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Cognitive Function of the Urban Elderly (도시 노인의 인지기능)

  • So, Hee-Young;Ju, Kyong-Ok;Jung, Mi-Ha;Kim, Hae-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: This study was performed to assess the degree of cognitive function of elderly by MMSE-K performances and of that effect. Method: The subjects were 185 aged over 65 in Daejeon Metropolitan city. Data were collected through personal interview using the questionnaire from 10 to 31, Jan. 2003. The measures were Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE-K). Results: The mean score of MMSE-K was $22.60{\pm}5.39$. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was estimated as 48.6% by MMSE-K ${\leq}23$ and significantly age, gender, and education effect. The subtype score of MMSE-K were significantly lower in female group in each items : orientation in time and place, attention/calculation, language except registration and recall. And the scores were significantly lower in the older group and non-educated group in the all items of MMSE-K. Conclusion: Gender, age, and education showed significant effects on total and subtype MMSE-K score. Cognitive function decline were higher in female, older age group, and non-educated group. Therefore, those three factors are thought to be one of important risk factors for development of dementia, also it is assumed to be affected by other variables than age, gender, education effect.

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ON THE TATE-SHAFAREVICH GROUPS OVER BIQUADRATIC EXTENSIONS

  • Yu, Hoseog
    • Honam Mathematical Journal
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2015
  • Let A be an abelian variety defined over a number field K. Let L be a biquadratic extension of K with Galois group G and let III (A/K) and III(A/L) denote, respectively, the Tate-Shafarevich groups of A over K and over L. Assuming III(A/L) is finite, we compute [III(A/K)]/[III(A/L)] where [X] is the order of a finite abelian group X.

Preliminary Study for Comparison of Subjective Voice Evaluations among Vocal and Applied Music Major Students (성악과 실용음악 보컬 전공 대학생들의 주관적 음성평가 비교 예비연구)

  • Lee, Dahye;Hwang, Youngjin;Kim, Jaeock
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Korean Singing Voice Handicap Index (K-SVHI) was suitable for singers in other genres than vocal music to assess their vocal problems subjectively. Twenty six college students majoring in vocal music and twenty six students majoring in applied music were included in the study. They were divided into G0 and G1 in voice quality using the GRBAS scale during the tasks of singing. K-SVHI was divided into three sub-areas (Physical, Functional, and Emotional). In the singing task, both groups showed no significant difference between K-SVHI scores by G scale. In the reading task, the vocal music group had significantly higher K-SVHI in G0 than in G1 in K-SVHIs by G scale, while the applied vocal music group had significantly higher K-SVHI in G1 than in G0. Also, the two groups were not significantly different in G0, G1 in the singing task while the vocal music group showed higher K-SVHI than the applied vocal music group in G0 in the reading task. In addition, the vocal music group had higher K-SVHI than the applied vocal music group in G1 in both tasks. As comparing by groups in three sub-areas of K-SVHI, significant differences were found in the Emotional and Functional area. Those results showed that singers felt their voice problems differently by musical genres, which means that K-SVHI may not be a proper tool for evaluating voice handicap of singers in diverse voice music genres.

Effects of Chitosan Dipping Treatments with Different Molecular Weights on the Meat Quality of Hanwoo(Korean Cattle) Beef during Refrigerated Storage (분자량을 달리한 Chitosan 침지처리가 한우육의 저온저장 중 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 김용선;양성운;김혜정;이성기
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2004
  • The effects of chitosan dipping treatments with different molecular weights on the meat quality of Hanwoo(Korean Cattle) beef during refrigerated storage were investigated. The beef(M. Semimembranosus) were dipped in 0.5% chitosan(in 1% acetic acid) with two different molecular weights(Mw=150 and 600 kDa) for 5 min and stored at $1^{\circ}C$(90% RH). The pH was significantly(p<0.05) higher in chitosan(600 kDa) group than in the other groups. The L* value for 3 days was significantly(p<0.05) higher in chitosan (600 kDa) group, but it was not significantly(p>0.05) different after 6 days. The a* value of day 0(before storage) was not significantly(p>0.05) different among the treatment groups, however the a* value of day 12 was significantly(p<0.05) higher in chitosan(150 kDa) group. The metmyoglobin(%) was significantly(p<0.05) lower in chitosan(600 kDa) group. The total bacterial counts of day 0(before storage) were significantly(p<0.05) lower in chitosan(600 kDa) group, but during storage, the chitosan(150 kDa) group was effective in antibacterial activity. The chitosan(l50 kDa) group had significantly(p<0.05) lower shear force than the other groups over time.

A property of surface groups

  • Moon, Myoung-Ho
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.825-829
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    • 1996
  • We prove that if G is the fundamental group of a closed surface or a Seifert fibered space and K is a finitely generated subgroup of G, and if for any element g in G there exists an integer $n_g$ such that $g^{n_g}$ belongs to K, then K is of finite index in G.

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A Study on the Characteristics of the Korean Juvenile Sound According to Sasang Constitution using PSSC with a Sentence (사상체질음성분석기(PSSC)를 통한 한국인 소아 ${\cdot}$ 청소년의 체질별 음성특성연구 - 단문을 중심으로 -)

  • Heo, Jae-Beum;Jung, Woon-Ki;Choi, Min-Ki;Jeon, Jong-Weon;Kim, Dal-Rae;Yoo, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.40-52
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    • 2007
  • 1. Objectives and Methods The purpose of this study was to objectify the diagnosis of Sasang Constitution. 63 Male Juvenile's and 151 Female Juvenile's sentences were analyzed into 73 factors like Pitch, APQ, Shimmer, Octave and Energy, etc. Juvenile's sentences were classified into 6 categories: total Male Juvenile group, under 12 years old Male Juvenile grout, over 13 years old Male Juvenile group, total Female Juvenile group, under 12 years old Female Juvenile group and over 13 years old Female Juvenile group. 2. Results 1) In Total Male Juvenile group, there were no significant differences among constitutional groups in APQ and Octave segment. Taeumin's Center freq.(3) was significantly high compared with Soyangin group. Soeumin's Center freq.(5) was significantly high compared with Soyangin and Taeumin groups. Taeumin's Octave3 Shimmer was significantly high compared with Soeumin group. Soeumin's Octave6 Shimmer was significantly high compared with Taeumin group. Solyangin's D# Tot E was significantly high compared with Taeumin group. 2) In Under 12 years old Male Juvenile group, there were on significantly among constitutional groups in Pitch, APQ, Octave and Energy segment. Taeumin's Octave3 Shimmer and G Shimmer(1) were significantly high compared with Soeumin group. 3) In Over 13 years old Male Juvenile group, there were no signigicant differences among constitutional groups in Pitch, APQ and Shimmer segment. Soyangin's and Soeumin's Octave6 were significantly high compared with Taeumin group. Soyangin's $0k{\sim}2k$ Total Sum, $0k{\sim}2k$ Dev., $2k{\sim}4k$ Total Sum, $2k{\sim}4k$ Dev., A Dev.(1), D# Dev.(1) and G# Dev.(1) were significantly high compared with Taeumin group. Soyangin's and Soeumin's G# Tot E were significantly high compared with Taeumin group. 4) In Total Female Juvenile group, there were no significant differences among constitutional groups in Pitch and APQ segment. Soeumin's Octave4 Shimmer was significantly high compared with Soyangin group. Soyangin's Octave6 was significantly high compared with Soeumin group. Solyangin's 2k-4k Total Sum and B Tot E were significantly high compared with Soeumin group. 5) In Under 12 years old Female Juvenile group, there were no significant differences among constitutional groups in APQ and Energy segment. Soeumin's and Taeumin's Center Pitch and Pitch were significantly high compared with Soyangin group. Soyangin's Center freq.(1) and Center freq.(7) were significantly high compared with Soeumin and Taeeunin groups. Soyangin's and Taeumin's B Shimmer(1) and F# Shimmer(1) were significantly high compared with Soeumin group. Soeumin's D Shimmer(1) was significantly high compared with Soyangin group. Taeumin's and Soeumin's G# Shimmer(1) were significantly high compared with Soyangin group. Soyangin's and Taeumin's Octave2 were significantly high compared with Soeumin group. 6) In Over 13 years old Female Juvenile group, there were no significant differences among constitutional groups in Pitch, APQ and Octave segment. Soeumin's Octave4 Shimmer was significantly high compared with Soyangin group. Soyangin's B Dev.(1) and F Dev.(1) were significantly high compared with Soeumin group. 3. Conclusions In juvenile groups, some sound factors are regarded as useful. PSSC are thought to be the objertive way to diagnose the Consitution and more participants are needed to get more efficiencies using PSSC.

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A study on of drive mechanism for 245kV 40kA high-voltage Gas Insulated Switchgear(GIS) using SPMSM (SPMSM을 이용한 245kV 40kA GIS 조작기 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Kyun-Ha;Oh, Young-Jin;Yeo, Chang-Ho;Suh, In-Young
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.114-116
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    • 2007
  • Mechanical spring and hydraulic pressure operated mechanisms are applied in most of today's High Voltage Gas Insulated Switchgear(GIS)s. This paper proposes a new type of operation mechanism for GIS circuit breakers rated at 245kV and 40kA. The Motor-Direct-Drive-Mechanism (MDDM) has many advantages compared to conventional operating mechanisms. It has a very simple structure with only one moving part, low mechanical stress and audible noise. It also allows monitoring, operation speed control and self-diagnosis functions.

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Development of drive mechanism for 245kV 40kA high-voltage Gas Insulated Switchgear(GIS) using SPMSM (SPMSM을 이용한 '245kV 40kA GIS' 조작기 개발)

  • Jeong, Kyun-Ha;Seo, Kyong-Bo;Kim, Jung-Bea;Suh, In-Young
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.980-981
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    • 2008
  • Mechanical spring and hydraulic pressure operated mechanisms are applied in most of today's High Voltage Gas Insulated Switchgear(GIS)s. This paper proposes a new type of operation mechanism for GIS circuit breakers rated at 245kV and 40kA. The Motor-Direct-Drive-Mechanism (MDDM) has many advantages compared to conventional operating mechanisms. It has a very simple structure with only one moving part, low mechanical stress and audible noise. It also allows monitoring, operation speed control and self-diagnosis functions.

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KUCERA GROUP OF CIRCULAR UNITS IN FUNCTION FIELDS

  • Ahn, Jae-Hyun;Jung, Hwan-Yup
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2007
  • Let $\mathbb{A}=\mathbb{F}_q$[T] be the polynomial ring over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$[T] and K=$\mathbb{F}_q$(T) its field of fractions. Let ${\ell}$ be a fixed prime divisor of q-1. Let J be a finite set of monic irreducible polynomials $P{\in}{\mathbb{A}}$ with deg $P{\equiv}0$ (mod ${\ell})$. In this paper we define the group $C_K$ of circular units in K=k$(\{\sqrt[{\ell}]P\;:\;P{\in}J\})$ in the sense of Kucera [4] and compute the index of $C_K$ in the full unit group $O^*_K$.