• Title/Summary/Keyword: Injection Speed

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A study of mixing ratio of seal material for umbrella arch reinforcement for tunnelling (터널 강관 보강형 다단 그라우팅의 Seal재 배합비에 대한 연구)

  • Hwang, Beoung-Hyeon;Kim, Yeon-Deok;Sim, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Sang-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.367-381
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    • 2020
  • This paper presents the seal material mixing ratio of tunnel umbrella arch reinforcement method. Currently, there is no clear standard for the proper gelation time and curing time of the Seal material in Korea, and the quality control is also difficult because it cannot be verified. In response, the ratio of the mixture of the seal material was composed of four types of indoor experiments, and the amount of gelation time and bleed was checked. In addition, a non-cart penetration test confirmed the curing time and compared the ratio of each combination. Further experiments on W/C 120% identified the effect of mixing speed and time on the seal material. A total of three field experiments were conducted based on indoor experiments, and the size and strength of bulb formation were compared by checking the curing time of the specimen and main injection. Comparisons show that the lower W/C, the stronger the strength, the larger the size of the bulb, and the faster the hardening time appears. Based on the results of the gelation time and curing time, it was deemed that the mixing ratio of W/C 120% is most appropriate when applied to the actual site.

Determination of VOC in aqueous samples by the combination of headspace (HS) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) (HS-SPME 방식에 기초한 물 중 VOC 성분의 분석기법에 대한 연구: 3가지 실험 조건의 변화와 분석감도의 관계)

  • Park, Shin-Young;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Yang, H.S.;Ha, Joo-Young;Lee, Ki-Han;Ahn, Ji-Won
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2008
  • The application of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is generally conducted by directly immersing the fiber into the liquid sample or by exposing the fiber in the head space (HS). The extraction temperature, the time of incubation, and application of stirring are often designated to be the most important parameters for achieving the best extraction efficiencies of HS-SPME analysis. In this study, relative importance of these three analytical parameters involved in the HS-SPME method is evaluated using a polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen (PDMS/CAR) fiber. To optimize its operation conditions the competing relationships between different parameters were investigated by comparing the extraction efficiency based on the combination of three parameters and two contracting conditions: (1) heating the sample at 30 vs. 50 C, (2) exposing samples at two durations of 10 vs. 30 min, and (3) application of stirring vs. no stirring. According to our analysis among 8 combination types of HS-SPME method, an extraction condition termed as S50-30 condition ((1) 1200 rpm stirring, (2) $50^{\circ}C$ exposure temp, and (3) 30 min exposure duration) showed maximum recovery rate of 45.5~68.5% relative to an arbitrary reference of direct GC injection. According to this study, the employment of stirring is the most crucial factor to improve extraction efficiency in the application of HS-SPME.

The optimum media size and composition for sawdust culture of Lentinula edodes (Strain: JNM3022) (표고버섯(JNM3022) 톱밥재배에 적합한 배지조성과 배지크기)

  • Choi, Duck Soo;Jung, Kyung Ju
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.6 no.3_4
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2008
  • These experiments were conducted to search for the optimum media size and composition for culture of Lentinula edodes (JNM3022). Considering the incubation period and the successful culturing rate, the optimum media size was length 25 $cm{\times}diameter$ 14 cm (weight 2.5 kg). The saturation moisture amount of Oak sawdust was 251 ml/100 g. It is a half of pine sawdust 495 ml/100 g. Considering the hypha growing speed and hypha density, the optimum media composition was Oak sawdust 80%+ wheat bran 20% and Oak sawdust 80%+ rice bran 20% In 10 treatments of media composition. The optimum moisture amount of media for growing Lentinula edodes (JNM3022) was 55%. Injection pipe with 20 holes in media was reduced the incubation periods to 11 days when 20cm length media and 32 days when 30cm length media compare to control. The best method for browning media surface was change temperature condition above $10^{\circ}C$ and punching the vinyl bag. This treat could shortened the browning periods to 54 days.

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Clinical Studies on 56 Cases of Having Treated patients suffering from Ischemic Stroke through both Urokinase and Therapeutics of Oriental Medicine (Urokinase와 동의학적요법(東醫學的療法)으로 동시치료(同時治療)한 허혈성뇌졸중환자(虛血性腦卒中患者) 56례(例)에 대(對)한 임상적(臨床的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, In-Sup
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.46-91
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    • 1994
  • l. Backgrounds of Studies Cerebrovascular accident. one of the three major causes of death among audults with cardiopathy and malignancy, has been on the increase in korea while it is on the decrease in European countries and Japan. Types of stroke undergo changes caused by prolongment of life expectancy. and social and economic variety. More patients of ischemic stroke show a tendency to increase now than those of hemorrhagic stroke in the past. Many clinical studies on medical cerebrovascular and oriental stroke of paralysis have been published. but few clinical studies on therapeutics of integrated oriental and western medicine are to be found. So I have made an attempt to study clinical observations and therapeutic responses of ischemic stroke under integrated oriental and western medicine. 2.Methods. Among the patients admitted into the clinic of Joong-Poong, Woo-Suk University Hospital from May 1. 1993 until April 30. 1994 those 56 patients who were diagnosed as ischemic stroke on Computed Tomography(CT) and showed no dubious symptom after examination of coagulation and bleeding time were classified into the following six steps and treated: l)diagnosis 2)emergency treatment 3)basic treatment 4)treatment of risk and provoking factors. and preceeding disease 5)complications and conservative therapy 6)rehabilitation. For a period of basic treatment both herb medication and urokinase therapy were applied at the same time. Intravenous injection has been given at a unit of 300.000 dosage a day as urokinase therapy during basic treatment. If they showed any dubious symptom in glucose tolerance test. fructose 500ml and urokinase 300.000 dosage were mixed and injected. In case of no symptom 5% DW 500ml was mixed with urokinase 300.000 unit. and injected at a speed of 15gtt per minute. 3. Results and Conclusions 1) The level of ambulation has been improved from 42.9% when admitted to 73.2% when discharged in the degree of recovery. The level of severe function disorder has been remarkably decreased from 55.4% when admitted to 19.6% when discharged. 2) The treatment effect on the basis of therapeutic response of clinical and subjective symptom shows as follows: 7.1% Excellent. 35.7% Good. 37.5% Effective. 10.7% Stationary. and 8.9% Aggravated. The total recovery above effective shows 80.3%. Judging from the above results I think it proper to develop the model of better preventing and treating ischemic stroke through effective therapeutic and clinical studies of integrated oriental and western medicine.

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An empirical model of air bubble size for the application to air masker (에어마스커의 기포크기 추정 경험적 모델)

  • Park, Cheolsoo;Jeong, So Won;Kim, Gun Do;Park, Youngha;Moon, Ilsung;Yim, Geuntae
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.320-329
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    • 2021
  • In this paper, an empirical model of air bubble size to be applied to an air masker for reduction of underwater radiation noise is presented. The proposed model improves the divergence problem under the low-speed flow condition of the existing model derived using Rayleigh's jet instability model and simple continuity condition by introducing a jet flow velocity of air. The jet flow velocity of air is estimated using the bubble size where the liquid is quiescent. In a medium without flow, the size of the bubble is estimated by an empirical method where bubble formation regime is divided into a laminar-flow range, a transition range, and a turbulent-flow range based on the Reynolds number of the injected air. The proposed bubble size model is confirmed to be in good agreement with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis result and the experimental results of the existing literature. Using the acoustic inversion method, the air bubble population is estimated from the insertion loss measured during the air injection experiment of the air- masker model in a large cavitation tunnel. The results of the experiments and the bubble size model are compared in the paper.

Application of Radiological Study by Small Bowel Disease - Comparison of Diagnostic Results of Small Bowel Series and Abdominal Pelvic Computed Tomography - (소장 질환별 방사선학적 검사의 적용에 관한 연구 - 소장조영술과 복부골반전산화단층촬영의 결과 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Hee-Jung;Son, Soon-Yong;Lee, Won-Hong
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : There are two modalities, those are small bowel series(SBS) and abdominal pelvic computed tomography(CT), for diagnosis of small bowel disease. The aim of this study is to lend radiological technologists who are doing the two modalities assistance in the understanding characteristic of disease by comparing the two results. Meterials and method : 284 patients were examined the two SBS and abdominal pelvic CT together from 1999 to 2003. 250 ml $BaSO_4$ suspension 40 w/v% and 600ml carboxy methyl cellulose 0.5 w/v% were used for SBS. Abdominal Pelvic CT was examined in one hour before taking 450 ml $BaSO_4$ suspension 1.5 w/v%. The CT scan was done in 72 sec after 150 ml contrast media injection. the used protocol was helical mode 5:5 mm pitch 1.375:1, speed 27.50, exposure 120 kv, 240 mA, tube rotation time 0.5 sec. the statistic analysis was conducted with statistical program SPSS 10 version with frequency and crossing analysis. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results : In the results of SBS, normal findings were 131 patients(46.1%), inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) 64(22.9%), ischemia+ileocolitis+vasculitis 22(7.7%), Obstruction+stricture 21(7.7%) and Others 45(15.9%). In the results of abdominal pelvic CT, normal findings were 103 patients(36.3%), inflammatory bowel disease 65(22.9%), wall thickening+lymphadenopathy 42(14.8%), Fluid collection 17(6%), and Others 57case(20%). The same results of the two were 130patients(45.8%). 30patients(10.6%) of normal finding in SBS were diagnosed as wall thickening+lymphadenopathy and IBD in CT, and 15patients(5.3%) of normal finding in CT were diagnosed as ischemia+ileocolitis+vasculitis, mass and IBD in SBS(p<0.05). Transit time delay was diagnosed in 10patients(3.5%) on only SBS, wall thickening+lymphadenopathy was diagnosed in 20patients(7%) in only CT(p<0.05). Conclusion : We think that proper examination method will be selected in the small bowel disease, if we understand the characteristics of the disease and method.

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A Study on a Method for Fire Suppression in a Central Area inside the Roof of a Wooden Cultural Property using a Gas Extinguishing Apparatus (가스소화설비를 이용한 목조 문화재 적심부 화재진압 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyunsung;Kim, Byung Sean;Cho, Woncheol;Lim, Yun Mook
    • Journal of Korean Society of societal Security
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to provide a method for fire suppression in a central area inside the roof of a wooden cultural property using a gas extinguishing apparatus, which is used as one of fire suppression methods with view to preventing valuable wooden properties inherited from ancestors from being destructed by fire. For a wooden property, it is very difficult to suppress fire when combustion spreads to a central area inside its roof, so it is impossible to put out a fire without destructing it. Such a fire fighting apparatus as a sprinkler, etc., installed in modern structures, is very effective, but the possibility of damaging a cultural property is highly probable after installment and operation, which leads to its low adaptability to a wooden property. Thus, the necessity of developing a fire suppress ion apparatus was raised to minimize the said problem and to obtain the desired results, and the need of making a plan on the installment was also raised based on the results of a test whose validity was proven. The central area inside a roof is a traditional - architectural style which is found in Korean wooden structures only, so it is impossible to discover similar cases in foreign countries. For this reason, this study was conducted to verify the effectiveness by developing a fixed fire suppression apparatus designed considering the speed and effectiveness in fire suppression. This study was sequentially carried out in the following steps. First, a frame for this study was made and the specific plan on a fire suppression method was established. Then, a fire suppression apparatus was installed. In the first step, the effectiveness for fire suppression was tested by installing valve open - punched - main water pores, and in the second step, the same effectiveness was tested by valve opened - punched - injection ports. For a wooden property similar to "Sungnyemun"(Gate of Exalted Ceremonies), its central area of the roof decides whether the fire suppression is successful or not, so the opinions on how to put out a fire were presented in this study, and thus the objective data to establish a method on fire suppression in a wooden structure(cultural property) was secured. Lastly, a scientific verification in the effectiveness for fire suppression measures was presented by installing a gas - fixed fire suppression apparatus.

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Comparison for Glomerular Filtration Rate in Gamma Camera Systems Using Dynamic Renal Phantom System (동적신장팬텀시스템 개발에 따른 장비별 사구체여과율의 비교)

  • Kang, Chun Goo;Park, Hoon-Hee;Oh, Shin Hyun;Lee, Han Wool;Kim, Jung Yul;Oh, Joo Yung;Lee, Ju Young;Kim, Jae Sam;Lee, Chang Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Currently commercially available phantom can reproduce and evaluate only a static situation, the study is incomplete research on phantom and system which is can confirmed functional situation in the kidney by time through dynamic phantom and blood flow velocity, various difference according to the amount of radioactive. Therefore, through this study, it has produced the dynamic kidney phantom to reproduce images through the dynamic flow of the kidney, it desire to evaluate the usefulness of nuclear medicine imaging. Materials and Methods: The production of the kidney phantom was fabricated based on the normal adult kidney, in order to reproduce the dynamic situation based on the fabricated kidney phantom, in this study it was applied the volume pump that can adjust the speed of blood flow, so it can be integrated continuously radioactive isotopes in the kidney by using $^{99m}Tc-pertechnate$. Used the radioactive isotope was supplied through the two pump. It was confirmed the changes according to the infusion rate, radioactive isotopes and the different injection speeds on the left and right, analysis of the acquired images was done by drawn ten times ROI in order to check the reproducibility of each on the front and rear of the kidney and bladder. Results: Under the same conditions infusion rate 40 mL/min fixed to adjust the pressure of the pump when the radiopharmaceuticals between 2-3 minutes in the most integrated in the kidney phantom was excreted inthe bladder. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively, by each device SYMBIA 1,091 mL/min, FORTE 1,232 mL/min, ARGUS 1,264 mL/min, INFINIA 1,302 mL/min in that there isno statistically significant difference was found, Tmax values and T1/2 values stars from all equipment with no statistically significant difference was found. CV values of the coefficient of variation less than 5% was found to be repeatable, and to 2.67% of the lowest SYMBIA appeared, INFINIA was the highest in the 4.86%. Conclusion: Through this study, the results showed that the dynamic kidney phantom system is able to similarly reproduce renogram in the actual clinical. Especially, the depicted over time for the flow to be excreted through the kidney into the bladder was adequately reproduce, it is expected to be utilized as basic data to check the quality of the dynamic images. In addition, it is considered to help in the field of functional imaging and quality control.

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The Variation of Scan Time According to Patient's Breast Size and Body Mass Index in Breast Sentinel lymphangiography (유방암의 감시림프절 검사에서 유방크기와 체질량지수에 따른 검사시간 변화)

  • Lee, Da-Young;Nam-Koong, Hyuk;Cho, Seok-Won;Oh, Shin-Hyun;Im, Han-Sang;Kim, Jae-Sam;Lee, Chang-Ho;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : At this time, the sentinel lymph node mapping using radioisotope and blue dye is preceded for breast cancer patient's sentinel lymph node biopsy. But all patients were applied the same protocol without consideration of physical specific character like the breast sizes and body mass indexes. The purpose of this study is search the optimized scan time in breast sentinel lymphangiography by observing how much the body mass index and breast size influence speed of lymphatic flow. Materials and Methods : The Object of this study was 100 breast cancer patients(Female, 100 persons, average age $50.34{\pm}10.26$ years old)at Severance hospital from October 2011 to December 2011. They were scanned breast sentinel lymphangiography before operation. This study was performed on Forte dual heads gamma camera (Philips Medical Systems, Nederland B.V.). All patients were intra-dermal injected $^{99m}Tc$-Phytate 18.5 MBq, 0.5 ml. For 80 patients, we have scanned without limitation of scan time until the lymphatic flow from the lymph node since injection. We measured how long the lymphatic flow time between departures from injects site and arrival to lymph node using stopwatch. After we calculated patient's Body mass Index and classified as 4 groups. And we measured patient's breast size and classified 3 groups. The modified breast lymphangiography that changing scan time according to comparison study's result was performed on 20 patients and was estimated. Results : The mean scan time as breast size was A group 2.48 minutes, B group 7.69 minutes, C group 10.43 minutes. The mean scan time as body mass index was under weight 1.35 minutes, normal weight 2.56 minutes, slightly over 5.62 minutes, over weighted 5.62 minutes. The success rate of modified breast lymphangiography was 85%. Conclusion : As the Body mass index became higher and breast size became bigger, the total scan time is increased. Based on the obtained information, we designed modified breast lymphangiography protocol. At the cases applying that protocol, most of sentinel lymph nodes were visualized as lymphatic pool. In conclusion, we found that the more success rate in modified protocol considering physical individuality than study carrying out in the same protocol.

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Effects of Green Tea on Hepatic Antioxidative Defense System and Muscle Fatigue Recovery in Rat after Aerobic Exercise (녹차가 유산소 운동 후 흰쥐 간조직의 항산화 작용 및 근피로 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미지;이순재
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1058-1064
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea on hepatic antioxidative defense system and recovery of muscle fatigue in rat after aerobic exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150$\pm$ 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal (N) group and aerobic exercise training groups. Exercise training groups were classified into two groups: training (T) group and green tea (TG) group which were supplemented the distilled water and green tea extracts by dringking water during experimental periods, respectively. The experimental rats in exercise training groups (T and TG) ran on a treadmill 30 min/day at a speed of 28 m/min (7% incline) 5 days/week or were cage confined (Normal group) for 4 weeks. And rats were sacrificed with an overdose of pentobarbital injection just after running. Hepatic xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities were not significantly different among three groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in T group was no significant difference from N group, but those of TG groups were significantly increased, compared with that of T group. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activites of TG groups showed a similar tendency to that of normal group, but it was increased to 20% in TG group, compared with normal group. The reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in liver was not significantly different from that of any three group. The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents in T group was increased to 69%, compared with the normal group, but TG group significantly decreased, compared with the T group. The ratio of GSH/GSSG in liver of T group was lower than that of normal group, but those of TG group was a similar tendency to that of normal group. Contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) in T group was increased to 52%, compared with that of normal group but those of TG group were recovered the normal level. Contents of hepatic glycogen in T group were decreased to 23% compared with those of normal group, while that of TG group was the same as normal levels. The contents of serum lactic acid in T group were increased to 261%, compared with normal group, but those of TG group maintained the normal level by green tea supplementations. In conclusion, the effects of green tea in exercise training rats would appear to reduce peroxidation of tissue as an antioxidative defense mechanism and promote recovery of muscle fatigue.