• Title/Summary/Keyword: Intestinal morphology

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Sea Tangle Supplementation Alters Intestinal Morphology in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats and Lowers Glucose Absorption

  • Lee, Kyeung-Soon;Seo, Jung-Sook;Choi, Young-Sun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.879-883
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    • 2007
  • This study examined whether dietary supplementation with sea tangle alters the intestinal morphology of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and affects the glucose absorption rate. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups and fed either a control (AIN76-based) diet or a sea tangle-supplemented diet. After 3 weeks, 10 rats in each group received an intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg BW), and feeding was continued for 3 additional weeks. Dietary supplementation with sea tangle resulted in a lower fasting plasma glucose level compared with the control diet in diabetic rats. Scanning electron micrographs revealed serious damage to the jejunal villi of diabetic rats fed the control diet, whereas supplementation with sea tangle alleviated the damage. In a separate experiment, 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups and fed either a control diet or a sea tangle-supplemented diet for 5 weeks, and fasted rats were subjected to in situ single-pass perfusion. The glucose absorption rate determined in the absence of digesta was decreased by 34% in the jejunum of rats fed a sea tangle diet compared with those fed a control diet. In conclusion, sea tangle supplementation lowered glucose absorption rate, altered intestinal morphology, and appeared to protect villi from damage caused by diabetes mellitus.

Effects of Lactitol and Tributyrin on Growth Performance, Small Intestinal Morphology and Enzyme Activity in Weaned Pigs

  • Hou, Y.Q.;Liu, Y.L.;Hu, J.;Shen, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1470-1477
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    • 2006
  • One hundred and sixty crossbred pigs ($6.62{\pm}0.36kg$) weaned at day $18{\pm}1$ were used to investigate the effects of lactitol and tributyrin on performance, small intestinal morphology and enzyme activity. The pigs were assigned to one of five dietary groups (4 pens/diet with 8 pigs/pen) and were fed the negative control diet or the negative control diet supplemented with 10 g/kg glutamine (as a positive control), or 3 g/kg lactitol (${\beta}$-D-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-D-sorbitol), or 5 g/kg tributyrin (butanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester), or 3 g/kg lactitol+5 g/kg tributyrin. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly during the 4-week study. On day 7, four pigs per dietary treatment were sacrificed to examine small intestinal morphology and enzyme activity. The results showed that: (1) Compared with the negative control diet, the positive control diet improved weight gain and feed efficiency during weeks 1-2 and over the entire study (p<0.05), and also decreased duodenal and ileal crypt depth (p<0.05), but did not alter intestinal enzyme activity (p>0.05). Lactitol improved feed efficiency during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study (p<0.05), but did not improve weight gain and feed intake, intestinal morphology or enzyme activity (p>0.05). Tributyrin improved weight gain and reduced feed/gain during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study. Tributyrin significantly decreased crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum, and increased duodenal lactase and ileal maltase activity (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin increased weight gain during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study, and improved feed efficiency during weeks 1-2 and 3-4 and over the entire study (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin increased the jejunal villus height, and decreased the duodenal and ileal crypt depth (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin also increased jejunal lactase and sucrase activity (p<0.05). (2) Compared with the positive control, tributyrin improved weight gain and reduced feed/gain during weeks 3-4 (p<0.05), decreased the ileal crypt depth, and improved the duodenal lactase and sucrase activity (p<0.05). Lactitol+ tributyrin improved weight gain during weeks 3-4, improved feed efficiency during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study, increased the ileal villus height, and increased jejunal lactase, sucrase and maltase activity (p<0.05). These results showed that tributyrin improved performance, intestinal morphology and enzyme activity, while the effect of lactitol was very limited. These results also showed that, compared with glutamine, tributyrin was more effective in improving intestinal morphology and enzyme activity, and tributyrin exerted a superior effect in improving performance as weaning progressed. These observations suggest that, as a chemical for repairing intestinal atrophy, glutamine and tributyrin should be used in the first and second periods of the starter phase, respectively.

Dietary spray-dried plasma improves intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition

  • Liu, Yanhong;Choe, Jeehwan;Kim, Sheena;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Campbell, Joy M.;Polo, Javier;Crenshaw, Joe D.;Pettigrew, James E.;Song, Minho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.10.1-10.6
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    • 2018
  • Background: Stress causes inflammation that impairs intestinal barrier function. Dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) has recognized anti-inflammatory effects and improvement of gut barrier function. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary SDP on intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition. Results: Villus height, width, and area of small intestines were low on gestation day (GD) 3 or 4 under stress conditions, and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Crypt depth of colon was low on GD 4 and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the SDP treatments improved (P < 0.05) intestinal morphology, indicated by increased villus height, villus width, villus area, and ratio between villus height and crypt depth of small intestines and crypt depth of colon, and by decreased crypt depth of small intestines, compared with the control diet. The SDP treatments also increased (P < 0.05) the number of goblet cells in intestines compared with the control diet. There were no differences between different levels of SDP. Conclusion: Dietary SDP improves intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition.

Comparative Effects of Sodium Gluconate, Mannan Oligosaccharide and Potassium Diformate on Growth Performances and Small Intestinal Morphology of Nursery Pigs

  • Poeikhampha, T.;Bunchasak, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.844-850
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of Sodium Gluconate (SG), Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS) and Potassium Diformate (PDF) on growth performance and small intestinal morphology in nursery piglets. One hundred forty four female piglets ($11.69{\pm}0.71\;kg$) were divided into 4 treatments with six replicates of six pigs each. The pigs received a control diet or diets supplemented with SG, MOS and PDF at 2,500, 3,000 and 8,000 ppm; respectively, for 6 weeks. Supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF increased final body weight, average daily gain and tended to improve feed to gain ratio (p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.16; respectively), other than average daily feed intake, intestinal pH and the bacterial populations were not influenced by the dietary treatments. SG significantly decreased the ammonia concentration in the caecum (p<0.05) and supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF tended to increase lactic acid and total short chain fatty acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.08, 0.09; respectively), in addition SG, MOS or PDF slightly increased butyric acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.14). SG highly significant increased the villous height in jejunum (p<0.01) and supplementing SG, MOS or PDF significantly increased crypt depth in jejunum (p<0.05), moreover, PDF significantly increased villous height and crypt depth ratio in jejunum (p<0.05) compared with control. The dietary treatments did not influence villous height and crypt depth in duodenum and villous height in jejunum (p>0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing SG, MOS or PDF as a feed additive has the potential to improve the growth performance, the intestinal lactic acid bacteria population, intestinal short-chain fatty acid concentration and the intestinal morphology of pigs.

Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Variables and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

  • Xu, F.Z.;Zeng, X.G.;Ding, X.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1734-1741
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    • 2012
  • This trial was performed to study the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with fermented rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, serum biochemistry variable and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 640 d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 4 pens per treatment and 40 birds per pen for a 6-wk feeding trial. In the four treatment groups, fermented RSM replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively. On 21 d and 42 d, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered. Blood samples and sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for measurement of serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology, respectively. Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion (FC) were significantly (p<0.01) poorer for birds fed the 15% fermented RSM diet than those fed with 0, 5 and 10% fermented RSM diets during all periods. Compared with 0 and 5% fermented RSM groups, IgG content in the serum of birds in 10 and 15% fermented RSM groups was improved (p<0.01) urea nitrogen content of serum was reduced (p<0.01) during both growing and finishing periods. However, IgM, phosphorus and calcium levels increased (p<0.05) only during the growing period. Increased (p<0.05) villus height was observed in the duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was significantly higher (p<0.01) for birds fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM than for those fed diets with 0, 5 and 15% fermented RSM. The present results suggest that RSM fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and that it could be safely used replace up to 10% SBM in broiler diets.

Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

  • Sayan, Harutai;Assavacheep, Pornchalit;Angkanaporn, Kris;Assavacheep, Anongnart
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1308-1314
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius (L. salivarius) oral suspensions and challenged with $F4^+$ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Methods: Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n = 114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n = 87 piglets). Treatment pigs were orally administered with 2 mL of $10^9$ colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL L. salivarius on days 1 to 3, then they were orally administered with 5 mL of $10^9CFU/mL$ L. salivarius on days 4 to 10, while those in control group received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline solution. On day 24 (2 weeks post supplementation), one pig per replicate of both groups was orally administered with $10^8CFU/mL$ $F4^+$ ETEC, then they were euthanized on day 29 of experiment. Results: Results revealed that pigs in treatment group had a statistically significant increase in average daily gain, body weight and weight gain, and tended to lower diarrhea throughout the study. Numbers of Lactobacillus population in feces of treatment pigs were higher than control pigs, especially on day 10 of study. Numbers of total bacteria in intestinal contents of control pigs were also increased, but not Coliform and Lactobacillus populations. Histological examination revealed statistically significant improvements of villous height and villous/crypt ratio of duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal jejunum parts of treatment pigs compared with controls. Duodenal pH of treatment group was significantly decreased. Conclusion: Oral supplementation of live L. salivarius during the first 10 days of suckling pig promoted growth performance and gut health, reduced diarrhea incidence, increased fecal Lactobacillus populations and improved intestinal morphology.

Effects of dietary glutamine and arginine supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology and ascites mortality in broiler chickens reared under cold environment

  • Abdulkarimi, Rahim;Shahir, Mohammad Hossein;Daneshyar, Mohsen
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) and arginine (Arg) supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology and ascites mortality in broilers. Methods: A total of 675 day old chicks were randomly allocated to 9 experimental groups in a $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with 5 replicates of 15 chicks. Three levels of dietary Gln (0%, 0.5%, and 1%) and Arg (100%, 130%, and 160% of Ross recommendation) supplementation were used in ascites inducing condition ($15^{\circ}C{\pm}1^{\circ}C$) from 7 to 42 days of age. Results: Dietary supplementation of Gln increased body weight gain during grower, finisher and total periods (p<0.05) and increased feed intake during total period. Ascites mortality was decreased by Gln supplementation (p<0.05). Gln supplementation increased the villus height (VH) and crypt depth (CD) in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05). Arg supplementation decreased CD in duodenum and jejunum, and increased ileum villus width (VW) and also VH/CD ratio in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05). Both Gln and Arg increased the goblet cell number (GCN) in duodenum whereas Gln supplementation decreased GCN in jejunum and ileum (p<0.05). The $Gln{\times}Arg$ interaction were observed for right ventricle (RV)/total ventricular (TV) ratio, VH, VW, CD, VH/CD. Conclusion: It was concluded that dietary 0.5% Gln alone or along with 130% Arg of Ross requirement, improve the intestinal morphology and performance and hence decrease the ascites mortality in broiler chickens with cold induced ascites.

Effects of a mixture of essential oils and organic acid supplementation on growth performance, blood profiles, leg bone length, and intestinal morphology in broilers

  • Liu, Shu Dong;Song, Min Ho;Yun, Won;Lee, Ji Hwan;Cho, Seung Yeol;Kim, Gok Mi;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Cho, Jin Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2019
  • This study was done to evaluate the effects of a mixture of essential oils and organic acid supplementation on growth performance, blood profiles, leg bone length and intestinal morphology in Ross broilers. A total of 40 Ross 308 broilers ($1140{\pm}80g$) were randomly allocated to 2 groups, a basal diet (CON) and a basal diet + 0.05% $Avi-protect^{(R)}$ (AVI, Mixture of 25% citric, 16.7 sorbic, 1.7% thymol, and 1.0% vanillin), with 20 replicates for every group and 1 chicken per replicate per cage. The broilers were raised in a temperature-controlled room maintained at $24{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and $50{\pm}5%$ humidity. The body weight (p < 0.05) and weight gain (p < 0.05) of the broilers were increased in the AVI group compared with the CON group. The triglyceride (p < 0.05) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (p < 0.05) contents were significantly decreased in the AVI group compared with the CON group. There was no significant difference in the leg bone length between the AVI and CON groups (p > 0.05). The villi height (p < 0.05) and goblet cell count (p < 0.05) were significantly increased in the AVI group compared with the CON group. In conclusion, $Avi-protect^{(R)}$ as a feed additive improved the growth performance and lipid metabolism and promoted the development of the intestinal morphology of broilers.

Effects of different copper sources (inorganic and organic) on the growth performance, fecal excretion, intestinal morphology, and health in growing pigs

  • Kim, Minji;Jung, Hyunjung;Seong, Pil-Nam;Jeong, Jin Young;Baek, Youl-Chang;Park, Seol Hwa;Ryu, Chae Hwa;Kim, Ki Hyun;Chun, Ju Lan;Oh, Sang-Ik;Kim, Byeonghyeon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 2021
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different copper sources (inorganic and organic) on the growth performance, fecal copper excretion, intestinal morphology, and health in growing pigs. A total of 40 growing pigs (30.22 ± 1.92 kg) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments: a basal control diet (CON), 4 experimental diets supplemented with either copper sulfate (CuSO4), Cu-glycine complex (CuGly), Cu-amino acid complex (CuAA), or Cu-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoate chelate complex (CuHMB) at 100 ppm, respectively. At the end of the study (28 days), fecal and blood samples were collected, and the pigs were slaughtered to determine the intestinal morphology. During the 28 days of the experimental period, pigs fed the inorganic and organic copper showed a higher average daily gain (p < 0.01) and gain feed ratio (p < 0.01). There were no differences in mineral concentrations of the serum; however, the copper concentration of the feces was lower (p < 0.01) in the CuAA and CuHMB groups. The intestinal morphology and blood profiles did not significantly differ between the groups. In conclusion, the organic copper sources (CuAA and CuHMB) can be used as a growth promoter to replace the CuSO4 without any negative effects on health in growing pigs and to reduce fecal copper excretion.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FIBER ON THE INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY OF DOMESTIC GEESE

  • Chiou, Peter W.S.;Lu, T.W.;Hsu, J.C.;Yu, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.539-550
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    • 1996
  • Experiment was conducted to study the effect of sources of dietary fiber on the intestinal morphology of geese. Sixty white Roman geese of two-week-old were divided randomly into six groups and were fed with isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets which contain alfalfa meal, barley hull, rice hull, purified cellulose, lignin, or pectin as the major dietary source of fiber. Different sources of dietary fiber significantly influenced the villi height and the crypt depth in the duodenum, and the villi height and the muscle layer thickness in the ileum (p < 0.05). The duodenal villus in the geese that fed diets with alfalfa meal, rice hull or pectin supplemented were significantly longest ($968.5{\mu}m$), whereas the lignin group was significantly shortest villus and deepest crypt depth (p < 0.05). The thicknesses of the ileal and caecal muscle layer were significantly thicker in the geese fed with cellulose supplemented diets than in those fed with the other treatment diets. The caecum of the barley bran fed geese possessed significantly longest villi and the most thick muscle layers (p < 0.05). From scanning electronic microscopic observation, the leafy and plate-like in the duodenal villi morphology of geese represented a more effective nutrient absorption in the small intestine. The morphology of ileal villi in geese was similar from herbivorous rabbit and from the African Green monkey.