• Title, Summary, Keyword: Inorganic Nutrient

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Variations of Dissolved Inorganic Nutrient Flux through the Seomjin River Estuary (섬진강 하구를 통한 용존무기영양염 유출량 변동)

  • Park, Mi-Ok;Lee, Jae-Seong;Kim, Seong-Soo;Kim, Seong-Gil;Lee, Suk-Mo;Lee, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1049-1060
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    • 2014
  • We investigated the spatiotemporal variations of dissolved inorganic nutrients along a saline gradient to estimate nutrient fluxes in the Seomjin River estuary during dry (March 2005, March 2006, March 2007, and March 2008) and rainy seasons (August 2005, July 2006, July 2007, and July 2008). Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations were similar in the endmembers of freshwater for the rainy and dry seasons. In contrast, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphate and silicate in the rainy season were approximately 2-3 times higher than those in the dry season. River discharge was approximately 10 times higher in the rainy season ($212m^3sec^{-1}$) than in the dry season ($21m^3sec^{-1}$). The fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, and silicate were 2.91, 0.004, and 2.51 tons $day^{-1}$ in the dry season and 7.45, 0.421, and 30.5 tons $day^{-1}$ in the rainy season, respectively. Although the range of nutrient concentrations were similar to previous results from investigations in the Seomjin River estuary, the nutrient fluxes were differed according to river discharge for different survey periods.

Effects of nutrient and inorganic carbon on single cell formation of Pediastrum duplex (Pediastrum duplex의 single cell 형성에 미치는 영양염류 및 무기탄소의 영향)

  • Cho, Jae-Hyung;Noh, Kyung-Ho;Park, Kyu-Hyun;Jang, Jung-Seok;Nam, Gui-Sook;Hwang, Sun-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2018
  • In this study, effects of nutrient and inorganic carbon on single cell emergence during the cultivation of microalgae were observed using colonial green algae, Pediastrum duplex. The concentration of inorganic carbon had significant effect on single cell emergence and its growth, but nitrogen and phosphorus concentration showed minor effects. According to P. duplex cultivation experiment, single cell started to be emerged around 500~750 mg-C/L of inorganic carbon concentration and it was bloomed dramatically at the higher values. And growth of P. duplex was started to be surpressed at the single cell formation concentration. From the results, it could be said that when we operate the microalgae systems for cultivation/harvesting or wastewater treatment, in order to avoid single cell formation, inorganic carbon should be maintained to the proper level.

Changes of Inorganic Nutrient Contents in Leaf of 'Niitaka' Pear and Inorganic Nutrient Contents of Leaf Influenced by Meteorological Elements (배 신고 품종의 잎 내 무기성분의 시기별 함량 변화와 잎 내 무기성분 함량에 미치는 기후요인)

  • Kim Ik-Youl;Ryu Jong-Ho;Kim Mi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate inorganic nutrient contents in spur leaf and shoot leaf of 'Niitaka' pear during the growing season and leaf inorganic nutrient contents as influenced by meteorological elements. The contents of N, P, K, and Mg were decreased in spur leaf during their vegetative growth, while Ca and Mn increased. The contents of N, P, K, Mg, and Fe showed no differences between spur leaf and shoot leaf. However Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu contents were higher in spur leaf than those in shoot leaf, but B content was lower in spur leaf than those in shoot leaf. The content of N in shoot leaf was positively correlated with mean temperature, whereas negatively correlated with maximum temperature. The content of P in spur leaf was negatively correlated with maximum temperature. The content of Ca in spur leaf was negatively correlated with mean temperature, whereas positively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature. The contents of Mg and B in shoot and spur leaf were positively correlated with mean temperature, whereas negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature. The contents of Ca and Mn showed significant differences between spur leaf and shoot leaf at mid-July to early August. These results suggest that sampling is important to distinguish between spur leaf and shoot leaf for diagnosis of nutrient conditions in pear trees.

Long-term Effects of Inorganic Fertilizer and Compost Application on Rice Sustainability in Paddy Soil

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Park, Chang Young;Jung, Ki Youl;Kang, Seong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2013
  • Sustainability index was calculated to determine the best management for rice productivity under long-term inorganic fertilizer management's practices. It is based on nutrient index, microbiological index and crop index related to sustainability as soil function. Indicators for calculating sustainability index were selected by the comparison of soil properties and rice response in paddy soil with fertilization. Total twenty two indicators were determined to assess nutrient index, microbiological index and crop index in order to compare the effect of different fertilization. The indices were applied to assess the sustainability with different inorganic fertilizer treatments such as control, N, NK, NP, NPK, NPK+Si, and NPK+Compost. The long-term application of compost with NPK was the highest sustainability index value because it increased nutrient index, microbial index and crop index. The use of chemical fertilizers resulted in poor soil microbial index and crop index, but the treatments like NP, NPK, and NPK+Si were maintained sustainability in paddy soil. These results indicate that application of organic and chemical fertilizer could be a good management to improve rice sustainability in paddy soil.

Development of a Mushroom Powder Certified Reference Material for Element Analysis

  • Betru, Tegegn Gizachew;Yim, Yong-Hyeon;Lee, Kyoung-Seok
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.108-112
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    • 2020
  • A certified reference material (CRM) for the analysis of nutrient elements in an edible mushroom (Ganoderma lyceum) powder has been developed (KRISS CRM 108-10-011). The mass fractions of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were measured by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS). To dissolve the fungi cell wall of mushroom consisted of chitin fibers, sample preparation method by single reaction chamber type microwave-assisted acid digestion with acid mixtures was optimized. The mean measurement results obtained from 12 sample bottles were used to assign as the certified values for the CRM and the between-bottle homogeneities were evaluated from the relative standard deviations. The certified values were metrologically traceable to the definition of the kilogram in the International System of Units (SI). This CRM is expected to be used for validation of analytical methods or quality control of measurement results in analytical laboratories when they determine the mass fractions of elements in mushroom or other similar samples.

Nutrient and Water Uptake of Cucumber Plant by Growth Stage in Closed Perlite Culture (순환식 펄라이트재배에서 생육단계에서 따른 오이의 양수분 흡수 특성)

  • 김형준;김진한;우영희;남윤일
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of nutrient and water taken up at different growth stages by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Eunsung Backdadagi) grown in a closed substrate culture system. The amount of nutrient solution absorbed increased in proportion to days from planting at the first stage of growth and depended on the level of radiation after the mid stage of growth. After the mid growth stage, the amount of nutrient solution absorption was maintained at 80-100 mg.MJ$^{-1}$ . Total amount of absorbed inorganic ions except S increased since the nutrient solution absorption increased with the level of radiation, although the absorption rate of each inorganic ion declined. A highly significant correlation ($R^2$>0.9) was found between amount of inorganic ions absorbed and days after planting, LAI, total dry weight and leaf dry weight, but not with CGR. Correlation coefficient between days after planting and the amount of nutrient solution absorbed per unit radiation level was 0.92. Correlation coefficient between leaf area an the amount of nutrient solution absorbed per unit radiation level was 0.97. Regression of the amount of nutrient solution absorbed per unit radiation level and nutrient ions uptake showed a high significance ($R^2$>0.9).

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Effect of EC Levels in Nutrient Solution on the Growth of Juvenile Rose in Hydroponics Using Coir Substrate (코이어 배지 이용한 절화장미 수경재배 시 급액농도가 유묘기 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Gyeong Lee;Cho, Myeong Whan;Cheong, Jae Woan;Rhee, Han Cheol;Kim, Young Cheol;Roh, Mi Young;Kang, Yun Im
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of EC levels in nutrient solution on the growth of rose in coir substrate during the juvenile. Nutrient concentration were EC 0.6, 1.0, 1.4, and $1.8dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. In spite of high concentration of nutrient solution was supplied, EC and inorganic ions content in the extract of substrate was no difference by 22 days after planting. After that, they was rapidly increased with higher concentration of nutrient solution. Number of shoot was highest in EC $1.8dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ at 2nd growth cycle, 90 days after planting, after that was showed a tendency to increase with increasing nutrient concentration, but was no significant difference among treatment except EC $0.6dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. Judging by results of growth of rose and contents of inorganic ion in extracts of media, our experiment suggests that the suitable nutrient concentration is EC $1.8dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ until 90 days and then EC $1.4dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ until 165 days after planting that is more higher than conventional nutrient concentration for absorption by coir.

Hydroponic Nutrient Solution and Light Quality Influence on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Growth from the Artificial Light Type of Plant Factory System (인공광 식물공장에서 수경배양액 및 광질 조절이 상추 실생묘 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Heo, Jeong-Wook;Park, Kyeong-Hun;Hong, Seung-Gil;Lee, Jae-Su;Baek, Jeong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.225-236
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Hydroponics is one of the methods for evaluating plant production using the inorganic nutrient solutions, which is applied under the artificial light conditions of plant factory system. However, the application of the conventional inorganic nutrients for hydroponics caused several environmental problems: waste from culture mediums and high nitrate concentration in plants. Organic nutrients are generally irrigated as a supplementary fertilizer for plant growth promotion under field or greenhouse conditions. Hydroponic culture using organic nutrients derived from the agricultural by-products such as dumped stems, leaves or immature fruits is rarely considered in plant factory system. Effect of organic or conventional inorganic nutrient solutions on the growth and nutrient absorption pattern of green and red leaf lettuces was investigated in this experiment under fluorescent lamps (FL) and mixture Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Single solution of tomatoes (TJ) and kales (K) deriving from agricultural by-products including leaves or stems and its mixed solution (mixture ration 1:1) with conventional inorganic Yamazaki (Y) were supplied for hydroponics under the plant factory system. The Yamazaki solution was considered as a control. 'Jeockchima' and 'Cheongchima' lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as plant materials. The seedlings which developed 2~3 true leaves were grown under the light qualities of FL and mixed LED lights of blue plus red plus white of 1:2:1 mixture in energy ratio for 35 days. Light intensity of the light sources was controlled at 180 μmol/㎡/s on the culture bed. The single and mixture nutrient solutions of organic and/or inorganic components which controlled at 1.5 dS/m EC and 5.8 pH were regularly irrigated by the deep flow technique (DFT) system on the culture gutters. Number of unfolded leaves of the seedlings grown under the single or mixed nutrient solutions were significantly increased compared to the conventional Y treatment. Leaf extension of 'Jeockchima' under the mixture LED radiation condition was not affected by Y and YK or YTJ mixture treatments. SPAD value in 'Jeockchima' leaves exposed by FL under the YK mixture medium was approximately 45 % higher than under conventional Y treatment. Otherwise, the maximum SPAD value in the leaves of 'Cheongchima' seedlings was shown in YK treatment under the mixture LED lights. NO3-N contents in Y treatment treated with inorganic nutrient at the end of the experiment were up to 75% declined rather than increased over 60 % in the K and TJ organic treatment. CONCLUSION: Growth of the seedlings was affected by the mixture treatments of the organic and inorganic solutions, although similar or lower dry weight was recorded than in the inorganic treatment Y under the plant factory system. Treatment Y containing the highest NO3-N content among the considered nutrients influenced growth increment of the seedlings comparing to the other nutrients. However effect of the higher NO3-N content in the seedling growth was different according to the light qualities considered in the experiment as shown in leaf expansion, pigmentation or dry weight promotion under the single or mixed nutrients.

Characteristics of inorganic nutrient absorption of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants grown under drought condition

  • Bak, Gyeryeong;Lee, Gyejun;Kim, Taeyoung;Lee, Yonggyu;Kim, Juil;Ji, Samnyeo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.181-181
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    • 2017
  • Global warming and climate change have been one of the most important problems last 2 decades. Global warming is known to cause abnormal climate and influence ecology, food production and human health. According to climate change model global warming is causing expansion of drought and increase of evaporation. Therefore, securing water in agriculture has been an important issue for crop cultivation. As potato is susceptible to drought, water shortage generally results in decrease of yield and decrease of biomass. In this research, we investigated characteristics of inorganic nutrient absorption and growth of plants grown under drought condition. Plants were sampled in sites of Cheong-ju and Gangneung, where the severity of drought stress were different. During the growth period in Gangneung, total rainfall in 2016 decreased by 50% compared with those in last 5 years average. Especially, there was almost no rain in tuber enlargement period (from mid-May to mid-June). On the other hand, the total rainfall in of Cheong-ju was is similar to those in last 5 years average. Inorganic components including K, Ca and Mg and plant growth factors such as plant length, stem length, leaf area index and plant biomass were investigated. Tuber yields in both areas were investigated at harvest. Growth period of plants was is longer in Cheong-ju than that in Gangneung. Contents of all inorganic components were higher in plants grown in Cheong-ju than in Gangneung. The results were attributed to higher production of plant biomass in Cheong-ju. Considering the results, severe drought stress conditions in Gangneung accelerated plant aging and resulted in low plant growth. Although total yield was greatly reduced under drought stress the rate of commercial yield was is not significantly different with non-drought conditions.

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Multi-component kinetics for the growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

  • Kim, Hyun-Woo;Park, Seongjun;Rittmann, Bruce E.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.347-355
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    • 2015
  • The growth kinetics of phototrophic microorganisms can be controlled by the light irradiance, the concentration of an inorganic nutrient, or both. A multi-component kinetic model is proposed and tested in novel batch experiments that allow the kinetic parameters for each factor to be estimated independently. For the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, the estimated parameters are maximum specific growth rate $({\mu}_{max})=2.8/d$, half-maximum-rate light irradiance $(K_L)=11W/m^2$, half-inhibition-rate light irradiance $(K_{L,I})=39W/m^2$, and half-maximum-rate concentration for inorganic carbon $(K_{S,Ci})=0.5mgC/L$, half-maximum-rate concentration for inorganic nitrogen $(K_{S,Ni})=1.4mgN/L$, and half-maximum-rate concentration for inorganic phosphorus $(K_{S,Pi})=0.06mgP/L$. Compared to other phototrophs having ${\mu}max$ estimates, PCC6803 is a fast-growing r-strategist relying on reaction rate. Its half-maximum-rate and half-inhibition rate values identify the ranges of light irradiance and nutrient concentrations that PCC6803 needs to achieve a high specific growth rate to be a sustainable bioenergy source. To gain the advantages of its high maximum specific growth rate, PCC6803 needs to have moderate light illumination ($7-62W/m^2$ for ${\mu}_{syn}{\geq}1/d$) and relatively high nutrient concentrations: $N_i{\geq}2.3 mgN/L$, $P_i{\geq}0.1mgP/L$, and $C_i{\geq}1.0mgC/L$.