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Removal of residual VOCs in a collection chamber using decompression for analysis of large volatile sample

  • Lee, In-Ho;Byun, Chang Kyu;Eum, Chul Hun;Kim, Taewook;Lee, Sam-Keun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 2021
  • In order to measure the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of a sample which is too large to use commercially available chamber, a stainless steel vacuum chamber (VC) (with an internal diameter of 205 mm and a height of 50 mm) was manufactured and the temperature of the chamber was controlled using an oven. After concentrating the volatiles of the sample in the chamber by helium gas, it was made possible to remove residual volatile substances present in the chamber under reduced pressure ((2 ± 1) × 10-2 mmHg). The chamber was connected to a purge & trap (P&T) using a 6 port valve to concentrate the VOCs, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after thermal desorption (VC-P&T-GC-MS). Using toluene, the toluene recovery rate of this device was 85 ± 2 %, reproducibility was 5 ± 2 %, and the detection limit was 0.01 ng L-1. The method of removing VOCs remaining in the chamber with helium and the method of removing those with reduced pressure was compared using Korean drinking water regulation (KDWR) VOC Mix A (5 μL of 100 ㎍ mL-1) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 2 μL of 500 ㎍ mL-1). In case of using helium, which requires a large amount of gas and time, reduced pressure ((2 ± 1) × 10-2 mmHg) only during the GC-MS running time, could remove VOCs and BHT to less than 0.1 % of the original injection concentration. As a result of analyzing volatile substances using VC-P&T-GC-MS of six types of cell phone case, BHT was detected in four types and quantitatively analyzed. Maintaining the chamber at reduced pressure during the GC-MS analysis time eliminated memory effect and did not affect the next sample analysis. The volatile substances in a cell phone case were also analyzed by dynamic headspace (HT3) and GC-MS, and the results of the analysis were compared with those of VC-P&T-GC-MS. Considering the chamber volume and sample weight, the VC-P&T configuration was able to collect volatile substances more efficiently than the HT3. The VC-P&T-GC-MS system is believed to be useful for VOCs measurement of inhomogeneous large sample or devices used inside clean rooms.

Calculations of the Single-Scattering Properties of Non-Spherical Ice Crystals: Toward Physically Consistent Cloud Microphysics and Radiation (비구형 빙정의 단일산란 특성 계산: 물리적으로 일관된 구름 미세물리와 복사를 향하여)

  • Um, Junshik;Jang, Seonghyeon;Kim, Jeonggyu;Park, Sungmin;Jung, Heejung;Han, Suji;Lee, Yunseo
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.113-141
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    • 2021
  • The impacts of ice clouds on the energy budget of the Earth and their representation in climate models have been identified as important and unsolved problems. Ice clouds consist almost exclusively of non-spherical ice crystals with various shapes and sizes. To determine the influences of ice clouds on solar and infrared radiation as required for remote sensing retrievals and numerical models, knowledge of scattering and microphysical properties of ice crystals is required. A conventional method for representing the radiative properties of ice clouds in satellite retrieval algorithms and numerical models is to combine measured microphysical properties of ice crystals from field campaigns and pre-calculated single-scattering libraries of different shapes and sizes of ice crystals, which depend heavily on microphysical and scattering properties of ice crystals. However, large discrepancies between theoretical calculations and observations of the radiative properties of ice clouds have been reported. Electron microscopy images of ice crystals grown in laboratories and captured by balloons show varying degrees of complex morphologies in sub-micron (e.g., surface roughness) and super-micron (e.g., inhomogeneous internal and external structures) scales that may cause these discrepancies. In this study, the current idealized models representing morphologies of ice crystals and the corresponding numerical methods (e.g., geometric optics, discrete dipole approximation, T-matrix, etc.) to calculate the single-scattering properties of ice crystals are reviewed. Current problems and difficulties in the calculations of the single-scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals are addressed in terms of cloud microphysics. Future directions to develop physically consistent ice-crystal models are also discussed.

A Study on Durability and Strength Properties of Compact Tension Specimen by Material through Simulation Analysis (시뮬레이션 해석을 통한 소재 별 소형 인장 시험편의 내구성 및 강도 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Ho;Cho, Jae-Ung
    • Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.579-588
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    • 2018
  • There are the plastic resin, fiber and the single metal among materials. There is also the inhomogeneous material whose durability is improved as the composite material with the property of light weight. This study notices the composite material with light weight of CFRP. The strength properties of stainless steel and aluminum which have been used generally are compared and analyzed each other with CFRP. The compact tension specimen of the same standard by each material were designed and the simulation tensile analyses were carried out. As the study result, the maximum deformation, maximum stress and maxium strain energy are shown to be about 0.0148mm, 59.104MPa and 0.00529mJ respectively in case of CFRP specimen model. The maximum deformation, maximum stress and maxium strain energy were shown to be about 0.0106mm, 42.22MPa and 0.002699mJ respectively at stainless steel. It could be checked that the maximum deformation, maximum stress and maxium strain energy of aluminum specimen model were shown to be about 0.023mm, 33.29MPa and 0.00464mJ respectively at stainless steel. Therefore, the results at this study are thought to be applied with the basic data on the strength property of CFRP composite material.

THEORETICAL STUDY ON OBSERVED COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS

  • Lee, See-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.41-70
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    • 1979
  • From $B\ddot{o}hm$-Vitense's atmospheric model calculations, the relations, [$T_e$, (B-V)] and [B.C, (B-V)] with respect to heavy element abundance were obtained. Using these relations and evolutionary model calculations of Rood, and Sweigart and Gross, analytic expressions for some physical parameters relating to the C-M diagrams of globular clusters were derived, and they were applied to 21 globular clusters with observed transition periods of RR Lyrae variables. More than 20 different parameters were examined for each globular cluster. The derived ranges of some basic parameters are as follows; $Y=0.21{\sim}0.33,\;Z=1.5{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}4.5{\times}10^{-3},\;age,\;t=9.5{\sim}19{\times}10^9$ years, mass for red giants, $m_{RG}=0.74m_{\odot}{\sim}0.91m_{\odot}$, mass for RR Lyrae stars, $m_{RR}=0.59m_{\odot}{\sim}0.75m_{\odot}$, the visual magnitude difference between the turnoff point and the horizontal branch (HB), ${\Delta}V_{to}=3.1{\sim}3.4(<{\Delta}V_{to}>=3.32)$, the color of the blue edge of RR Lyrae gap, $(B-V)_{BE}=0.17{\sim}0.21=(<(B-V)_{BE}>=0.18),\;[\frac{m}{L}]_{RR}=-1.7{\sim}-1.9$, mass difference of $m_{RR}$ relative to $m_{RG},(m_{RG}-m_{RR})/m_{RG}=0.0{\sim}0.39$. It was found that the ranges of derived parameters agree reasonably well with the observed ones and those estimated by others. Some important results obtained herein can be summarized as follows; (i) There are considerable variations in the initial helium abundance and in age of globular clusters. (ii) The radial gradient of heavy element abundance does exist for globular clusters as shown by Janes for field stars and open clusters. (iii) The helium abundance seems to have been increased with age by massive star evolution after a considerable amount (Y>0.2) of helium had been attained by the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, but there is not seen a radial gradient of helium abundance. (iv) A considerable amount of heavy elements ($Z{\sim}10{-3}$) might have been formed in the inner halo ($r_{GC}$<10 kpc) from the earliest galactic co1lapse, and then the heavy element abundance has been slowly enriched towards the galactic center and disk, establishing the radial gradient of heavy element abundance. (v) The final galactic disk formation might have taken much longer by about a half of the galactic age than the halo formation, supporting a slow, inhomogeneous co1lapse model of Larson. (vi) Of the three principal parameters controlling the morphology of C-M diagrams, it was found that the first parameter is heavy clement abundance, the second age and the third helium abundance. (vii) The globular clusters can be divided into three different groups, AI, BI and CII according to Z, Y an d age as well as Dickens' HB types. BI group clusters of HB types 4 and 5 like M 3 and NGC 7006 are the oldest and have the lowest helium abundance of the three groups. And also they appear in the inner halo. On the other hand, the youngest AI clusters have the highest Z and Y, and appear in the innermost halo region and in the disk. (viii) From the result of the clean separations of the clusters into three groups, a three dimensional classification with three parameters, Z, Y and age is prsented. (ix) The anomalous C-M diagrams can be expalined in terms of the three principal parameters. That is, the anomaly of NGC 362 and NGC 7006 is accounted for by the smaller age of the order of $1{\sim}2{\times}10^9$ years rather than by the helium abundance difference, compared with M 3. (x) The difference in two Oosterhoff types I and II can be explained in terms of the mean mass difference of RR Lyrae variables rather than in terms of the helium abundance difference as suggested by Stobie. The mean mass of the variables in Oosterhoff type I clusters is smaller by $0.074m_{\odot}$ which is exactly consistent with Rood's estimate. Since it was found that the mean mass of RR Lyrae stars increases with decreasing Z, the two Oosterhoff types can be explained substantially by the metal abundance difference; the type II has Z<$3.4{\times}10^{-4}$, and the type I has higher Z than the type II.

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The Effect of Exercise Program on Chronic Low Back Pain in Female Teachers of Elementary School (만성요통 여교사에 대한 운동프로그램의 효과 - 근력, 근지구력, 유연성, 통증, 기능장애, 우울 및 생활만족도를 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Soon-Young
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.169-187
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to probe the effect of exercise program on muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, pain, disability level and life satisfaction in female teachers of elementary school who complain of low back pain. For this study, 44 female teachers aged 30-50 years with mechanical low back pain of 6 months' duration, who had the structural normalities in the lumbar spine, were recruited from April 1 to July 10 1999. Twenty three out of them were assigned to the experimental group and twenty one to the control group. The exercise program consisted of education on right postures, the etiology and diagnosis of low back pain, and exercise intervention such as muscle relaxation, elongation and strengthening. With 8 weeks program, the subjects received two sessions of education and six sessions of group exercise in the 1st week, while three sessions of group exercise and four sessions of individual exercise weekly and two sessions of education during the later 7 weeks. The muscle strength and endurance were measured by Cybex 770, the flexibility by flexibility measurement machine, the intensity of pain by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the level of disability by Oswestry low back pain disability scale, depression by Beck depression inventory (BDI), and life satisfaction by Life satisfaction index-Z. Study measurements were taken before and after 8 weeks exercise program. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, t-test, and ANCOVA. The results were as follows ; 1. The flexors and extensors peak torque and flexors peak torque per body weight of experimental group were significantly increased at test velocities $30^{\circ}$/sec, $60^{\circ}$/sec compared with those of control group. There was no significant difference in extensors peak torque per flexors peak torque at $30^{\circ}/sec$, $60^{\circ}/sec$ between experimental and control group. 2. The flexors and extensors total work and flexors total work per body weight of experimental group were significantly increased at $120^{\circ}/sec$, compared with those of control group. 3.The flexibility of lumbar spine in experimental group was significantly increased compared with that of control group. The pains in anterior, posterior, left lateral and right lateral bending and in rotation of experimental group were significantly increased compared with those of control group. 4. The Oswestry disability scores of experimental and control group were significantly decreased, and there was no difference in the Oswestry disability score change between experimental and control group. 5. The scores of BDI of experimental group were significantly decreased compared with those of control group. Life satisfaction index-Z scores of experimental group were not changed, but those of control group were significantly decreased. There was no difference in the score change of Life satisfaction index-Z between experimental and control group. 6. ANCOVA analysis for the data variables of inhomogeneous baseline represented that there was no significant difference in extensors peak torque and extensors total work at $120^{\circ}/sec$ and extensor total work per body weight at $120^{\circ}/sec$ change between experimental group and control group. These findings indicate that the exercise program could be effective in increasing the muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and decreasing pain, improving depression in female teachers of elementary school with chronic low back pain. It is suggested that the exercise program could be an essential factor for the effective nursing intervention to the patients suffered from chronic low back pain.

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Characteristics of Sintered Bodies Made from the System of Paper Sludge Ash - Fly Ash - Clay (종이재-석탄회-점토계 소지를 이용한 소결체의 특성 연구)

  • Hong, Jin-Ok;Kang, Seung-Gu;Lee, Ki-Gang;Kim, Yoo-Taek;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Jung-Hwan;Park, Myoung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.908-913
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    • 2001
  • Paper sludge Ash (PA) and Fly Ash (FA) wastes are usually land-filled for reclamation or substituted for cements as a resource. It could also offer some advantages when they are substituted for clay to preserve the environment. To recycle those wastes, the sintered specimen made of PA-FA-Clay system were examined to find the microstructure and physical properties. The ratio of clay to wastes was fixed as 30:70 by wt%, while PA to FA within waste portion were varied in the range of $1:6{\sim}7:0$. Those specimens were fired in $1150{\sim}1350^{\circ}C$. It was found that the relative density of sintered specimen was increased with amount of PA added at low sintering temperature (i.e, $1150{\sim}1200^{\circ}C$). This is due to increased amount of liquid during sintering. It is shown, however that at high sintering temperature ($1250{\sim}1350^{\circ}C$), the relative density of specimens was decreased with amount of PA added. This is because of overfiring phenomenon which may be able to induce an inhomogeneous microstructure and increased porosity. The mechanical properties of sintered specimen were depended upon the homogeneity of microstructure in accordance with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and pore size distribution analysis. For example, the compressive strength of 10PA-60FA-30Clay specimen sintered at $1225^{\circ}C$ was twice higher than that of 70PA-30Clay specimen even thought the relative density of those specimen was similar. This decreased strength of 70PA-30Clay specimen appears to be an inhomogeneity of microstructure due to overfiring.

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Evaluating applicability of metal artifact reduction algorithm for head & neck radiation treatment planning CT (Metal artifact reduction algorithm의 두경부 CT에 대한 적용 가능성 평가)

  • Son, Sang Jun;Park, Jang Pil;Kim, Min Jeong;Yoo, Suk Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is evaluation for the applicability of O-MAR(Metal artifact Reduction for Orthopedic Implants)(ver. 3.6.0, Philips, Netherlands) in head & neck radiation treatment planning CT with metal artifact created by dental implant. Materials and Methods : All of the in this study's CT images were scanned by Brilliance Big Bore CT(Philips, Netherlands) at 120kVp, 2mm sliced and Metal artifact reduced by O-MAR. To compare the original and reconstructed CT images worked on RTPS(Eclipse ver 10.0.42, Varian, USA). In order to test the basic performance of the O-MAR, The phantom was made to create metal artifact by dental implant and other phantoms used for without artifact images. To measure a difference of HU in with artifact images and without artifact images, homogeneous phantom and inhomogeneous phantoms were used with cerrobend rods. Each of images were compared a difference of HU in ROIs. And also, 1 case of patient's original CT image applied O-MAR and density corrected CT were evaluated for dose distributions with SNC Patient(Sun Nuclear Co., USA). Results : In cases of head&neck phantom, the difference of dose distibution is appeared 99.8% gamma passing rate(criteria 2 mm / 2%) between original and CT images applied O-MAR. And 98.5% appeared in patient case, among original CT, O-MAR and density corrected CT. The difference of total dose distribution is less than 2% that appeared both phantom and patient case study. Though the dose deviations are little, there are still matters to discuss that the dose deviations are concentrated so locally. In this study, The quality of all images applied O-MAR was improved. Unexpectedly, Increase of max. HU was founded in air cavity of the O-MAR images compare to cavity of the original images and wrong corrections were appeared, too. Conclusion : The result of study assuming restrained case of O-MAR adapted to near skin and low density area, it appeared image distortion and artifact correction simultaneously. In O-MAR CT, air cavity area even turned tissue HU by wrong correction was founded, too. Consequentially, It seems O-MAR algorithm is not perfect to distinguish air cavity and photon starvation artifact. Nevertheless, the differences of HU and dose distribution are not a huge that is not suitable for clinical use. And there are more advantages in clinic for improved quality of CT images and DRRs, precision of contouring OARs or tumors and correcting artifact area. So original and O-MAR CT must be used together in clinic for more accurate treatment plan.

Evaluation and interpretation of the effects of heterogeneous layers in an OBS/air-gun crustal structure study (OBS/에어건을 이용한 지각구조 연구에서 불균질층의 영향에 대한 평가와 해석)

  • Tsuruga, Kayoko;Kasahara, Junzo;Kubota, Ryuji;Nishiyama, Eiichiro;Kamimura, Aya;Naito, Yoshihiro;Honda, Fuminori;Oikawa, Nobutaka;Tamura, Yasuo;Nishizawa, Azusa;Kaneda, Kentaro
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2008
  • We present a method for interpreting seismic records with arrivals and waveforms having characteristics which could be generated by extremely inhomogeneous velocity structures, such as non-typical oceanic crust, decollement at subduction zones, and seamounts in oceanic regions, by comparing them with synthetic waveforms. Recent extensive refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys in oceanic regions have provided us with a huge number of high-resolution and high-quality seismic records containing characteristic arrivals and waveforms, besides first arrivals and major reflected phases such as PmP. Some characteristic waveforms, with significant later reflected phases or anomalous amplitude decay with offset distance, are difficult to interpret using only a conventional interpretation method such as the traveltime tomographic inversion method. We find the best process for investigating such characteristic phases is to use an interactive interpretation method to compare observed data with synthetic waveforms, and calculate raypaths and traveltimes. This approach enables us to construct a reasonable structural model that includes all of the major characteristics of the observed waveforms. We present results here with some actual observed examples that might be of great help in the interpretation of such problematic phases. Our approach to the analysis of waveform characteristics is endorsed as an innovative method for constructing high-resolution and high-quality crustal structure models, not only in oceanic regions, but also in the continental regions.

GPR Development for Landmine Detection (지뢰탐지를 위한 GPR 시스템의 개발)

  • Sato, Motoyuki;Fujiwara, Jun;Feng, Xuan;Zhou, Zheng-Shu;Kobayashi, Takao
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.270-279
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    • 2005
  • Under the research project supported by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), we have conducted the development of GPR systems for landmine detection. Until 2005, we have finished development of two prototype GPR systems, namely ALIS (Advanced Landmine Imaging System) and SAR-GPR (Synthetic Aperture Radar-Ground Penetrating Radar). ALIS is a novel landmine detection sensor system combined with a metal detector and GPR. This is a hand-held equipment, which has a sensor position tracking system, and can visualize the sensor output in real time. In order to achieve the sensor tracking system, ALIS needs only one CCD camera attached on the sensor handle. The CCD image is superimposed with the GPR and metal detector signal, and the detection and identification of buried targets is quite easy and reliable. Field evaluation test of ALIS was conducted in December 2004 in Afghanistan, and we demonstrated that it can detect buried antipersonnel landmines, and can also discriminate metal fragments from landmines. SAR-GPR (Synthetic Aperture Radar-Ground Penetrating Radar) is a machine mounted sensor system composed of B GPR and a metal detector. The GPR employs an array antenna for advanced signal processing for better subsurface imaging. SAR-GPR combined with synthetic aperture radar algorithm, can suppress clutter and can image buried objects in strongly inhomogeneous material. SAR-GPR is a stepped frequency radar system, whose RF component is a newly developed compact vector network analyzers. The size of the system is 30cm x 30cm x 30 cm, composed from six Vivaldi antennas and three vector network analyzers. The weight of the system is 17 kg, and it can be mounted on a robotic arm on a small unmanned vehicle. The field test of this system was carried out in March 2005 in Japan.

Synthesis of Nano TiO2 Coated on Fly Ash Composites by the Precipitation Dropping Method (침전제적하법에 의한 나노 TiO2코팅 석탄회 복합체 제조)

  • 신대용;한상목
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.550-557
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    • 2002
  • TiO$_2$ particles coated on fly ash composites for use in photocatalyst were synthesized by the precipitation dropping method and heated at $700^{\circ}C$ for 2 h. The pH of reaction solution, the addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$, the stirring speed, the reaction temperature and the concentration of TiC1$_4$ had a pronounced effect on the nature of precipitated TiO$_2$ particles on the surface off fly ash and the crystal structure of precipitated TiO$_2$ particles. At an addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$; 1.0 ml/min, the pH of the reaction solution; 6, the stirring speed; 1,000 rpm and the reaction temperature; 8$0^{\circ}C$, about 10 nm of TiO$_2$ particle size and homogeneous precipitated layer on the surface of a fly ash was achieved. On the contrary, at an addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$; 0.3,0.5 ml/min, the pH of the reaction solution; 2 and 11, the stirring speed; 300~500 rpm and the reaction temperature; lower than 5$0^{\circ}C$:, Inhomogeneous precipitated layer was developed on a fly ash. TiO$_2$ particles with anatase phase was formed as-dried precipitation at the low concentration of Tic14, the high addition rate of NH$_4$HCO$_3$ and the high reaction temperature, the crystalline fraction of anatase increased with raising heat-treatment temperature and rutile phase began to formation at 80$0^{\circ}C$. The crystal size of TiO$_2$ particles increased with raising the heat-treatment temperature, the crystal size was showed about 21 m at $700^{\circ}C$. Anatase type of TiO$_2$ coated on the fly ash heated at $700^{\circ}C$ for 2 h showed 1.25 g/cm$^3$of particle density, 82.8% of strength and 69.5 Lab of whiteness and can be used as a photocatalyst.