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A Study on Development and Prospects of Archival Finding Aids (기록 검색도구의 발전과 전망)

  • Seol, Moon-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.23
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    • pp.3-43
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    • 2010
  • Finding aids are tools which facilitate to locate and understand archives and records. Traditionally there are two types of archival finding aids: vertical and horizontal. Vertical finding aids such as inventories have multi-level descriptions based on provenance, while horizontal ones such as catalogs and index are tools to guide to the vertical finding aids based on the subject. In the web environment, traditional finding aids are evolving into more dynamic forms. Respecting the principles of provenance and original order, vertical finding aids are changing to multi-entity structures with development of ISAD(G), ISAAR(CPF) and ISDF as standards for describing each entity. However, vertical finding aids can be too difficult, complicated, and boring for many users, who are accustomed to the easy and exciting searching tools in the internet world. Complementing them, new types of finding aids are appearing to provide easy, interesting, and extensive access channels. This study investigates the development and limitation of vertical finding aids, and the recent trend of evolving new finding aids complementing the vertical ones. The study finds three new trends of finding aid development. They are (i) mixture, (ii) integration, and (iii) openness. In recent days, certain finding aids are mixed with stories and others provide integrated searches for the collections of various heritage institutions. There are cases for experimenting user participation in the development of finding aids using Web 2.0 applications. These new types of finding aids can also cause some problems such as decontextualised description and prejudices, especially in the case of mixed finding aids and quality control of user contributed annotations and comments. To solve these problems, the present paper suggests to strengthen the infrastructure of vertical finding aids and to connect them with various new ones and to facilitate interactions with users of finding aids. It is hoped that the present paper will provide impetus for archives including the National Archives of Korea to set up and evaluate the development strategies for archival finding aids.

Impact of Net-Based Customer Service on Firm Profits and Consumer Welfare (기업의 온라인 고객 서비스가 기업의 수익 및 고객의 후생에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Jin;Lee, Byung-Tae
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.123-137
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    • 2007
  • The advent of the Internet and related Web technologies has created an easily accessible link between a firm and its customers, and has provided opportunities to a firm to use information technology to support supplementary after-sale services associated with a product or service. It has been widely recognized that supplementary services are an important source of customer value and of competitive advantage as the characteristics of the product itself. Many of these supplementary services are information-based and need not be co-located with the product, so more and more companies are delivering these services electronically. Net-based customer service, which is defined as an Internet-based computerized information system that delivers services to a customer, therefore, is the core infrastructure for supplementary service provision. The importance of net-based customer service in delivering supplementary after-sale services associated with product has been well documented. The strategic advantages of well-implemented net-based customer service are enhanced customer loyalty and higher lock-in of customers, and a resulting reduction in competition and the consequent increase in profits. However, not all customers utilize such net-based customer service. The digital divide is the phenomenon in our society that captures the observation that not all customers have equal access to computers. Socioeconomic factors such as race, gender, and education level are strongly related to Internet accessibility and ability to use. This is due to the differences in the ability to bear the cost of a computer, and the differences in self-efficacy in the use of a technology, among other reasons. This concept, applied to e-commerce, has been called the "e-commerce divide." High Internet penetration is not eradicating the digital divide and e-commerce divide as one would hope. Besides, to accommodate personalized support, a customer must often provide personal information to the firm. This personal information includes not only name and address, but also preferences information and perhaps valuation information. However, many recent studies show that consumers may not be willing to share information about themselves due to concerns about privacy online. Due to the e-commerce divide, and due to privacy and security concerns of the customer for sharing personal information with firms, limited numbers of customers adopt net-based customer service. The limited level of customer adoption of net-based customer service affects the firm profits and the customers' welfare. We use a game-theoretic model in which we model the net-based customer service system as a mechanism to enhance customers' loyalty. We model a market entry scenario where a firm (the incumbent) uses the net-based customer service system in inducing loyalty in its customer base. The firm sells one product through the traditional retailing channels and at a price set for these channels. Another firm (the entrant) enters the market, and having observed the price of the incumbent firm (and after deducing the loyalty levels in the customer base), chooses its price. The profits of the firms and the surplus of the two customers segments (the segment that utilizes net-based customer service and the segment that does not) are analyzed in the Stackelberg leader-follower model of competition between the firms. We find that an increase in adoption of net-based customer service by the customer base is not always desirable for firms. With low effectiveness in enhancing customer loyalty, firms prefer a high level of customer adoption of net-based customer service, because an increase in adoption rate decreases competition and increases profits. A firm in an industry where net-based customer service is highly effective loyalty mechanism, on the other hand, prefers a low level of adoption by customers.

Unit Loadings of Heavy Metals by Non-point Sources - Case Study in a Valley Watershed - (비점원에 의한 중금속 원단위 부하량 - 곡간지 유역을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jin-Ho;Han, Kuk-Heon;Lee, Jong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2008
  • The study was carried out to estimate runoff loads of heavy metals in the valley watershed at the middle of South Korea, during farming season. There were no other pollution sources except agricultural activity. From 27 April 2006 to 31 October 2007, water samples were collected using two methods. The first method was regular sampling wherein water samples were taken every two weeks; and the other method was through regular sampling when water were collected during each rainfall event. Results showed that heavy metals were found in the water from the regular samples, and were highest during May and June. It was presumed that this might have been contributed by farming activities. Heavy metal concentration of the irregular samples was lower than regular samples. The correlation coefficient between each heavy metal of the regular samples were as follows: Fe-Al>Cr-Al>Fe-Cr>Mn-Fe. The correlation coefficient of the irregular samples were the following: Fe-Al>Fe-Cu is positive; and Pb-Cu>Ni-Al is negative. Measured pollutant loads of heavy metals in the valley watershed were : 2.047 kg $day^{-1}$ of Al, 0.008 kg $day^{-1}$ of Cd, 0.034 kg $day^{-1}$ of Cr, 0.311 kg $day^{-1}$ of Cu, 0.601 kg $day^{-1}$ of Fe, and 0.282 kg $day^{-1}$ of Zn in 2006; while in 2007, the following were observed: 2.535 kg $day^{-1}$ of Al, 0.026 kg $day^{-1}$ of Cd, 0.055 kg $day^{-1}$ of Cu, 0.727 kg $day^{-1}$ of Fe, and 0.317 kg $day^{-1}$ of Zn. In the analysis of data gathered, the loading rates of effluents from the valley watershed during the rainy season were : 79.8% of Al, 69.1% of Cu, 82.5% of Fe, and 69.1% of Zn in 2006; while 69.9% of Al, 67.5% of Cu, 70.4% of Fe, and 67.5% of Zn in 2007.

Development of VOCs Treatment Technology using High Efficiency Hybrid System with Multi-Scrone (멀티 선회류식 세정장치를 이용한 고효율 하이브리드 VOCs 습식처리 SYSTEM 개발)

  • Lim, Seong-Il;Kim, Nor-Jung;Kim, Sun-Mi;Lee, Seong-Hun;Kim, Sun-Uk;Chang, Won-Seok;Park, Dae-Won;Kim, Lae-Hyun;Kim, Jae-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.491-498
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    • 2009
  • We studied to develop high-efficiency removal system of odor and VOCs(Volatile Organic Compounds) from environmental infrastructure facilities and oil refineries, painting facilities and so on. It can replace RTO and RCO. We tried an removal experiment for VOCs (toluene, xylene, benzene, MEK(methyl ethyl ketone), ethanol, formalin etc. and odor compounds (hydrogen sulfide, etc.). In process, as pre-treatment we used the scrubber with vortex flow (Multi-scrone) to remove the hydrophilic VOCs and as post-treatment, used fibrous bio-filter to remove the hydrophobic VOCs. This hybrid system remove with high efficiency both the hydrophilic VOCs and hydrophobic VOCs. And we tried to make this system to be compact. In experiment using Multi-scrone, contact time is 2~3 seconds and absorption scrubbing water is diaphragm-type electrolysis water. hydrophilic VOCs like ethanol and relatively hydrophilic odor compounds like hydrogen sulfide is excellent, these substances has been removed almost completely, respectively 95~99%, 93~97%. And for MEK, formalin also Showed a high removal efficiency, respectively 78~90%, 72~85%. But in experiment using Multi-scrone, the hydrophobic VOCs like BTX showed a low removal efficiency, respectively 16~22%, 12~18%, 8~16%. In hydrophobic VOCs, toluene removal experiment using fibrous bio-filter, early efficiency was low but after 10days, adaptation period showed high efficiency 85~95%. but in the mixed phase, toluene and MEK efficiency reduced 5~10%. this show microorganism treat first MEK easy to remove. The removal efficiency for MEK using the fibrous biofilter was stable, 80~92%. This hybrid system is also high economical efficiency for RTO. This system reduce more than 50% the cost of equipment and maintenance. As a result, we expect this technology is in the limelight as high efficiency treatment of VOCs in mid-low price.

The Implication and Issues of Landscape Design Education through National Exhibition of Korean Landscape Architecture (대한민국환경조경대전을 통해 본 조경 설계 교육의 쟁점과 시사점)

  • Choi, Jung-Mean;Yun, Su-jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.108-121
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the issues and implications for landscape design education in Korean landscape architecture by analyzing the National Exhibition of Korean Landscape Architecture(NEKLA). This study analyzed the suggested topics and selected site as well as the commentary that appeared in the NEKLA's award-winning book published from 2004 to 2014. Results of the study are as follows: First, topics of NEKLA are not only competition guidelines but related to exploring new area and role of Korean landscape architecture. Second, most dealing with site is 'industrial heritage and regeneration space' and 'green infrastructure'. In more recent years, a larger variety of sites were addressed. Third, site locations are concentrated in metropolitan areas, and awards and participation of the non-metropolitan universities was very low. Fourth, seven criteria can be applied in a general landscape design competition such as 'newness of the concept(idea)', 'logicality of the design process', 'selection of site fidelity of analysis(interpretation)', 'presentation and completion of the master plan', 'consistency with the theme', 'linkage of concepts and results' and 'feasibility'. The evaluation criteria are increasing the sophistication of the design language to provide useful suggestions on how to find design education methods. Its implications are as follows: First, training is essential to derive innovative ideas, but it should avoid excessive concept-oriented education. Second, design education may include instruction on how to define the problems related with the site. Third, more emphasis on design logic is essential to transform the innovative concept to actual results. Fourth, 'slick images' unrelated to design should be suppressed. Fifth, practice is needed to solve the topics addressed in the design process of education. Sixth, 'feasibility' and 'creative thinking' are necessary to recognize a reciprocal relationship that is helpful to one another. This study uses direct quote commentary to minimize the subjectivity of the researcher and to trace issues of the contemporary landscape architecture more directly and vividly. This study is a record waiting for another review as meta-criticism. In this regard this study, the landscape architect of the next times will have a mean that historical records to review the current thinking of the landscape theory and design.

A Study on Embodiment Aspects and Practice Strategies of Welfare Ideology in Contemporary Urban Park (현대 도시공원에서 나타나는 복지이념 구현양상 및 실천 전략에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Han-Sol;Han, So-Young;Zoh, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.60-71
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    • 2014
  • In this study, on the assumption that the urban park originally is imbued with a public welfare ideology, said public welfare ideology and its characteristics were attended to among the various social roles that the urban park currently fulfills. Aspects of welfare meaning in urban parks were attempted to be identified with the former history of urban parks and the movements of the connections between modern parks and welfare territories. The ideologies, benefits and practices regarding the welfare role that the urban park has played from the past to the present were examined and the backgrounds and contexts within which the welfare ideologies have been expressed in the urban park were examined. In order to examine the implicated public welfare ideologies of the urban park, case studies were conducted to identify how they are expressed and practiced in the present times and the facilitation of these parks and public welfare both in the U.S. and the South Korea. The study results of the cases show that expressions of public welfare in urban parks are composed of more specific and visible programs and strategies in the present times, which are different from the simple proclamatory ways in the past. Particularly, in order to visibly practice a public welfare ideology, many-sided integrated designs are conducted along with various public welfare institutions and programs inside and outside of the urban park. The conclusions from this study are as follows. First, the urban park plays a role as a space to realize public welfare ideology, to create welfare benefits and to realize social welfare. Modern urban parks are used as an indicator to measure the actual conditions of social welfare and are a social environmental commodity that can offer universal benefits to urban residents. Second, many-sided integrated designs are tried along with various public welfare institutions at urban parks, which visibly practice public welfare ideologies in the present. In addition, public welfare institutions greatly influence the consistent development of the resources in the urban park. Third, if the detailed utilization of the regional facilities infrastructure could be brought along with multidimensional approaches about the resources in the urban park, it could be much closer to the lives of residents and could secure a space for increasing resident quality of life.

Trend Analysis of Strategic Factors to Promote the Image of Cities (도시별 이미지 전략 요인의 경향 분석)

  • Byeon, Jae-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.80-98
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    • 2008
  • In the past, the purpose of urban landscape planning was to beautify cities. Now, that is changing as cities with their own characteristic identities and images are focusing on the making of livable cities. The subject of international competition is turning from a country objective to that of individual cities. To increase the attraction of the urban image will, therefore, be the most important and urgent policy in all cities. A city without global competitiveness will be demoted to a sub-city. This study intends to suggest strategic ways to improve the urban image suitable for Korean cities by the analysis and classification of the advanced cases in other countries. This study can be summarized as follows: 1. The image of cities is promoted by diverse strategies such as establishing landmarks, making meaningful places, hosting festivals and sports events, and making cultural policies. These strategies can be classified by three factors: the landscape and ecological factor, the historical and cultural factor, and the administrative and economic factor. 2. Korean cities are making efforts to promote their images through a variety of ways. Mega cities in Korea are steadily carrying out projects to use the administrative and economic factor such as expanding the infrastructure, supporting enterprises, advertising and marketing with accumulated capital. However, local small cities mainly depend on festivals and simple events or programs that are of interest but which lack characteristic identity. 3. Cities of advanced western countries are upgrading their images by finding and applying strategic methods to reflect characteristic identity and to keep in step with the changes of the times. On the other hand, cities in Japan try to promote urban image with traditional native festivals and with the making of livable places based on resident participation. The central government in Korea needs to establish a master plan considering the regional balance to improve the image of each city. Local governments should carry out these diverse strategic methods. The task after benchmarking advanced cities with beautiful landscapes will be to find an 'All-Korean Style' and apply it to cities with characteristic image.

Proposal for improved implementation of aviation safety reporting system (항공안전보고제도 개선방안에 대한 연구)

  • Chang, Man-Heui
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.337-371
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    • 2015
  • In recent years, aviation safety has been facing new hazards due to the rapidly changing environment in which aircraft operation increasingly finds. Continuously increasing air traffic volume, integration of various cultures from many States, and many other changes are the causal factors of the new risks. To identify such new hazards and risks, the government of the Republic of Korea (ROK) established aviation safety reporting systems in accordance with the international standards of the Convention on International Civil Aviation. However, there are some misunderstandings by the government in operating and by the personnel who take part in these reporting systems. Everybody should understand that aviation safety reporting system is not a punitive measure but a tool for collecting data in order to improve safety. In addition, such a system can be utilized further to promote an improved awareness on the need for a proper safety culture on the part of both the government, the industry and the personnel. This paper includes studies on international standards, relevant regulations in the United States and the United Kingdom. Moreover, this paper proposes to the government of ROK several points to improve their own system, including integration of the existing reporting systems, improvement of reporting items, implementation of safety data taxonomy and the establishment of safety data protection.

Strategy Development for Expanding High-speed Railway into both Korean Domestic Market and Foreign Market (고속철도사업 활성화 및 건설업체의 해외사업참여 확대방향 연구)

  • Park, Heedae;Park, Hyung Keun;Jang, Hyeon Seok;Han, Seung Heon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.31 no.1D
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2011
  • High-speed railway raises global interests with the growing concerns on the green development and the green energy. However, since most of the infrastructure investment of Korea was focused on the highway projects for last forty years, the investment on the railway has been limited around 40~50% of that of the highway projects. In addition, due to the world economy crisis and unsatisfactory support of existing policy for the private investment project, the private investment is given a small deal of weight on the social overhead capital investment. Meanwhile, despite the world high-speed railway market is growing rapidly and the Korean contractors have won the international construction contracts over 70 billion USD, past records of railway projects are very rare. Therefore, it is required to develop strategies for encouraging private investment in the domestic market to achieve efficient high-speed railway development and for advancing into foreign high-speed railway market. This study carried out data collection and market analysis for both domestic and foreign market respectively. Through a structured questionnaire survey and expert interviews, contractors' perceptions on the high-speed railway market and needs for the government support are collected. Summary of strategies drawn from this study are as follows: 1) carrying out BTL high-speed railway projects and revising related policies; 2) upwarding incentive level for the private pre-investment projects considering the contractors' credit rating; 3) carrying out Honam-Jeju submarine railway project; 4) establishing a efficient consortium model for foreign market; 5) improving the capacity of the Korea Railway Association that support Korean contractors' foreign advancement; and 6) expand the budget for Global Infra-fund.

Lahar flow simulation using Laharz_py program: Application for the Mt. Halla volcano, Jeju, Korea (Laharz_py 프로그램을 이용한 라하르 수치모의: 한라산 화산체에 적용)

  • Yun, Sung-Hyo;Chang, Cheolwoo
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.361-372
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    • 2016
  • Lahar, one of catastrophic events, has the potential to cause the loss of life and damage to infrastructure over inhabited areas. This study using Laharz_py program, was performed schematic prediction on the impact area of lahar hazards at the Mt. Halla volcano, Jeju island. In order to comprehensively address the impact of lahar for the Mt. Halla, two distinct parameters, H/L ratio and lahar volume, were selected to influence variable for Laharz_py simulation. It was carried out on the basis of numerical simulation by estimating a possible lahar volumes of 30,000, 50,000, 70,000, 100,000, 300,000, $500,000m^3$ according to H/L ratios (0.20, 0.22 and 0.25) was applied. Based on the numerical simulations, the area of the proximal hazard zone boundary is gradually decreased with increasing H/L ratio. The number of streams which affected by lahar tended to decrease with increasing H/L ratio. In the case of H/L ratio 0.20, three streams (Gwangryeong stream, Dogeun stream, Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and six streams (Gungsan stream, Hogeun stream, Seohong stream, Donghong stream, Bomok stream, Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. In the case of H/L ratio 0.22, two streams (Gwangryeong stream and Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and five streams (Gungsan stream, Seohong stream, Donghong stream, Bomok stream, Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. And in the case of H/L ratio 0.25, two streams (Gwangryeong stream and Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and one stream (Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. The results of this study will be used as basic data to create a risk map for the direct damage that can be caused due to volcanic hazards arising from Mt. Halla.