• Title, Summary, Keyword: Kampo Medicine

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Review on Clinical Studies of Traditional Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture Treatments for Colorectal Cancer Patients (대장암 환자의 한약 및 침치료에 대한 국내외 임상연구 결과에 대한 고찰 - Pubmed를 중심으로)

  • Kang, Yun Hwan;Hong, Mi-na;Han, Chang Woo;Choi, Jun Yong;Park, Seong Ha;Kim, So Yeon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to collect and analyze the clinical studies of traditional herbal medicine and acupuncture treatments for colorectal cancer patients searched in Pubmed and Cochrane library in English. We collected the clinical studies, including randomized controlled trial, case control study and cohort study, in the PubMed and Cochrane library using keywords 'Colorectal Cancer', 'Korean Medicine', 'Traditional Chinese Medicine', 'Kampo' and 'Acupuncture'. Then we analyzed them according to the objective of the therapy, i.e. improving therapy prognosis, reducing chemotherapy's adverse event and reducing operational adverse event. In case RCT, we evaluate the quality of the study with jadad scale. Total 18 studies were selected. There were 3 studies about improving therapy prognosis, 6 studies about reducing chemotherapy's adverse event and 9 studies about reducing operational adverse event. Traditional medicine might improve therapy prognosis in terms of the survival rate, relapse/metastasis rate, quality of life and immune function. The specific herbal formula, 'Goshajinkigan' might not be successful about reducing chemotherapy's adverse event, peripheral neurotoxicity. 'Hangeshanshinto' might reduce the duration of oral mucositis but it is not clear to reduce the incidence of that. 'PHY906' might reduce the incidence of diarrhea. Acupuncture might reduce operational adverse event such as gastrointestinal dysfunction and pain. And 'Daikenchuto' might not be successful in reducing operational adverse event, gastrointestinal dysfunction. Further studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of traditional herbal medicine and acupuncture for colorectal cancer patients.

A study of Korean medical knowledge system which Korean medical doctors want (한의사들이 원하는 한의학 지식체계에 대한 고찰)

  • Son, Mi-Ju;Kim, Wu-Young;Jerng, Ui-Min;Park, Hwang-Jin;Han, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to know the status of clinical utilization of Korean medical knowledge and the Korean medical knowledge system which Korean medical doctors want. Methods : Questionnaires were distributed to Korean medical doctors registered for the Association of Korean medicine via the email and 249 answered questionnaires were analyzed. Results : 50.6 % of Korean medical doctors utilized the textbooks for Korean medicine when they treated their patients. The reason why they did not utilize the textbooks for Korean medicine was mostly that 'it could not be applied directly into clinical application with only contents of textbook because clinical approach (diagnosis and treatment methods) was not clearly described in the textbook'. 48.6 % of Korean medical doctors utilized the EBM materials when they treated their patients. EBM materials that they referred included domestic articles, other EBM materials excluding papers and international academic papers based on PubMed in order. The reasons why they did not utilize the EBM materials were mostly that 'it was difficult to find the evidence' and 'EBM materials were not actually helpful for the clinical practice.' It was found that Korean medical doctors approached the disease in aspects of Korean and Western Medicine concurrently upon the diagnosis of patients and performed the diagnosis and treatment of Korean medicine on the diseases which seemed to be effective with Korean medicine. It was also found that they thought that they needed to know the Western medical knowledge as much as general doctors who have a doctor's license or family medicine specialists who comprehensively treat the general diseases know. Korean medical doctors wanted to have the systematic summary of modern research performance in fields of acupoint, acupuncture, herbal drugs and formula. They thought that constitutional medicine and Sa-am acupuncture therapy were representative characteristics in Korean medicine differentiated from Traditional Chinese medicine and Kampo medicine. Conclusions : Korean medical doctors wanted to establish the Korean medical knowledge system based on evidence focusing on clinical and practical contents. New Korean medical knowledge system should be established based on these requirements in the future.

A Study for Database of Uibang Yuchui (醫方類聚) and Its Value as the Intellectual Property of Traditional Korean Medical Knowledge (지식재산으로서의 의방유취의 가치와 DB구축의 필요성에 관한 소고)

  • Ahn, Sang-Woo;Han, Jiwon;Park, Joo-Young;Cha, Wung-Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Medical History
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.123-134
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    • 2018
  • Today, knowledge itself has become a resource which must be protected by the pertinent community of its contributors and users, from being manipulated or distorted by third-party players. The preservation of knowledge in relationship to the cultural context of its origins, has been recognized by international organizations intent on maintaining authentic voice and perspective. Globally, the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) organizes the annual IGC (Intergovernmental Committee) meeting to address various issues associated with each country's utilization of intellectual and bio source property. Korean Medicine is the official name for the traditional medicine that has been inherited from the cultures of the Korean Peninsula. It is one of the four practices of East Asian Medicine including Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) from China, Kampo Medicine of Japan, and Sino-Vietnamese Medicine in Vietnam. As a cultural treasure representing centuries of evolving knowledge, Korean Medicine is protected under intellectual property rights afforded by WIPO, and must be understood in relationship to, and distinct from, TCM. It is understood that China has a strong political purpose to claim all the traditional medicines of the East Asian region under the name of TCM, including Korean Medicine. In fact TCM was authorized as the representative name for all East Asian medicine by decisions made by the ISO (International Standard Organization) in 2015. This paper proposes a pilot study on how to protect the intellectual property of Korean Medicine from efforts by China to claim it under the umbrella of TCM. Using the Uibang Yuchui (醫方類聚, Classified Collection of Medical Formulas) this paper suggests establishing a Database of UBYC, which was published in 1477 by the Joseon Korea government. UBYC was the reorganized version of contemporary East Asian medical sources, and has already hundreds of year's rich indigenous and culturally specific medical history of Korea, from which Korean Medicine has been built.

Analysis of Existing Guidelines and Controlled Clinical Trials for Development of [Guideline of Clinical Trials with Herbal Medicinal Products for Colorectal Cancer] (결장직장암 한약제제 임상시험 가이드라인 개발을 위한 한약제제 대조군 임상시험 고찰)

  • Park, Eunjoo;Seong, Sin;Kim, Sungsu;Kim, Jinsung;Park, Jae-Woo;Ko, Seok-Jae;Han, Gajin
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.124-152
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study aimed to ascertain what should be considered in the "Guideline for Clinical Trials with Herbal Medicinal Products for Colorectal Cancer" by analyzing the existing guidelines and clinical trials. Methods: The development committee searched guidelines for herbal medicinal products for colorectal cancer that have already been developed. Then, clinical trials for colorectal cancer using herbal medicine were searched. The searched trials were analyzed in terms of inclusion and exclusion of participants, intervention, comparator, outcomes and trial design. Then, we compared the results of our analysis with the regulations and guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in order to identify the issues we will have to consider when making the "Guideline for Clinical Trials with Herbal Medicinal Products for Colorectal Cancer". Several guidelines for anti-tumor agents and clinical trials with herbal medicinal products were searched on the national institution homepage. In addition, 12 articles were searched using a combination of the following search terms: 'colorectal neoplasms', 'herbal medicine', 'Medicine, Korean traditional', 'Medicine, Chinese Traditional', 'medicine, East Asian medicine', 'medicine, Kampo', etc. Results: The characteristics of participants were various, such as people with medical histories of surgeries or recurrent cancers or who complained of chemotherapy-induced side effects. The types of interventions were also various and included decoctions, powders, intravenous fluids, intraperitoneal injections and gargles. Comparators used included placebos and conventional treatments. The outcome measurements used in the studies were quality of life, symptom score, tumor response, and survival duration, etc. Safety was evaluated by recording adverse events. Conclusions: Findings were made by reviewing existing guidelines and comparing them with clinical trials for colorectal cancer and herbal medicinal products. These results will be utilized in the development of the "Guideline for Clinical Trials with Herbal Medicinal Products for Colorectal Cancer".

A Comparative Study on Responses to the Sasang Constitution Questionnaire for Patients between Korean and Japanese (한국인과 일본인의 환자용 사상체질 설문지 문항 응답 비교 연구)

  • Ryu, Dong-Hoon;Jeong, Jong-Hoon;Bae, U-Yeol;Kim, Kyu-Kon;Jeon, Soo-Hyung;Kim, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.167-179
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    • 2013
  • Objectives This study was performed to compare responses of Korean to the Sasang Constitution questionnaire with those of Japanese and to learn difference in characteristic according to the Sasang Constitution between two countries. Methods 301 Korean visiting the department of the Sasang Constitution, Dong-Eui Medical Center in Busan, Korea from November 2006 to September 2010 responded to the SSCQ-P(Sasang Constitution Questionnaire for Patients). Sasang Constitution specialist interviewed subjects and diagnosed their Sasang Constitution. 361 Japanese visiting the center for Kampo Medicine, Keio University in Tokyo, Japan from January 2010 to February 2011 responded the SSCQ-J(Sasang Constitution Questionnaire for Japanese). The Sasang Constitution was diagnosed in the same way as Korean. We compare responses to the SSCQ-P in Korean with those to the SSCQ-J in Japanese. Results 1. Among Soyangin related 58 items of Sasang Constitution questionnaire, 26, 46.36% items had statistically significant response results in both Korean and Japanese and response disposition of all these items was same. Among Taeeumin related 68items, 36, 52.94% items had statistically significant response results in both Korean and Japanese. Of these, response disposition of 35 items was same and that of 1 item was different. Among Soeumin related 71 items, 31, 43.66% items had statistically significant response results in both Korean and Japanese. Of these, response disposition of 28 items was same and that of 3 items was different. 2. The proportion of items having statistical significance and same disposition in both Korean and Japanese by Sasang Constitutional characteristic category[Features and Way of Speaking, Physical Appearance, Temperament and Talent, Pathological Syndromes] was as follows; In Soyangin, the proportion in Pathological Syndromes was 27.8% and that in the others was more than 41.7%. In Taeeumin, the proportion in Pathological Syndromes was 33.3% and that in the others was more than 57.9%. In Soeumin, the proportion in Features and Way of Speaking was 70.6%, that in Physical Appearance was 8.3% and that in the others was 30~40%. Conclusions The response disposition of many of items having statistical significance between Korean and Japanese was same and that of a few was different. From this, there are many common Sasang Constitutional characteristics between two countries, and possibility of applying the Sasang Constitutional Medicine of Korea to Japan.

Recent Studies of the Effects of Herbal Medicines on Angiogenesis (한약물을 이용한 혈관신생 촉진에 대한 최근의 연구동향)

  • Lee, Song-shil;Kang, Jung-won;Back, Yong-hyeon;Choi, Do-young;Park, Dong-seok;Kim, Deog-yoon;Kim, Kang-il;Park, Sang-do;Yang, Ha-ru;Ji, Mi-young;Lee, Jae-dong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.283-302
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    • 2004
  • Background : Angiogenesis is the proliferation of a network of blood vessels emanating from pre-existing vessels, supplying nutrients and oxygen and removing waste products. Angiogenesis occurs in a variety of normal physiologic and pathologic conditions and is regulated by a balance of stimulatory and inhibitory angiogenic factors. Excessive angiogenesis should be suppressed. However, if blood supply is insufficient, it should be encouraged. Hyul-Mek(血脈) or Hyul-Rark(血絡), known as blood vessels in western medicine, is deeply related to Chung-Ki-Hyul(精 氣 血). The goal of this study is to review the effects of herbal medicines on angiogenesis that is involved in wound healing and enhancement of blood supply. Methods : We conducted a systematic and comprehensive literature search for the identification, retrieval, and bibliographic management of independent studies to locate information on the topic. A computerized search of the published literature of Korea(KISS, RISS), China(CNKI), Japan(Kampo medicine, etc), and western countries(MEDLINE) was performed, and further supplemented with manual searches of print sources(1999 to 2003). Results : The herbal medicines with angiogenic activity were mainly found among herbs that carry replenish Shin-Cheng(補腎益精), foster Eum and improve the circulation of blood(養陰活血), or warm and circulate Kyung-Rark(溫經通絡). In particular, herbs with improve the circulation of blood and clear blood(活血化瘀) activity contain a significant amount of tannin, saponin, and pyrazine. Conclusion : Replenish Ki-Hyul(補氣血) and circulate Kyung-Rark(通經絡) could contribute to the induction of angiogenesis because various growth factors and proliferation, differentiation, and migration of vascular endothelial cells are involved in angiogenic activity.

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Clinical Usefulness of Korean Red Ginseng in Postmenopausal Women with Severe Climacteric Disturbance

  • Kikuchi, Yoshihiro;Tode, Takehiko;Hirata, Junko;Nakataand, Hideyui;Kita, Tsunekazu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical usefulness of Korean red ginseng (RG) on various postmenopausal syndromes. Total plasminogen inhibitor-l (tPAI-l) in peripheral blood from 9 postmenopausal women with climacteric syndromes (CS) was measured before and 3 months after treatment with daily oral administration of 6 g RG and that from 8 postmenopausal women without any CS was also measured as healthy controls. Blood samples were collected in the early morning on the bed-rest. Psychological conditions of postmenopausal women with CS were measured before and 3 months after treatment with RG using simplified menopausal index (SMI). In addition, OKETSU (blood stagnation) syndrome scores and KI deficiency (generalized energy stagnation) scores proposed by Terasawa et al., were recorded before and 3 months after treatment with RG in postmenopausal women with CS and in healthy postmenopausal women. OKETSU syndrome scores and tPAI-l levels in postmenopausal patients with CS were significantly (P<0.001 and P<0.01) higher than those in healthy postmenopausal women without CS. Similarly, SMI scores and KI deficiency scores in postmenopausal patients with CS were about three-fold higher than those without any CS. When RG was administered for 3 months, KI deficiency scores and OKETSU scores as well as SMI scores declined around the levels of healthy postmenopausal women. Although tPAI-1 levels significantly (P<0.05) decreased after treatment with RG, those did not reach the levels of healthy postmenopausal women. Clinical usefulness of administration of RG to postmenopausal women with CS was confirmed from evaluation not only by modem medicine but also by traditional KAMPO medicine.

The Kampo Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Neuropathy in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Docetaxel

  • Abe, Hajime;Kawai, Yuki;Mori, Tsuyoshi;Tomida, Kaori;Kubota, Yoshihiro;Umeda, Tomoko;Tani, Tohru
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6351-6356
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    • 2013
  • Background: Goshajinkigan (GJG) is used for the treatment of several neurological symptoms. We investigated the efficacy of GJG and mecobalamin (B12) against neurotoxicity associated with docetaxel (DOC) in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty breast cancer patients were treated with DOC. Thirty-three patients (GJG group) received oral administration of 7.5 g/day GJG and 27 patients (B12 group) received oral administration of 1500 ${\mu}g/day$ B12. Neuropathy was evaluated according to DEB-NTC (Neurotoxicity Criteria of Debiopharm), Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTC) ver. 3.0, and a visual analogue scale (VAS). This study employed a randomized open design. Results: The incidence of neuropathy was 39.3% in the GJG group, and 88.9% in the B12 group (p<0.01). In the GJG group, grade 1 DEB-NTC was observed in 2 cases, grade 2 in 5 cases and grade 3 in 5 cases. Grade 1 NCI-CTC was observed in 7 cases, grade 2 in 6 cases, and VAS was $2.7{\pm}2.2$. In the B12 group, grades 1, 2 and 3 DEB-NTC were observed in one case, 12 cases and 12 cases, respectively; and grades 1, 2 and 3 NCI-CTC were observed in 11 cases, 12 cases and one case, and VAS was $4.9{\pm}2.4$. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of GJG is useful in preventing neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with a DOC regimen.

A Study of the "Ikkando Medicine" in Japanese Oriental Medicine (일본(日本) 한방의학(韓方醫學)의 체질의학(體質醫學)인 《일관당의학(一貫堂醫學)》에 관(關)한 고찰(考察))

  • Joh, Kiho;Park, Seong Sik;Terasawa, Katsutoshi;Shimada, Yutaka;Lee, Won Chul
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.339-352
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    • 1997
  • The oriental medicine based on the traditional chinese medicine has developed according to the historical and racial character respectively in China, Korea and Japan etcs. Particularly, the distinctive feature of Korea & Japan is characterized by the development of constitutional medicine compared with chinese medicine; Sasang Medicine of Korea and Ikkando Medicine of Japan. The constitutional medicines were so far developed by many clinical doctors, and in recent years much interest has centered on the application of these medicines in regarding originality, easiness and effectiveness etcs in treatment. Thus far only few attempts have been made at Ikkando medicine in Korea, what seems to be lacking, however, is practical application in clinic. Thus authors intend to help the clinical application by introducing Ikkando medicine to Korea oriental medicine through this paper. The Ikkando medicine was established by Dohaku Mori(1869~1931) and was known through the "Kampo Ikkando Medincine" which was published by his disciple, Kaku Yakazu(1893~1966), classified human beings into three types; type of blood stasis, type of stroke and type of allergy. The type of blood stasis may be responsible for factors which have occurred by a state of insufficient bleed circulation and blood stasis causing lesione of endothelial cells, and Tongdosan is mainly administrated. The predisposing factor of stroke's type is known as the excessive diet, and the prevalence of cerebrovascular accident is probably higher. In this type, it is likely that patients are prevented and cured with Bangpungtongsunsan. Allergy's type have three distinct types of childhood, adolescence and adult as to the age. Allergy's type of childhood predisposes patients such as these to upper respiratory infection and tuberculosis etcs, and Sihocheonggansan is frequently administrated. Allergy's type of adolescence has a tendency to rhinitis and infection of face legion etcs, and Heunggyeyeoungyotang is mainly administrated. Allergy's type of adult is subject to urogenital infection, and is more commonly treated with Yongdamsagantang. Judging from the above, we can say with fair certainty that Ikkando Medicine has considerable validity to clinical practice, though it should not be pushed too far.

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A Study on The 'Kao Zheng Pai'(考證派) of The Traditional Medicine of Japan (일본 '고증파(考證派)' 의학에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hyun-Kuk;Kim, Ki-Wook
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.10
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    • pp.1-40
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    • 2008
  • 1.The 'Kao Zheng Pai'(考證派) comes from the 'Zhe Zhong Pai(折衷派)' and is a school that is influenced by the confucianism of the Qing dynasty. In Japan Inoue Kinga(井上金峨), Yoshida Koton(古田篁墩 $1745{\sim}1798$) became central members, and the rise of the methodology of historical research(考證學) influenced the members of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', and the trend of historical research changed from confucianism to medicine, making a school of medicine based on the study of texts and proving that the classics were right. 2. Based on the function of 'Nei Qu Li'(內驅力) the 'Kao Zheng Pai', in the spirit of 'use confucianism as the base', researched letters, meanings and historical origins. Because they were influenced by the methodology of historical research(考證學) of the Qing era, they valued the evidential research of classic texts, and there was even one branch that did only historical research, the 'Rue Xue Kao Zheng Pai'(儒學考證派). Also, the 'Yi Xue Kao Zheng Pai'(醫學考證派) appeared by the influence of Yoshida Kouton and Kariya Ekisai(狩谷掖齋). 3. In the 'Kao Zheng Pai(考證派)'s theories and views the 'Yi Xue Kao Zheng Pai' did not look at medical scriptures like the "Huang Di Nei Jing"("黃帝內經") and did not do research on 'medical' related areas like acupuncture, the meridian and medicinal herbs. Since they were doctors that used medicine, they naturally were based on 'formulas'(方劑) and since their thoughts were based on the historical ideologies, they valued the "Shang Han Ja Bing Lun" which was revered as the 'ancestor of all formulas'(衆方之祖). 4. The lives of the important doctors of the 'Kao Zheng Pai' Meguro Dotaku(目黑道琢) Yamada Seichin(山田正珍), Yamada Kyoko(山田業廣), Mori Ritsi(森立之) Kitamura Naohara(喜多村直寬) are as follows. 1) Meguro Dotaku(目黑道琢 $1739{\sim}1798$) was born of lowly descent but, using his intelligence and knowledge, became a professor as a Shi Jing Yi(市井醫) and as a professor for 34 years at Ji Shou Guan(躋壽館) mastered the "Huang Di Nei Jing" after giving over 300 lectures. Since his pupil, Isawara Ken(伊澤蘭軒) taught the Lan Men Wu Zhe(蘭門五哲) and Shibue Chusai(澀江抽齋), Mori Ritsi(森立之), Okanishi Gentei(岡西玄亭), Kiyokawa Gendoh(淸川玄道) and Yamada Kyoko(山田業廣), Meguro Dotaku is considered the founder of the 'Yi Xue Kao Zheng Pai'. 2) The family of Yamada Seichin(山田正珍 $1749{\sim}1787$) had been medical officials in the Makufu(幕府) and the many books that his ancestors had left were the base of his art. Seichin learned from Shan Ben Bei Shan(山本北山), a 'Zhe Zhong Pai' scholar, and put his efforts into learning, teaching and researching the "Shang Han Lun"("傷寒論"). Living in a time between 'Gu Fang Pai'(古方派) member Nakanishi Goretada(中西惟忠) and 'Kao Zheng Pai' member Taki Motohiro(多紀元簡), he wrote 11 books, 2 of which express his thoughts and research clearly, the "Shang Han Lun Ji Cheng"("傷寒論集成") and "Shang Han Kao"("傷寒考"). His comparison of the 'six meridians'(3 yin, 3 yang) between the "Shang Han Lun" and the "Su Wen Re Lun"("素問 熱論") and his acknowledgement of the need and rationality of the concept of Yin-Yang and Deficient-Replete distinguishes him from the other 'Gu Fang Pai'. Also, his dissertation of the need for the concept doesn't use the theories of latter schools but uses the theory of the "Shang Han Lun" itself. He even researched the historical parts, such as terms like 'Shen Nong Chang Bai Cao'(神農嘗百草) and 'Cheng Qi Tang'(承氣湯). 3) The ancestor of Yamada Kyoko(山田業廣) was a court physician, and learned confucianism from Kao Zheng Pai's Ashikawa Genan(朝川善庵) and medicine from Isawa Ranken(伊澤蘭軒) and Taki Motokata(多紀元堅), and the secret to smallpox from Ikeda Keisui(池田京水). He later became a lecturer at the Edo Yi Xue Guan(醫學館) and was invited as the director to the Ji Zhong(濟衆) hospital. He also became the first owner of the Wen Zhi She(溫知社), whose main purpose was the revival of kampo, and launched the monthly magazine Wen Zi Yi Tan(溫知醫談). He also diagnosed and prescribed for the prince Ming Gong(明宮). His works include the "Jing Fang Bian"("經方辨"), "Shang Han Lun Si Ci"("傷寒論釋詞"), "Huang Zhao Zhu Jia Zhi Yan Ji Yao"("皇朝諸家治驗集要") and "Shang Han Ja Bing Lun Lei Juan"("傷寒雜病論類纂"). of these, the "Jing Fang Bian"("經方辨") states that the Shi Gao(石膏) used in the "Shang Han Lun" had three meanings-Fa Biao(發表), Qing Re(淸熱), Zi Yin(滋陰)-which were from 'symptoms', and first deducted the effects and then told of the reason. Another book, the "Jiu Zhe Tang Du Shu Ji"("九折堂讀書記") researched and translated the difficult parts of the "Shang Han Lun", "Jin Qui Yao Lue"("金匱要略"), "Qian Jin Fang"("千金方"), and "Wai Tai Mi Yao"("外臺秘要"). He usually analyzed the 'symptoms' of diseases but the composition, measurement, processing and application of medicine were all in the spectrum of 'analystic research' and 'researching analysis'. 4) The ancestors of Mori Ritsi(森立之 $1807{\sim}1885$) were warriors but he became a doctor by the will of his mother, and he learned from Shibue Chosai(澁江抽齋) and Isawaran Ken(伊澤蘭軒) and later became a pupil of Shou Gu Yi Zhai(狩谷掖齋), a historical research scholar. He then became a lecturer of medical herbs at the Yi Xue Guan, and later participated in the proofreading of "Yi Xin Fang"("醫心方") and with Chosai compiled the "Jing Ji Fang Gu Zhi"("經籍訪古志"). He visited the Chinese scholar Yang Shou Jing(楊守敬) in 1881 and exchanged books and ideas. Of his works, there are the collections(輯複本) of "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing"("神農本草經") and "You Xiang Yi Hwa"("遊相醫話") and the records, notes, poems, and diaries such as "Zhi Yuan Man Lu"("枳園漫錄") and "Zhi Yuan Sui Bi"(枳園隨筆) that were not published. His thoughts were that in restoring the "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing", "the herb to the doctor is like the "Shuo Wen Jie Zi"(說文解字) to the scholar", and he tried to restore the ancient herbal text using knowledge of medicine and investigation(考據), Also with Chosai he compiled the "Jing Ji Fang Gu Zhi"("經籍訪古志") using knowledge of ancient text. Ritzi left works on pure investigation, paid much attention to social problems, and through 12 years of poverty treated all people and animals in all branches of medicine, so he is called a 'half confucianist half doctor'(半儒半醫). 5) Kitamurana Ohira(喜多村直寬, $1804{\sim}1876$) learned scriptures and ancient texts from confucian scholar Asaka Gonsai(安積艮齋), and learned medicine from his father Huai Yaun(槐園), He became a teacher in the Yi Xue Guan in his middle ages, and to repay his country, he printed 266 volumes of "Yi Fang Lei Ju"("醫方類聚") and 1000 volumes of "Tai Ping Yu Lan"("太平禦覽") and devoted it to his country to be spread. His works are about 40 volumes including "Jin Qui Yao Lue Shu Yi"("金匱要略疏義") and "Lao Yi Zhi Yan"(老醫巵言) but most of them are researches on the "Shang Han Za Bing Lun". In his "Shang Han Lun Shu Yi"("傷寒論疏義") he shows the concept of the six meridians through the Yin-Yang, Superficial or internal, cold or hot, deficient or replete state of diseases, but did not match the names with the six meridians of the meridian theory, and this has something in common with the research based on the confucianism of Song(宋儒). In clinical treatment he was positive toward old and new methods and also the experience of civilians, but was negative toward western medicine. 6) The ancestor of the Taki family Tanbano Yasuyori(丹波康賴 $912{\sim}955$) became a Yi Bo Shi(醫博士) by his medical skills and compiled the "Yi Xin Fang"("醫心方"). His first son Tanbano Shigeaki(丹波重明) inherited the Shi Yao Yuan(施藥院) and the third son Tanbano Masatada(丹波雅忠) inherited the Dian You Tou(典藥頭). Masatada's descendents succeeded him for 25 generations until the family name was changed to Jin Bao(金保) and five generations later it was changed again to Duo Ji(多紀). The research scholar Taki Motohiro was in the third generation after the last name was changed to Taki, and his family kept an important part in the line of medical officers in Japan. Taki Motohiro(多紀元簡 $1755{\sim}1810$) was a teacher in the Yi Xue Guan where his father was residing, and became the physician for the general Jia Qi(家齊). He had a short temper and was not good at getting on in the world, and went against the will of the king and was banished from Ao Yi Shi(奧醫師). His most famous works, the "Shang Han Lun Ji Yi"("傷寒論輯義") and "Jin Qui Yao Lue Ji Yi"("金匱要略輯義") are the work of 20 years of collecting the theories of many schools and discussing, and is one of the most famous books on the "Shang Han Lun" in Japan. "Yi Sheng"("醫勝") is a collection of essays on research. Also there are the "Su Wen Shi"(素問識), "Ling Shu Shi"("靈樞識"), and the "Guan Ju Fang Yao Bu"("觀聚方要補"). Taki Motohiro(多紀元簡)'s position was succeeded by his third son Yuan Yin(元胤 $1789{\sim}1827$), and his works include works of research such as "Nan Jing Shu Jeng"(難經疏證), "Ti Ya"("體雅"), "Yao Ya"("藥雅"), "Ji Ya"(疾雅), "Ming Yi Gong An"(名醫公案), and "Yi Ji Kao"(醫籍考). The "Yi Ji Kao" is 80 volumes in length and lists about 3000 books on medicine in China before the Qing Dao Guang(道光), and under each title are the origin, number of volumes, state of existence, and, if possible, the preface, Ba Yu(跋語) and biography of the author. The younger sibling of Yuan Yin(元胤 $1789{\sim}1827$), Yuan Jian(元堅 $1795{\sim}1857$) expounded ancient writings at the Yi Xue Guan only after he reached middle age, was chosen for the Ao Yi Shi(奧醫師) and later became a Fa Yan(法眼), Fa Yin(法印) and Yu Chi(禦匙). He left about 15 texts, including "Su Wen Shao Shi"("素問紹識"), "Yi Xin Fang"("醫心方"), published in school, "Za Bing Guang Yao"("雜病廣要"), "Shang Han Guang Yao"("傷寒廣要"), and "Zhen Fu Yao Jue"("診腹要訣"). On the Taki family's founding and working of the Yi Xue Guan Yasuka Doumei(矢數道明) said they were "the people who took the initiative in Edo era kampo medicine" and evaluated their deeds in the fields of 'research of ancient text', the founding of Ji Shou Guan(躋壽館) and medical education', 'publication business', 'writing of medical text'. 5. The doctors of the 'Kao Zheng Pai' based their operations on the Edo Yi Xue Guan, and made groups with people with similar ideas to them, making a relationship 'net'. For example the three families of Duo Ji(多紀), Tang Chuan(湯川) and Xi Duo Cun(喜多村) married and adopted with and from each other and made prefaces and epitaphs for each other. Thus, the Taki family, the state science of the Makufu, the tendency of thinking, one's own interests and glory, one's own knowledge, the need of the society all played a role in the development of kampo medicine in the 18th and 19th century.

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