 IMA after proximal metatarsal osteotomy(PMO) in the hallux valgus deformity. Materials and Methods: 20 cases of moderate to severe hallux valgus patients were included in this study. After the oblique PMO(Ludloff procedure) was performed and the osteotomy site was fixed temporarily, the AP view was taken intra-operatively. About 10 weeks after surgery, postoperative weight bearing AP view was taken. The pre -. intra -, and postoperative 1-2 IMAs were compared and ana lysed statistically. Results: The 1-2 IMAs of the weight bearing preoperative, non-weight bearing intra-operative and weight bearing postoperative AP view were $15.9^{\circ}{\pm}1.8^{\circ},\;4.7^{\circ}{\pm}2.1^{\circ}$, and $6.8^{\circ}{\pm}2.5^{\circ}$ (Mean${\pm}$SD) respectively. The postoperative 1-2 IMA was greater than intra-operative measurement by $2.1^{\circ}{\pm}1.8^{\circ}$ (range; $-1^{\circ}$ to $6^{\circ}$) which was stastistically significant(p<0.05). To get less than $9^{\circ}$ postoperatively as an average normal, intra-operative 1-2 IMA should be within $3.8^{\circ}$ to $5.2^{\circ}$ (95% confidence interval), and intra-operative 1-2 IMA should be within $3.4^{\circ}{\pm}$to $5.4^{\circ}$(95% confidence interval) to get more than $6^{\circ}$ difference between preoperative and postoperative 1-2 IMA, which is regarded as more than average correction by the distal metatarsal osteotomy. Conclusion: In hallux valgus surgery, it should be considered that intra-operative 1-2 IMA was less than the postoperative. To achieve postoperative 1-2 IMA less than $9^{\circ}$ and more than correction angle of $6^{\circ}$, it is suggested that the intra-operative 1-2 IMA should be measured less than about $5^{\circ}$.

  • PDF

Computerized Measurement on Angular Parameters for Hallux Valgus: Comparison of 100% and 150% Magnified Digital Radiography (무지 외반증 각변형에 대한 디지털영상의 전산화 계측: 100%와 150% 확대영상에서의 계측비교)

  • Sung, Il-Hoon;Lee, Doo-Yeon;Sung, Chang-Ho;Seo, Woo-Young
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-57
    • /
    • 2012
  • Purpose: To study computerized measurements of angular parameters on 100% and 150% resized digital radiography of hallux valgus deformity Materials and Methods: 30 digital radiography of standing foot anteroposterior view of hallux valgus patients were included. Two observers(A, B) independently measured hallux valgus angle (HVA), 1-2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) in two times on both 100%-size and 150% magnified images respectively, using computerized measurement software tools. The results were interpreted with the statistical software program, Statistical Analysis System, version 9.2. Results: In repeated measurements of each observer, measurements on 150% magnified image showed no differences of all three parameters and with 100%-size image, there were differences of HVA (observer A) and 1-2 IMA (observer B) (p>0.05). When testing interobserver reliability, both observers showed differences in measurement of HVA and DMAA (p<0.05), but no differences in measurement of 1-2 IMA in both images. Within the 95% confidence interval, limits of error of measurements between two observers on HVA, IMA and DMAA were $2.7^{\circ}$ $1.4^{\circ}$ and $5.0^{\circ}$ respectively in 100%-size images, and $2.6^{\circ}$, $1.6^{\circ}$ and $4.7^{\circ}$ respectively in 150% magnified images. Conclusion: In computerized measurements for angular parameters of hallux valgus with digital radiography, 150% magnified images showed intraobserver reliability. Both 100% and 150% magnified images failed to show interobserver reliability. Measurement of 1-2 IMA in both 100% and 150% images showed less interobserver error.

The Computerized Measurement for the Radiological Severity of Hallux Valgus (무지 외반증의 중증도에 대한 전산화 영상 계측)

  • Kang, Chang-Nam;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Lee, Doo-Yeon;Kim, Sang-Duk;Sung, Il-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 2009
  • Purpose: To study the reliability of intra- and interobserver reliability in angular measurement of hallux valgus deformity by assessing hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the 1st to 2nd intermetatarsal angle (1-2 IMA) through using computerized system. Materials and Methods: 20 cases of moderate to severe hallux valgus patients were included in this study. With the standing anteroposterior view of foot, the HVA and 1-2 IMA were calculated by computerized measurement system of Infinity cooperation, called ${\pi}$-view, with its software tools. Using the statistical software program, SPSS (version 12th), we interpreted the results which were measured by two independent observers. Results: In the intraobserver measurement, the HVA of observer A showed reliability ($32.5^{\circ}{\pm}6.9$ and $33.1^{\circ}{\pm}6.8$)(p<0.05). 1-2 IMA in observer A was not regarded as reliable ($16.9^{\circ}{\pm}2.8$ and $17.1^{\circ}{\pm}2.8$)(p>0.05). In the results of observer B, HVAs were measured as $35.7^{\circ}{\pm}7.6$ and $36.2^{\circ}{\pm}7.7$, and were not reliable (p>0.05). 1-2 IMA in observer B was not reliable as well ($17.0^{\circ}{\pm}0.8$ and $20.8^{\circ}{\pm}1.5$)(p>0.05). In the interobservers' measurements, the first and the second results of HVA were $3.2^{\circ}{\pm}3.6$ and $3.1^{\circ}{\pm}3.1$, reliable within the 95% confidence interval (p<0.05). 1-2 IMAs were $0.1^{\circ}{\pm}1.9$ and $3.73^{\circ}{\pm}1.3$, which were not reliable (p>0.05). Conclusion: In the angular measurement of the hallux valgus by computerized system, the HVA and 1-2 IMA showed less error range in the interobserver's results, compared with the previous studies about the manual measurement. However, our results failed to show the statistical reliability of intra- and interobserver's measuring. Therefore, even the computerized angular measurements in the severity of hallux valgus require development of the measuring methods and software tools.

  • PDF

Inhibition Characteristics of Chlorsulfuron and Imazaquin on Acetolactate Synthase Activity of Corn Plants (Chlorsulfuron 및 Imazaquin에 의한 옥수수 Acetolactate Synthase 활성의 저해특성)

  • Hwang, I.T.;Kim, K.J.;Lee, H.J.;Cho, K.Y.;Chun, J.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.122-131
    • /
    • 1996
  • The inhibition characteristics of chlorsulfuron [CHL, 2-chloro-N-[{ (4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino}carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide] and imazaquin [IMA, 2-{4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methy-lethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl}-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid] on acetolactate synthase(ALS) activity of corn plants were investigated. CHL and IMA rapidly inhibited ALS activity of corn plants in vitro. Their $I_{50}$ values for ALS activity were 100nM and $5{\mu}M$, respectively, indicating that CHL had 50 times more inhibitory effect on ALS activity than IMA. The first applied herbicide had a dominant inhibitory effect on ALS activity when the two herbicides were applied sequentially. Branched-chain amino acids, valine(Val), leucine(Leu), and isoleucine(Ile) showed a feedback inhibition on ALS activity ; Val or Leu had a more inhibitory effect on ALS activity than Ile. Branchedchain amino acids and CHL or IMA exhibited an additive effect on inhibiting ALS activity. This suggests that branched-chain amino acids inhibit ALS activity by a different mechanisms) from that of CHL or IMA. Apparent ALS activity, which was measured on the basis of the conversion of pyruvate to acetolactate, was decreased by the addition of 2-ketobutyrate into the ALS reaction mixture in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, kinetic studies revealed that CHL acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor, while IMA acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor to ALS with respect to pyruvate.

  • PDF

Assay of Heat Stable Enterotoxin Producing E. coli (내열성장독소 생산 대장균의 판정)

  • Chang, Woo-Hyun;Kim, Moon-Gyo;Choi, Myung-Sik;Yang, Nam-Ung;Ko, Kwang-Wook;Seo, Jung-Ki
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-58
    • /
    • 1983
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli is one of causative agents of the infantile diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. A modified infant mouse assay(IMA) was developed for the detection of heat stable enterotoxin (ST) of E. coli isolated from diarrheal and control infants and assay system was established with using enterotoxin producing reference strains. The supernatant of the 24 hour-shaking culture of E. coli in Casamino Acid Yeast Extract Salt Broth(CYES-2) was ingested orally into the 2-4 day old ICR mice. After the mice were kept at $25^{\circ}C$ for 4 hours, they were sacrificed and the gut weight body weight ratio(GW/BW) was taken as the index of fluid accumulation induced by heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The GW/BW responses of IMA tested with enterotoxin reference strains of E. coli(E. coli O148H28:$ST^+LT^+$, E. coli $O78H^-:ST^+LT^+$, E. coli O15H11:$ST^-LT^+$, E. coli O1H7:$ST^-LT^-$) appeared ta be ST dose-dependent, and not LT-dependent. From the dose-response curve, $25{\mu}l$ of culture supernatant was determined as test amount of the IMA. 2. Frequency distribution of IMA result from 643 strain of E. coli showed normal distribution at low GW/BW ratio and dispersed pattern at high GW/BW ratio. The GW/BW ratios of $0.056{\pm}0.004(mean{\pm}SD)$ of normal distribution which distributed from 0.044 to 0.068(P<0.01) was considered as ST negative. Thus the GW/BW ratio above 0.069 could be regarded as ST positive.

  • PDF

Incidence of Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus in the Normal and Hallux Valgus Feet and its Correlations with Hallux Valgus Angle and Intermetatarsal Angle (정상 족과 무지 외반증에서의 무지 지간 외반증의 발생 빈도와 무지 외반각과 제1-2 중족골간 각과의 연관성에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, You-Jin;Jung, Hong-Geun;Bahng, Seung-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-17
    • /
    • 2007
  • Purpose: In order to achieve successful outcome for the hallux valgus surgery, it is mandatory to consider the possible associated hallux valgus interphalangeus, and therefore the hallux interphalangeal angle (HIA) other than hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA) has been well appreciated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hallux interphalangeal angle in the normal and hallux valgus feet and also the statistical correlations of HIA with HVA and IMA in the 2 groups. Materials and Methods: The study is base on the standing foot AP radiographs of the 100 normal feet (HVA<$12^{\circ}$ and $IMA<9^{\circ}$) and 100 hallux valgus feet (HVA>$25^{\circ}$ and IMA>$12^{\circ}$). We measured the hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle and hallux interphalangeal angle, where we defined the hallux valgus interphalangeus when the HIA was more than $10^{\circ}$. We evaluated the incidence of the hallux valgus interphalangeus in the normal and hallux valgus groups and the correlations of the HIA with HVA and IMA. Results: In normal feet group, hallux valgus interphalangeus comprised 82%, while there were only 20% of HVI in hallux valgus group. Among 200 total feet, there was negative correlations between the HVA and HIA as well as IMA and HIA statistically (p<0.01). Conclusion: There was lower incidence of hallux valgus interphalangeus in the hallux valgus group compared to the normal feet group.

  • PDF

Evaluation of the role of ischemia modified albumin in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

  • Talat, Mohamed A.;Saleh, Rabab M.;Shehab, Mohammed M.;Khalifa, Naglaa A.;Sakr, Maha Mahmoud Hamed;Elmesalamy, Walaa M.
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.63 no.8
    • /
    • pp.329-334
    • /
    • 2020
  • Background: Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels may have a predictive role in the identification and prevention of hypoxic disorders, as they increase in cases of ischemia of the liver, heart, brain, bowel, and kidney. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the value of IMA levels as a diagnostic marker for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods: Sixty newborns who fulfilled 3 or more of the clinical and biochemical criteria and developed HIE as defined by Levene staging were included in our study as the asphyxia group. Neonates with congenital malformation, systemic infection, intrauterine growth retardation, low-birth weight, cardiac or hemolytic disease, family history of neurological diseases, congenital or perinatal infections, preeclampsia, diabetes, and renal diseases were excluded from the study. Sixty healthy neonates matched for gestational age and with no maternal history of illness, established respiration at birth, and an Apgar score ≥7 at 1 and 5 minutes were included as the control group. IMA was determined by double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of a cord blood sample collected within 30 minutes after birth. Results: Cord blood IMA levels were higher in asphyxiated newborns than in controls (250.83±36.07 pmol/mL vs. 120.24±38.9 pmol/mL). Comparison of IMA levels by HIE stage revealed a highly significant difference among them (207.3±26.65, 259.28±11.68, 294.99±4.41 pmol/mL for mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). At a cutoff of 197.6 pmol/mL, the sensitivity was 84.5%, specificity was 86%, positive predictive value was 82.8%, negative predictive value was 88.3%, and area under the curve was 0.963 (P<0.001). Conclusion: IMA levels can be a reliable marker for the early diagnosis of neonatal HIE and can be a predictor of injury severity.