As the logistics management becomes more important with the enormous amount of competition at every level of apparel retailing, the Korean apparel companies are expanding logistics outsourcing for providing to consumers better service. This paper studied about apparel logistics service quality, focusing on the transport part. The results of this study showed that the apparel companies evaluated highly their logistics outsourcing service quality that provided from the logistics companies. The logistics companies were providing high quality logistics service to the apparel companies with relatively advanced service infrastructures such as transportation management system and logistics network, as well as improved service abilities such as exact transport and relationship management. Also, it was identified that the satisfaction with apparel transport service quality gave positive influence on recontract intention toward the logistics companies.
This paper is to focus the financial ratio analysis of the Korean textile and apparel companies due to fast changing domestic industry. Financial ratios are playing a pivotal role in management analysis to assess the present conditions to predict the future. Subjects are belonging to textile and apparel manufacturers based on Firm Classification Standard while registered as securities listed-firms or Kosdaq-listed firms under the Electronic Notification System of Korean Banking Supervisory Authority. 41 companies' data have been analyzed including 17 apparel companies and 24 textile companies. 14 representative financial ratios are analyzed. In this paper, financial ratios can be classified into four categories as follows: stability ratios, profitability ratios, growth ratios and activity ratios. The independent t-test was performed using SPSS 18 for a 10 year simple arithmetic average. The following conclusion has reached regarding aspects of management conditions and performances. When compared the ratios indicating stability, textile and apparel companies did not show much difference in debt ratio and the ratio of earning to interests. However, when compared the profitability ratios measuring the ability to produce incomes, apparel companies showed higher ratios than textile companies. Thus it is important to recognize financial characteristics of each industry.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
The Korean apparel manufacturing industry started to meet domestic demands which had depended on importation in 1950s, growing into one of the export-oriented industries with several Five-Year Economic Development Plans. In spite of the development, inefficient organization of distribution of apparel manufacturing industry which connects production with consumption impedes further development of the industry. This study aims at suggesting desirable distribution system of ladies' apparel, the core of the fashion industry. This researcher interviewed those who are concerned in twenty-eight ladies' apparel manufacturing compaines, analyzing the current state of distribution in the industry and the problems. The results are as follows; 1. Forty-five percent of ladies' apparel is distributed through department stores. Therefore, the department stores need to assume their roles in sales and try to improve the condition and to train professional buyers. 2. The sales network is concentrated on the five biggest cities such as Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Taechon, and Kwangju, prompting the need to be diversified. 3, Tke existing distribution forms distribution systems have many irrational factors which are aggravnting the rate of goods in stock. 4. The manufacturing companies do not implement studies on distribution. The companies should try to establish clear concepts on production and distribution on their own for better planning skills. 5. Computerized systems need to manage the procedures ranging from ordering, distribution, sales to inventory.
The purpose of this study is to create the program for efficient inventory management and reduction, investigating the present conditions and factors of the inventory throughout current apparel industry. The research method applied in this study is to survey 92 domestic companies which were randomly selected with respect to the kinds of goods produced : men′s wear, women′s wear, and unisex wear. The research can be summarized as follows : 1. The seasonal stock rate of current apparel industry was 28.75%, and the rate of men′s wear companies was higher than that of women′s and unisex wear companies. 19.43% of stock cost reflection rate was applied, and the stack cost of men′s and women′s wear companies was higher than that of unisex wear companies. 2. Periodic bargain sale was the most frequently used way of stock clearance, and "uniform price sale"and outlet stores were the second and the third irrespectively. Unisex wear companies appeared to be more enthusiastic in stock clearance than the companies belonging to the other two categories. The main places for the stock clearance were department stores, outlet stores and enterprises specialized in the stock clearance. 3. QR production was proved to be the most commonly adjusted method of stock reduction, and the emphasis on development of new design and the utilization of stock management system through computer network were the next, While unisex wear companies had established the positive policies, men′s wear companies took lukewarm altitudes in every aspect. The companies selling on an order were 18.64%, and unisex wear companies showed the higher rate. The lead-time after QR production was 10.91 days, and it seemed to take more time for men′s wear companies than for women′s and unisex wear companies. The rate of the chance in stock was proved to decrease by 12.94%, and there was found no meaningful difference among the three categories of apparel companies.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
In recent years, Korea's apparel exports to the USA have faced a great threat, as the trade environment around the world has changed continually. The purpose of this study is to analyze the competitive position of Korean apparel exports to the USA, and to enhance export competitiveness by applying to offshore sourcing. The trade data of the Office of Textiles and Apparel(OTEXA) in the U.S. Department of Commerce were selected for inquiry about export competitiveness of apparel products made in Korea. In addition, we targeted members of the Korea Apparel Industry Association among the 500 exporters of clothing items in "The Import and Export Textile Product 2003." A total 70 sheets were analyzed. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Korean apparel exports to USA have decreased by 20-35 percent per year since 2005 under the Free Trade Area, showing that Korean apparel industries have not adapted to the new trade environment. Although Korean apparel exports to USA have indicated a trade surplus from now on, Korean apparel industries should find new ways to overcome this situation, diminishing exports and increasing imports. 2) Korean apparel companies selected more offshore sourcing than domestic sourcing. Also, as Korean apparel companies manufactured apparel products offshore, foreign subcontracting outranked manufacturing in their own foreign plants. When they chose foreign countries to source, they turned mainly to China and Vietnam. Also, they considered the target country's manufacturing price, labor stability, apparel products, quality, lead time, and so on. In order to increase apparel exports, Korean apparel industries should focus more on developing competitively new apparel products, improving the ability of sourcing management, and establishing on-the-spot agencies.
Park, Woo-Ram;Kim, Mi-Jin;Kwon, Oh-Kyoung;Kim, Mun-Young;Cho, Woo-Hyun
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
Despite the recovery of consumer expenditure and retailing in the Korean economy after 2001, the domestic apparel industry has been aggravated by negative growth in both productivity and production. The purpose of the stud? is to diagnose the develop competitive of the Korean apparel industry and derive implications for this after estimating the efficiency of the Korean apparel companies with Data Envelopment Analysis. Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) is a methodology based in non-parametric analysis and linear programming. It was developed for measuring the relative efficiency of a set of firms that use inputs to produce outputs. Data used fer input and output variables in the analysis are drawn from financial statement recorded by the Korean Financial Supervisory Service. The initial input data comprise the number fo the employees, fixed assets, general management and selling expenses, and cost of sales. The initial outputs are the operating profit and the gross margin. To summary the results, the efficiencies of the Korean apparel companies has increased yearly in spite of being overabundance of investment in Labour and Capital. According to correlation between input and output variables, the Korean apparel industry has been revamping gradually from labor intensive industries to the capital. The companies need to reduce costs in the results from the number of employees, fixed asset and cost of sales to transform into an efficiently enterprise. The companies owning or obtaining a brand had bitter establish an outsourcing strategic in production, while OEM corporations are called far setting up a manufactory in domestic or abroad. Although the paper is derived some implications with production efficiencies, the relation between apparel companies and brand power, consumption level of consumer, and social trend is remained on a limitation to the study. The next research necessitates a topic with Fashion industry or examining the correlation between brand value, social propensity and profit margin.
This study explored the current implementation status of corporate social responsibility (CSR) among textiles and apparel manufacturers and retailers in Korea, based on the Triple Bottom Line (TBL). We also investigated the provision of information related to CSR practices on the websites of companies. A quantitative content analysis was conducted to analyze the website disclosures of 61 listed companies categorized in the textiles, apparel, shoes, and luxury industry. Analysis was focused on the presence, accessibility, and the level of CSR website disclosure. Seven themes emerged by applying the constant comparison analysis. Using Scott's formula for pi, a high level of inter-coder reliability was achieved, ranging from 0.91 to 0.97. Regarding the three dimensions of CSR suggested in TBL, economic dimension was relatively more emphasized in the website disclosures of most companies, compared to social and environment dimensions. Website disclosures were further investigated, based on the product categories of each company. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
The main purpose of this study was to examine the sectors of Korean textile complex based on various economic characteristics and performances. The sectors in the textile complex differed in many aspects. Man-made fiber industry showed capital-intensive characteristics even though most of the sectors in the textile complex were labor-intensive. Textile industry is composed of weaving and spinning, knitting, dyeing and finishing sectors and even within the textile industry, each sector had different characteristics from each others. Weaving and spinning sector seemed to require relatively high capital investment, while dyeing and finishing was very labor-intensive. Labor-intensive apparel industry has faced decrease in labor-productivity while wage has increased. Slow growth in labor productivity in Korean textile complex was shown to be a more problem than increase in wage or ratio of labor cost to value added. Apparel companies appeared to be in better financial states than the textile companies, even though the exports of apparel products have decreased in the 1990s. However, in overall the financial states of the Korean textile complex were not as strong as those of the other manufacturing sectors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
The channel of distribution exists for the purpose of moving product from the manufactuerer to the final consumer. In order to satisfy consumer needs, channels provide for the those products to arrive at the right place, at the right time and in the quantity, quality and price desired. Currently, there has been an emerging interest in the improvement of distribution system in many areas of industries and Korean government because of a market liberalizatiion begun at 1989 and still has processed step by step. In the wave of market liberalization, an understanding of the channel of distribution and structure would be very crucial when developing the opportunities of competitive advantages in Korean apparel industry. The purposes of this study were to investigate the determinants of the distribution channel and to identify how to respond to the market liberalization for developing the possible future strategies in the apparel industry. Data for this study were obtained from interviews with managers in apparel company in addition to a questionnaire mailed to over 106 middle management position of apparel company. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results of this study were summarized as follows. 1. In the distribution channel of the apparel industry, a vertical marketing system, comprising producer, apparel company, retailer, prevailed without intermediaries such as wholesalers or vendors. Especially, the apparel company controlled marketing channel members. This type of system may reflect added product cost and may be not advantageous to retailers and consumers because most apparel companies are responsible for its own transfortation, storage and stocks after season. 2. In the view of market liberalization, most apparrel companies showed double-edged viewpoints. In terms of positive aspect, it would give stimulus to broaden variety of fashion merchandise and to improve product quality of fashion merchanise which were the most disadvantageous factors in competing with oversea's brands. In terms of negative aspect, it would bring the bankruptcy of small or medium sized apparel firms and the foreign products' penetration in domestic market. From this study, severel recommedations were suggested forward to improve the present condition in apparel industry. They included eliminating the power of apparel company and reinforcing middlemen for more efficient distribution system and for satisfying consumer needs in rapidly changing environment. Also it included government supports, reinforcement of information system, improvement in channel structure, and career development program in conjunction with apparel companies and academic society for improving scientific management and future potential strategies in Korean apparal industry.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants and elements to enhance Korean international competitiveness, employing Porter's(1998) Diamond Model. Half of the 500 leading apparel exporters that were members of the Korea Apparel Industry Association in 2003 were selected as the target of this research. From May to June of 2003, survey questionnaires were sent to executives of these 250 companies in person or by telephone, e-mail, or fax. Seventy questionnaires were used for the final data anlysis. The items used were Reliability, Categorical Regression, and Frequency, using SPSS 11.5. The results were as follows: First, as a result of analyzing the influence of international competitiveness in Korean apparel industry, the firm's strategy, structure, and rivalry was the most influential factor. Others were related and supporting industries, government, chance, demand conditions, and factor conditions. Also, the elements that affect Korean international competitiveness were listed as the level of price competition in foreign markets, the level of labor cost, export marketing capacity, and exchange fluctuation. The most important element to improve the international competitiveness of the Korean apparel industry was a demand growth rate of the overseas markets(Demand Conditions), followed by the level of the labor costs(Factor Conditions), the capability of internationalization(Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry), the change of currency(Chance), the quality and management of products(Demand Conditions), the capability of planning products(Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry), free trade from 2005(Chance), and global sourcing strategy(Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry). Korea's main rival country in apparel related and supporting industry factors is China. However, Korea has a higher level of technology development, quality, and price level than China.
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