• Title, Summary, Keyword: K-group

Search Result 5,634, Processing Time 0.058 seconds

Comparison of Association Rule Learning and Subgroup Discovery for Mining Traffic Accident Data (교통사고 데이터의 마이닝을 위한 연관규칙 학습기법과 서브그룹 발견기법의 비교)

  • Kim, Jeongmin;Ryu, Kwang Ryel
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1-16
    • /
    • 2015
  • Traffic accident is one of the major cause of death worldwide for the last several decades. According to the statistics of world health organization, approximately 1.24 million deaths occurred on the world's roads in 2010. In order to reduce future traffic accident, multipronged approaches have been adopted including traffic regulations, injury-reducing technologies, driving training program and so on. Records on traffic accidents are generated and maintained for this purpose. To make these records meaningful and effective, it is necessary to analyze relationship between traffic accident and related factors including vehicle design, road design, weather, driver behavior etc. Insight derived from these analysis can be used for accident prevention approaches. Traffic accident data mining is an activity to find useful knowledges about such relationship that is not well-known and user may interested in it. Many studies about mining accident data have been reported over the past two decades. Most of studies mainly focused on predict risk of accident using accident related factors. Supervised learning methods like decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, neural network are used for these prediction. However, derived prediction model from these algorithms are too complex to understand for human itself because the main purpose of these algorithms are prediction, not explanation of the data. Some of studies use unsupervised clustering algorithm to dividing the data into several groups, but derived group itself is still not easy to understand for human, so it is necessary to do some additional analytic works. Rule based learning methods are adequate when we want to derive comprehensive form of knowledge about the target domain. It derives a set of if-then rules that represent relationship between the target feature with other features. Rules are fairly easy for human to understand its meaning therefore it can help provide insight and comprehensible results for human. Association rule learning methods and subgroup discovery methods are representing rule based learning methods for descriptive task. These two algorithms have been used in a wide range of area from transaction analysis, accident data analysis, detection of statistically significant patient risk groups, discovering key person in social communities and so on. We use both the association rule learning method and the subgroup discovery method to discover useful patterns from a traffic accident dataset consisting of many features including profile of driver, location of accident, types of accident, information of vehicle, violation of regulation and so on. The association rule learning method, which is one of the unsupervised learning methods, searches for frequent item sets from the data and translates them into rules. In contrast, the subgroup discovery method is a kind of supervised learning method that discovers rules of user specified concepts satisfying certain degree of generality and unusualness. Depending on what aspect of the data we are focusing our attention to, we may combine different multiple relevant features of interest to make a synthetic target feature, and give it to the rule learning algorithms. After a set of rules is derived, some postprocessing steps are taken to make the ruleset more compact and easier to understand by removing some uninteresting or redundant rules. We conducted a set of experiments of mining our traffic accident data in both unsupervised mode and supervised mode for comparison of these rule based learning algorithms. Experiments with the traffic accident data reveals that the association rule learning, in its pure unsupervised mode, can discover some hidden relationship among the features. Under supervised learning setting with combinatorial target feature, however, the subgroup discovery method finds good rules much more easily than the association rule learning method that requires a lot of efforts to tune the parameters.

A Web-based Internet Program for Nutritional Assessment and Diet Prescription by Renal Diseases (웹기반의 신장질환별 영양평가 밑 식사처방 프로그램)

  • 한지숙;김종경;전영수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.31 no.5
    • /
    • pp.847-885
    • /
    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based internet program for nutritional assessment and diet Prescription by renal diseases. Renal diseases were classified by nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The system consisted of five parts according to their functions and contents. The first part is to assess the general health status such as body weight, obesity index, basal metabolic rate and total energy requirement by the input of age, sex, height, weight and degree of activity. The second part was designed to investigate dietary history of patient, that is, to find out his inappropriate dietary habit and give him some suggestions for appropriate dietary behavior by investigating his dietary history. This part also offers the diet and nutrition management by personal status with renal disease, and the information for food selection, snacks, convenience foods, dine-out, behavioral modification, cooking methods, food exchange lists and terms. The third part is evaluating their energy and nutrients intake by comparing with recommended dietary allowance for Koreans or standardized data for patient with renal disease. In this part, it is also analyzing energy and nutrients of food consumed by food group and meals, and evaluating the status of nutrient intake. The fort]1 one, a major part of the system, is implementing the diet and menu planning by using food exchange lists. This Part Provides the patient with menus lists and I day menu suitable to his weight, activity and the status of renal disease. The fifth part is providing information on energy and nutrients of foods and drinks, and top 20 foods classified by nutrients. These results are finally displayed as tabular forms and graphical forms on the computer screen.

Effect of the Consumer's Perception of the University Foodservice Quality on the Consumer Attitude (대학교 급식소의 급식서비스 품질에 대한 인식이 소비자태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.35 no.6
    • /
    • pp.815-822
    • /
    • 2006
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate the consumer's perception of the subject to manage the foodservice operation in the university, and to analyze the effects of consumer's perception of the university foodservice qualify on intent to revisit and intent to recommend. The questionnaires were distributed to 575 students in the K University located in Masan, who were sampled by proportionate stratified sampling method. The surveys were peformed from May 17 to June 2, 2005. The 566 questionnaires were responded, and 6 unusable questionnaires were excluded, then 560 were used for the final analysis (response rate: 97.4%). For the statistical analysis, SPSS (12.0) was used to conduct the descriptive analysis, factor analysis reliability analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows: First 254 respondants (47.3%) did not know that their foodservice operation was managed by contract foodservice company, and 374 students (66.8%) did not know the name of the contract foodservice company which runned their foodservice operation. Second, the food factor of university foodservice quality had a significant positive effect on intent to revisit (P<0.001), and the food factor of university foodservice quality also had a significant positive effect on Intent to recommend (p<0.001). It was concluded that as the food factor of university foodservice qualify Increased, the intent to revisit and the intent to recommend the university foodservice increased. So when university foodservice managers plan the foodservice operation strategy, they should focus on increasing the perception of customers' foodservice quality and also advertising contract foodservice company's brand name.

Comparison of Nutrient Intakes of Korean Elderly People Living in Rural Area Between 24-hour Recall and Food Frequency Method (24시간회상법과 식품섭취빈도조사법을 이용한 농촌지역 노인의 영양소 섭취수준 비교)

  • Cho, Young-Eun;Lee, Soo-Lim;Cho, Eun-Hyun;Lomeda, Ria-Ann L;Kwak, Eun-Hee;Kim, Yang-Ha;Kwun, In-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.35 no.6
    • /
    • pp.698-707
    • /
    • 2006
  • Precise and correct assessment of nutrient intake using appropriate dietary intake method is necessary to improve the nutritional status of the target people group. It is more likely so in elderly people since their dietary habits and inadequate nutrient intakes are of special concern even worse in rural areas. Two popular methods of gathering dietary intake are 24-hour recall and food frequency method (or food frequency questionnaire). In the present study, we conducted both 24-hour recall and food frequency method on 120 rural elderly people $(aged\;65{\sim}74\;years)$, 62 male and 58 female. The dietary intakes were analyzed and the correlation of the dietary intake between 24-hour recall and food frequency method to determine the reliability between two methods. Also each nutrient intake was compared to recommended dietary allowance (RDA) or nutrient reference value (NRV) as appropriate. Even correlation did not show significance between the two methods except for dietary fiber intake (0.65 at p<0.01) and energy-yielding nutrients which mostly showed similar results with nutrient intake level. These support the possible reliability between 24-hours record and food frequency method that is also shown on the cases of most mineral and vitamin intakes. Thus, the food frequency method used in this study for the assessment of nutrient intakes of the elderly people would be reliable for the assessment of the nutrient intake along with the 24-hour recall. Also, the present study results suggested that rural female elderly people would be under optimal nutriture status due to the lower food intake measured by 24-hour recall. The optimal food frequency method would be considered to be developed for the precise nutrient assessment.

Effect of Sweet Persimmon Wine on Alcoholic Fatty Livers in Rats (흰쥐에서 단감발효주가 알코올성 지방간 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Kyung-Sook;Kim, Ju-Youn;Noh, Sang-K.;Park, Joong-Hyeop;Sung, Eon-Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.40 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1548-1555
    • /
    • 2011
  • Persimmons are shown to contain high levels of phenolics. The present study was designed to investigate if a sweet persimmon wine (SPW) would affect the development of alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Initially, male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed singly in stainless steel wire-bottomed cages in a room of controlled temperature and lighting. The rats had free access to a nutritionally adequate AIN-93G diet and deionized water. After the acclimatization period, rats were weight-matched and assigned to the following three groups: two groups were fed 6.7% ethanol or the caloric equivalent of maltose-dextrin in a Lieber-DeCarli diet and the other group was fed the isocaloric Lieber-DeCarli diet containing SPW at the same ethanol level. All three groups were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. Serum transaminase, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Liver lipids and histology were assessed at 6 weeks. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of SPW were determined. SPW significantly increased antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. As markers of liver injury, serum alanine and aspartate transminases were markedly lowered by SPW at 6 weeks. SPW significantly reduced the serum levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride compared to ethanol treatment. SPW delayed the development of an alcoholic fatty liver by reversing fat accumulation in the liver, as evidenced in histological observations. Taken together, SPW seems to protect the liver from becoming fatty by alleviating fatty liver symptoms and lowering hepatic and serum lipid levels. Such a protective effect of SPW appears to be in part due to its phenolics.

Growth Performance and Nutrient Composition in the White-spotted Flower Chafer, Protaetia brevitarsis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Fed Agricultural By-product, Soybean Curd Cake (비지박 첨가 먹이원 급여에 따른 흰점박이꽃무지 유충의 생육과 영양성분 변화)

  • Song, Myung-Ha;Han, Moon-Hee;Lee, Seokhyun;Kim, Eun-Sun;Park, Kwan-Ho;Kim, Won-Tae;Choi, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.27 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1185-1190
    • /
    • 2017
  • Insects are gaining recognition as an alternative source of protein. As a result, more and more domestic farms have begun mass rearing of edible insects. In order to produce high quality insects, studies on the development of safe and nutritious feed sources are needed. Given the cost of rearing insects, agricultural and industrial by-products are good sources for feed. The efficient utilization of these by-products can help in reducing the cost of production and preventing environmental pollution. In the current study, Citrus unshiu peel (CP), soybean curd cake (SCC), soybean oil meal (SOM), and brewers dried grain (BDG) were investigated for their effects on larval growth and development of Protaetia brevitarsis. Interestingly, the feed with 10% SCC increased larval weight by 3.5 times. For the larval period, the group of 10% SCC was significantly shorter than the control. Furthermore, minerals such as Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P were recorded to be high in 10% SCC. A total of 17 amino acids were present in 10% SCC, of which tyrosine and arginine were predominant. The heavy metal contents were very small amounts or not detected in any of the investigated groups. These findings provided a scientific basis for the utilization of soybean curd cake as a nutritional feed source to promote larval growth and produce quality insects.

Risk Factors of Socio-Demographic Variables to Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality in Elderly Who Live Alone at One Urban Region (일 도시지역의 독거노인에 있어서 우울증상 및 자살경향성에 영향을 미치는 인구학적 변인에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Hoon-Sub;Oh, Hee-jin;Kwon, Min-Young;Kang, Min-Jeong;Eun, Tae-Kyung;Seo, Min-Cheol;Oh, Jong-Kil;Kim, Eui-Joong;Joo, Eun-Jeong;Bang, Soo-Young;Lee, Kyu Young
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.36-46
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives: To understand the risk factors of demographic data in geriatric depression scale, and suicidality among in elderly who live alone at one urban region. Methods:In 2009, 589 elderly who live alone(age${\geq}$65) were carried out a survey about several socio-demographic data, Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale(SGDS-K) and Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ). Statistical analysis was performed for the collected data. Results: Mean age of elderly who live alone is 75.69(SD 6.17). 40.1% of participants uneducated, 31.4% graduate from elementary school, 12.9% graduate from high school, 11.7% graduate from middle school, 3.2% graduate from university. Religionless, having past history of depression or physical diseases, low subjective satisfaction of family situation, and not having any social group activity have significance to depressive symptoms of elderly who live alone. Having past history of depression, religionless, low subjective satisfaction of family situation have significance to suicidality. Especially, low subjective satisfaction of family situation and having past history of depression are powerful demographic factor both depressive symptoms and suicidality of elderly who live alone. Conclusions: When we take care elderly who live alone, we should consider many things, but especially the social support network such as family satisfaction and past history of depression for reducing or preventing their depression and suicide both elderly depression and suicide who live alone.

Changes in microbial and chemical properties of rough rice treated with cold plasma by storage temperatures and periods (저온 플라즈마 처리한 벼의 저장온도 및 기간에 따른 미생물학적 및 이화학적 특성 변화)

  • Woo, Koan Sik;Yong, Hae In;Jo, Cheorun;Lee, Seuk Ki;Lee, Byong Won;Lee, Byoungkyu;Lee, Yu-Young;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Hyun-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.24 no.7
    • /
    • pp.908-914
    • /
    • 2017
  • Cold plasma (CP) was applied to examine microbial safety and physicochemical properties of rough rice. CP was generated in a square-shaped plastic container (250 W, 15 kHz, ambient air) and dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment was applied for periods of 0, 10, and 20 min during 2 weeks at 4 and $25^{\circ}C$. As a result of observing changes in growth of microorganisms, 3.46-3.86 log CFU/g of total aerobic bacteria and 2.27-2.86 log CFU/g of mold were detected in the early stage of storage. The growth of total aerobic bacteria and mold was increased depending on the storage temperature and period, but there was no big difference between cultivars. Microbial analysis after storage showed that microorganisms of plasma-treated group were less grown approximately 1.50 log CFU/g. Moisture content of rough rice was decreased by storage temperature and periods. As for the amylose content, changes in the content by plasma were not observed in Samkwang, Cheongpum and Misomi, whereas Palbangmi showed a tendency to increase. The results of this study indicated that CP treatment improved the microbial quality of rough rice, but further studies should be conducted to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by CP.

Effect of Herbal Chokong Pill on the Microstructure of Liver Cell in Rats Fed High Fat Diet (고지방식이 섭식 횐쥐의 간조직에 미치는 한방초콩환의 영향)

  • Park, Chan-Sung;Kim, Dong-Han;Kim, Mi-Lim
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.200-205
    • /
    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the herbal Chokong pill (hereafter HCKP) on the liver cell and enzyme activities of serum in rat. HCKP were mixed with pickled black soybeans and five different kinds of medicinal herbs (Rhynchosia nulubilis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zizyphus vulgaris, Atractylodes macrocephala K., Astragalus membranaceus and Cornus officinalis). Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by different diets for 9 weeks: normal diet (Nor), high-fat diet (HF), high-fat diet supplemented with 1% (T1) and 5% (T5) HCKP powder, respectively. Depending on the presence of HCKP in high fat diet, the activities of the blood serum GOT and GPT were decreased. GOT and GPT activities of T1 and T5 were decreased 6.1%, 17.8% and 25.4%, 32.4% compared with HF. On microstructure observing through the transmission electron microscope (TEM) of liver cell, in normal group, a normal large and clear nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria possessing well-defined double outer-limiting membranes were found. However, in HF, it was hard to observe the microstructures in cytoplasm, because of too many fat granules. It showed severely damaged cell, pyknotic nucleus, swollen disintegrating RER and mitochontria loosing the cristae. In T1, there were more repaired liver cells and less fat granules than HF. In T5, there were much less numbers and smaller size of the fat granules than T1, and the morphology was similar to normal cell.

The Effect of Disregarding of Heat Detection on Embryo Production in Superovulation of Hanwoo (한우 과배란처리시 CIDR 처리와 미처리가 수정란 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi S. H.;Son D. S.;Ryu I. S.;Cho S. R.;Han M. H.;Kim H. J.;Choe C. Y.;Kim Y. K
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.311-315
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of disregarding of heat detection on embryo production in superovulation of Hanwoo cows. Donors which showed 1 or 2 times of normal heat and had no abnormality of reproductive tract were selected The superovulation was performed injection of 2.5 mL FSH (Antorin R-10, Japan) 2 times on 5 days before next heat and continuously with the reduction of dose to 0.5 mL of first injection 2 times in a day for next 3 days. Otherwise, the donors of CIDR group were inserted CIDR plus (with the capsule of estradiol benzoate 10 mg) on Day 10 from standing heat for 9 days. On 6 days from insertion of CIDR, FSH was injected above same manners. The response according to the natural heat and CIDR were $82.2\%,\;89.7\%$, respectively. There were no difference between both treatments. The recovery rates of embryos were 7.7, 10.5, respectively and transferable embryos were 3.4, 3.8. There showed significant difference between both treatments (p<0.05). These results suggested that disregarding of heat detection in superovulation could be produced transferable embryos for embryo transfer and preserve the donors from the excess hormonal administration and maintain the economical lift span of genetically available Hanwoo donors.