• Title/Summary/Keyword: KOH

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KOH activated pine tree needle leaves biochar as effective sorbent for VOCs in water

  • Theoneste, Nshirirungu;Kim, Moon Hyun;Solis, Kurt Louis;Park, Minoh;Hong, Yongseok
    • Membrane and Water Treatment
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2018
  • The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water using KOH-activated pine tree needle leaves biochar is considered a cost effective and efficient process. In this study, pine tree needle leaves were mixed with 0, 50, 100 and 200% (KOH weight/feedstock weight) of KOH, respectively. Then, the mixture was pyrolyzed at $500^{\circ}C$ for 6 hrs. The adsorption characteristics of 10 VOCs to the biochar were tested. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of the KOH activated biochar was highest in 100% KOH-biochar. The VOC removal efficiencies of 50% and 200% KOH activated biochar were similar and the 0% KOH activated biochar showed the lowest VOC removal. The FTIR results showed that increasing the amount of KOH seemed to enhance the formation of various functional groups, such as -OH, -C=C, -O. The adsorption strength of 10 VOCs to the KOH activated biochar seemed to be increasing by the increase of the solubility of VOCs. This may suggest that the adsorption is taking place in hydrophilic sites of the biochar surface. The KOH activated pine tree needle leaves biochar can be an effective sorbent for VOCs removal in water and 100% KOH mixing seemed to provide better sorption capacity.

Effect of KOH Addition on Pore Structure of Glassy Carbon Prepared by Polymerization of Phenolic Resin (KOH 첨가에 의한 페놀수지로 제조된 유리상탄소의 미세구조제어)

  • 김지현;박세민;임연수;박홍수;김명수
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.477-482
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    • 2002
  • In order to control the micro-pore structure of glassy carbon (GC), an activation agent of KOH was introduced as the glassy carbon was prepared from phenolic resin with a curing agent of phosphoric acid. The yield and properties of GC were investigated as a function of KOH content. Although the GC produced without KOH had nonporous structure except the trace of bubble formation, the GC with KOH had very porous structure. The surface area of GC with KOH increased continuously up to 870 $m^2$/g with the increase of KOH content. The carbonization yield and apparent density measured in water reduced from 40 to 15% and iron 1.5 to 0.9 g/$cm^3$, respectively, and the electrical resistivity increased from $50{\times}10^{-4}$ to $60{\times}10^{-4}$$\Omega$.cm with the increase of KOH content.

Analysis of Varietal Variation in Alkali Digestion of Milled Rice at Several Levels of Alkali Concentration (쌀의 KOH 농도별 붕괴양상에 따른 품종변이 해석)

  • 최해춘;손영희
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1993
  • To analyze and classify the varietal variation of alkali digestibility in detail, which is closely connected with the gelatinization temperature and physical characteristics of cooked rice, the patterns of alkali decomposition changed along the alkali concentration were investigated for thirty three Korean leading rice cultivars and new breeding lines(japonica : 25, Tongil-type:8) including five glutinous rice. Principal component analysis was used to condense the information and to classify rice materials according to decomposed reaction pattern at several levels of potassium hydroxide(KOH) concentration. Thirty three rice varieties were classified largely into four groups by the distribution on the plane of upper two principal component scores which contained above 92% of total informations. Group I was consisted of one variety, Dobongbyeo, which owned almost same strong resistance to alkali digestion at the range of 0.8% to 1.6% KOH solutions. Group II included three japonica and Tongil-type glutinous rice varieties, which revealed medium alkali digestion value(ADV) at 1.4% KOH solution and intermediate change in ADV from 0.8% to 1.6% KOH solutions. Most of Tongil-type and early-maturity japonica rice, which exhibited medium-high ADV at 1.4% of KOH concentration and large ADV difference between low and high alkali solutions, were contained in Group III. Group N included most of medium or medium-late-maturity japonica, which showed high ADV at 1.4% KOH and medium or intermediate-high ADV change between low and high alkali solutions. The 1st principal component indicated the average index of ADV through 0.8-1.6% KOH solutions and the 2nd principal component pointed out the factor related with ADV difference between low and high alkali solutions or regression coefficients of ADV change along with the KOH concentrations.

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Influence of the Pore Properties on Carbon Dioxide Adsorption of PAN-based Activated Carbon Nanofibers (폴리아크릴로니트릴계 활성나노탄소섬유의 기공특성이 이산화탄소 흡착에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Dayoung;Cho, Seho;Kim, Yesol;Lee, Young-Seak
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.592-599
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    • 2013
  • In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based porous carbon nanofibers were prepared from PAN polymer solution by electrospinning and KOH activation with various concentrations, and the characterization of pore structures and carbon dioxide adsorption was investigated. Manufactured PAN-based activated carbon nanofibers tend to decrease diameter and increase surface oxygen functional groups depending on the increasing concentration of KOH solution. In addition, according to the results of nitrogen adsorption for pore properties analysis, it indicated increase of the specific surface area in conformity with increasing concentration of KOH solution. Micropore volume of treated activated carbon nanofibers (ANCF) by 4 M KOH was the largest compared with other samples and mesopore volume of treated ANCF by 8 M KOH was the largest volume, respectively. The concentration of KOH effects textural and surface properties, as represented by BET and XPS, which enhance carbon dioxide adsorption capacity at 0 and $25^{\circ}C$.

The Physical Properties and Dyeability of KOH Treated Cotton Fabrics (KOH 처리 면직물의 물성 및 염색성)

  • Song, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Su-Mi;Song, Wha-Soon
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.91-95
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the improvement of fiber surface, physical properties and research the physical properties and dyeability of cotton fabrics treated with KOH solution at low and high temperature. The treatment conditions for mercerization with KOH were changed various temperatures(25, $90^{\circ}C$), concentrations(15, 20, 25, 30%. w/v) and times(30, 60, 180, 300sec). The effects of mercerization after KOH treatment estimated with tensile strength, tearing strength, shrinkage, drape stiffness, moisture regain, fiber surface, and dyeability. The optimal conditions were concentration of KOH 20%, time 180sec in low temperature and concentration of KOH 20%, time 60sec in high temperature. The results are as follows; Tensile strength, tearing strength and moisture regain were much improved than those of untreated cotton fabric. Shrinkage and drape stiffness of KOH treated cotton were more increased at $25^{\circ}C$ than $90^{\circ}C$. Fiber surface showed more rounded shape at $25^{\circ}C$ than $90^{\circ}C$. Dyeability of cotton fabrics improved by KOH treatment.

Anisotropic etching characteristics of single crystal silicon by KOH and KOH-IPA solutions (KOH 용액 및 KOH-IPA 혼합용액에 의한 단결정 실리콘의 이방성식각 특성)

  • 조남인;천인호
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2002
  • For a formation of membrane structures, single crystal silicon wafers have been anisotropically etched with solutions of KOH and KOH-IPA. The etching rate was observed to be strongly dependent upon the etchant temperature and concentration. Mask patterns for the etching experiment was aligned to incline $45^{\circ}$on the primary flat of the silicon wafer. The different etching characteristics were observed according to pattern directions and etchant concentration. When the KOH concentration was fixed to 20 wt%, the U-groove etching shape was observed for the etching temperature of above $80^{\circ}C$, and V-groove shapes observed at below $80^{\circ}C$. Hillocks, which were generated at the etched silicon surfaces, has been decreased as the increasing of the etchant temperature and concentration.

Role of KOH in the One-Stage KOH Activation of Cellulosic Biomass

  • Oh, Gyu-Hwan;Yun, Chang-Hun;Park, Chong-Rae
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.180-184
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    • 2003
  • The role of KOH in the one-stage KOH-activation of rice straws was studied using FTIR, XPS, TGA, and DTG techniques. It was found that at the impregnation, KOH extracts to some extent the lignin component from rice straw and reacts with hydroxyl groups. On heat-treatment, the impregnated KOH facilitates intermolecular condensation reaction on one hand but retards the thermal degradation of cellulose molecules on the other hand. The oxygen-containing surface functional groups newly created by oxidation of KOH may facilitate the bulk, not controlled, consumption of carbon atoms so that the effective porosities may not be able to be developed by the one-stage activation process.

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Polymerization of Lactams (IX). Anionic Polymerization of 2-Pyrrolidone via Phenylphosphonyl-N,N'-bis-${\varepsilon}$-caprolactam / KOH Catalysis (Lactam의 중합 (제9보). Phenylphosphonyl-N,N'-bis-${\varepsilon}$-caprolactam / KOH 촉매작용에 의한 2-Pyrrolidone 의 음이온 중합)

  • Jung Hag Park;Bal Jung;Sam K. Choi
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 1980
  • Anionic polymerization of 2-pyrrolidone was carried out via PPBC/KOH catalysis. The effects of PPBC/KOH mole ratio, KOH concentration and temperature on polymerization have been investigated. It was observed that the highest rate of polymerization and maximum conversion were obtained when PPBC/KOH mole ratio was around 0.5. The maximum conversion and the highest viscosity were obtained when the concentration of KOH was 2 mole percent. It was also found that while the rate of polymerization at $50^{\circ}C$ was higher than at $30^{\circ}C$ in the initial stage of polymerization, the conversion and viscosity were decreased as polymerization time was extended. The rate constant $(k_p)$ of polymerization was determined by least square method; the values of $k_p$ obtained were $22.4\;l/mole{\cdot}hr\;at\;30^{\circ}C\;and\;191.9\;l/mole{\cdot}hr\;at\;50^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Anionic Polymerization of 2-Pyrrolidone by Toluene Diisocyanate / KOH Catalysis (Toluene Diisocyanate/KOH 촉매작용에 의한 2-Pyrrolidone의 음이온 중합)

  • Bal Jung;Ki Sung Kwon;Sam Kwon Choi;Mun Sam Ryoo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 1983
  • Anionic polymerization of 2-pyrrolidone was carried out by TDI (Toluene Diisocyanate)/KOH catalysis. The effects of TDI / KOH mole ratio, KOH concentration, temperature and time on polymerization were investigated. It was observed that the highest rate of polymerization and maximum conversion were obtained when TDI / KOH mole ratio was about 0.25. The maximum conversion and the highest viscosity were obtained when the concentration of KOH was 5 mole percent. It was also found that the rate of polymerization and inherent viscosity at $30^{\circ}C$ were higher than those at $50^{\circ}C$. The rate constant ($k_p$) of polymerization was determined by least square method; the values of kp obtained were $57.53{\ell}/mole{\cdot}min\;at\;30^{\circ}C$ and $52.36{\ell}/mole{\cdot}min\;at\;50^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Anionic Polymerization of ${\varepsilon}$-Caprolactam via $CS_2$ / KOH Catalysis (Ⅲ) ($CS_2$ / KOH Catalysis에 의한 ${\varepsilon}$-Caprolactam의 음이온 중합 (제3보))

  • Koo Myeong-Seo;Choi Sam Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.440-444
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    • 1977
  • The anionic polymerization of ${\varepsilon}$-caprolactam via $CS_2$/KOH catalysis was carried out under various conditions. The inherent viscosity of the polymers and percent conversion of the polymers were determined. It was observed that the percent conversion was increased as an increasing concentration of catalyst and initiator. The percent conversion was relatively low at low temperature and the highest percent conversion was obtained at temperature between $130^{\circ}C,\;to\;155^{\circ}C$ with any $CS_2$/KOH mole ratio.

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