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Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Two-Phase Cycle for Ethernet PON (EPON에서의 Two-Phase Cycle 동적 대역 할당 알고리즘)

  • Yoon, Won-Jin;Lee, Hye-Kyung;Chung, Min-Young;Lee, Tae-Jin;Choo, Hyun-Seung
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.14C no.4
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    • pp.349-358
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    • 2007
  • Ethernet Passive Optical Network(EPON), which is one of PON technologies for realizing FTTx(Fiber-To-The-Curb/Home/Office), can cost-effectively construct optical access networks. In addition, EPON can provide high transmission rate up to 10Gbps and it is compatible with existing customer devices equipped with Ethernet card. To effectively control frame transmission from ONUs to OLT EPON can use Multi-Point Control Protocol(MPCP) with additional control functions in addition to Media Access Control(MAC) protocol function. For EPON, many researches on intra- and inter-ONU scheduling algorithms have been performed. Among the inter-ONU scheduling algorithms, IPS(Interleaved Polling with Stop) based on polling scheme is efficient because OLT assigns available time portion to each ONU given the request information from all ONUs. Since the IPS needs an idle time period on uplink between two consecutive frame transmission periods, it wastes time without frame transmissions. In this paper, we propose a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to increase the channel utilization on uplink and evaluate its performance using simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed Two-phase Cycle Danamic Bandwidth Allocation(TCDBA) algorithm improves the throughput about 15%, compared with the IPS and Fast Gate Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation(FGDBA). Also, the average transmission time of the proposed algorithm is lower than those of other schemes.

Improvement of Optical Characteristics in Viewing Directions in a Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Color Filter (반사형 콜레스테릭 칼라필터의 시야각에 따른 광특성 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyun;Lim, Young-Jin;Hwang, Seong-Jin;Lee, Myong-Hoon;Jang, Won-Gun;Lee, Seung-Hee
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.148-152
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    • 2007
  • The prototype of color fitters for the liquid crystal displays (LCD) using cholesteric liquid crystal monomers was produced. Cholesteric liquid crystal is characterized by the unique optical features of selective reflection, which is due to the helical twisting structures of LCs comparable to the wavelength of the incident light under certain conditions of substrate treatment. In the results of the experiment, cholesteric films for red, green, and blue light reflections respectively were produced and the viewing angle dependence of these films were investigated. Reflective light of red and green films shifted to shorter wavelength regions as viewing angle becomes greater, but blue one shifted very little. Periodic micrometer-sized half-spherical photoresist formed by thermal reflow method after photo-lithography was patterned on glass substrates. The viewing angle dependence of reflective light colors of red, green, and blue films on the patterned substrates compared with those on no patterned substrates was investigated. We could confirm the dependences were much smaller on the patterned substrates by bare eyes and Lab-color coordination methods qualitatively.

Disease monitoring of wild marine fish and crustacea caught from inshore and offshore Korea in 2018 (2018년 국내 연근해 수산생물의 전염병 모니터링)

  • Hwang, Seong Don;Lee, Da-Won;Chun, Won Joo;Jeon, Hae-Ryeon;Kim, Dong Jun;Hwang, Jee-Youn;Seo, Jung-Soo;Kwon, Mun-Gyoung;Ji, Hwan-Sung;Kim, Jung Nyun;Jee, Bo-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.474-482
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    • 2019
  • Disease monitoring in wild aquatic animals is necessary to obtain information about disease occurrence, disease agents, and the transmission of diseases between wild and cultured species. In this study, we monitored viral diseases in wild marine fish and crustacea caught by trawl in Korea in April and October 2018. We monitored the viral diseases in 977 fish from 39 different species and 287 crustacea from 14 different species. In fish, we collected kidney and spleen to detect viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), marine birnavirus (MABV), hirame rhabdovirus (HRV), and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). In crustacea, we monitored white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), taura syndrome virus (TSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), yellowhead disease virus (YHDV), and white tail disease virus (WTDV) using pleopods, pereiopods, gills, muscle, and hepatopancreases. Although none of the viral diseases tested in this study were detected in the samples, these results will help disease control between aquaculture species and wild aquatic animals.

TIR Holographic lithography using Surface Relief Hologram Mask (표면 부조 홀로그램 마스크를 이용한 내부전반사 홀로그래픽 노광기술)

  • Park, Woo-Jae;Lee, Joon-Sub;Song, Seok-Ho;Lee, Sung-Jin;Kim, Tae-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2009
  • Holographic lithography is one of the potential technologies for next generation lithography which can print large areas (6") as well as very fine patterns ($0.35{\mu}m$). Usually, photolithography has been developed with two target purposes. One was for LCD applications which require large areas (over 6") and micro pattern (over $1.5{\mu}m$) exposure. The other was for semiconductor applications which require small areas (1.5") and nano pattern (under $0.2{\mu}m$) exposure. However, holographic lithography can print fine patterns from $0.35{\mu}m$ to $1.5{\mu}m$ keeping the exposure area inside 6". This is one of the great advantages in order to realize high speed fine pattern photolithography. How? It is because holographic lithography is taking holographic optics instead of projection optics. A hologram mask is the key component of holographic optics, which can perform the same function as projection optics. In this paper, Surface-Relief TIR Hologram Mask technology is introduced, and enables more robust hologram masks than those previously reported that were formed in photopolymer recording materials. We describe the important parameters in the fabrication process and their optimization, and we evaluate the patterns printed from the surface-relief TIR hologram masks.

Design of an Anamorphic Aspherical Prism Lens for the Head Mount Display (HMD용 회전 비대칭 비구면 프리즘 렌즈 설계)

  • Park, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To design an anamorphic aspherical prism lens for the HMD optical system. Methods: First, we get the initial data, needed in design, which are distances between each surface etc., by analyzing user's demended specifications and by drawing geometrically the shape of prism lens by using CAD. Based on these data and using 'ode V' which is an optical design software, we could progress the optimization in which we treat the coefficients of the anamorphic aspherical surface as the principal variables. To reduce the cost in DTM manufacturing, we would optimize the optical system with the transmitting surface, existed in the direction of video device among 3 surfaces of the prism lens, remaining as a plane. Results: we could design one anamorphic aspherical prism lens which has the finite ray aberration of 15 ${\mu}m$, the distortion of 0.5%, and the MTF value of 0.3 over at 36 lp/mm for the video device of 12 mm ${\times}$ 9 mm size. Conclusions: We designed a prism lens used for HMD. This prism lens has the optical capacities of 15 ${\mu}m$ finite ray aberration and 0.5% distortion for the video device of 12 mm ${\times}$ 9 mm size, and become the optical system having the MTF value of 0.3 over at 36 lp/mm.

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The Wet and Dry Etching Process of Thin Film Transistor (박막트랜지스터의 습식 및 건식 식각 공정)

  • Park, Choon-Sik;Hur, Chang-Wu
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.1393-1398
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    • 2009
  • Conventionally, etching is first considered for microelectronics fabrication process and is specially important in process of a-Si:H thin film transistor for LCD. In this paper, we stabilize properties of device by development of wet and dry etching process. The a-Si:H TFTs of this paper is inverted staggered type. The gate electrode is lower part. The gate electrode is formed by patterning with length of 8 ${\mu}$m${\sim}$16 ${\mu}$m and width of 80${\sim}$200 ${\mu}$m after depositing with gate electrode (Cr) 1500 ${\AA}$under coming 7059 glass substrate. We have fabricated a-SiN:H, conductor, etch-stopper and photo resistor on gate electrode in sequence, respectively. The thickness of these thin films is formed with a-SiN:H (2000 ${\mu}$m), a-Si:H(2000 ${\mu}$m) and n+a-Si:H (500 ${\mu}$m), We have deposited n-a-Si:H, NPR(Negative Photo Resister) layer after forming pattern of Cr gate electrode by etch-stopper pattern. The NPR layer by inverting pattern of upper gate electrode is patterned and the n+a-Si:H layer is etched by the NPR pattern. The NPR layer is removed. After Cr layer is deposited and patterned, the source-drain electrode is formed. In the fabricated TFT, the most frequent problems are over and under etching in etching process. We were able to improve properties of device by strict criterion on wet, dry etching and cleaning process.

Mobile phone payment system using a light signal (휴대폰의 광원을 이용한 디지털 카드 시스템)

  • Hu, Moon-Heang;Shin, Moon-Sun;Ryu, Kuen-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.1237-1244
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we proposed a mobile phone payment system using light signal containing payment related information. The digicard system we proposed creates virtual mobile card such as credit numbers and the created information is loaded in mobile phone. The virtual card information should be changed to pulse signal by light signal devices of mobile phone and the specific digicard system reader is able to read light signal. In recent years, a mobile phone payment system has been developed in order to provide user's convenience. But the mobile phone payment system has problems such as the production costs and complex and large size. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, we proposed mobile phone payment system being implemented by updating software without additional hardware modules. Therefore it is possible to apply the proposed digicard system to all kinds of mobile phone. Also encryption module is implemented to solve the problem of the security and privacy. According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a mobile phone payment system using a light signal containing payment-related information, comprising: a mobile phone; a photo receiver: and a control server.

Study on the Optical Characteristics of the Green Phosphor for PDP Application (PDP용 녹색 형광체의 광 특성 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Bo Yong;Yoo, Jae Soo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2009
  • Plasma Display Panels(PDPs) require to have improved luminous efficiency, low manufacturing cost, and high image quality to compete with other flat display devices such as Liquid Crystal Displays(LCDs) and organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs). In addition, the diversity of product line-up may be needed for high market share. In this paper, the optical characteristics of typical green phosphor for PDP application are reviewed and the problem-based solution will be proposed. We also shortly describe the principle of 3D-PDPs which are promising. Then, the requirement of green phosphor for 3D-PDP application is summarized and research achievement, as of now, is described. The typical problems of $Zn_2SiO_4:Mn$ phosphor, which is the most well-known, are the negatively charged surface property and the long decay time, which leads to unstable discharge in green cell and afterimage. These problems were solved by coating the phosphor surface with metallic oxide. It was found that $Al_2O_3$ would be the best material for $Zn_2SiO_4:Mn$ phosphor. It gives longevity as well as low operating voltage due to the charging effect in green cells. Also, new phosphors, $(Y,\;Gd)Al_3(BO_3)_4:Tb$ and $(Mg,\;Zn)Al_2O_4:Mn$ phosphor are proposed for increasing the luminance and reducing the decay time, which are capable to apply for 3D-PDP application.

Development of Nondestructive Evaluation System for Internal Quality of Watermelon using Acoustic Wave (음파를 이용한 비파괴 수박 내부품질 판정 시스템 개발)

  • Choi, Dong-Soo;Lee, Young-Hee;Choi, Seung-Ryul;Kim, Gi-Young;Park, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2009
  • Watermelons (Citrulus vulgaris Schrad) are usually sorted manually by weight, appearance, and acoustic impulse, so grading of maturity and internal quality is subject to inaccuracies. It was necessary to develop a nondestructive evaluation technique of internal watermelon quality to reduce human error. Thus, acoustic characteristics related to internal quality factors were analyzed. Among these factors, three (ripeness, presence of an internal cavity, and blood-colored flesh) were selected for evaluation. The number of peaks and the sum of peak amplitudes for watermelons with blood-colored flesh were lower than for normal fruits. The portable evaluation system has an impact mechanism, a microphone sensor, a signal processing board, an LCD panel, and a battery. A performance test was conducted in the field. The internal quality evaluation model showed 87% prediction accuracy. Validation was conducted on 72 samples. The accuracy of quality evaluation was 83%. The quality of samples was evaluated by an inspector using conventional methods (hitting the watermelon and listening to the sounds), and then compared with prototype results. The quality evaluation accuracy of the prototype was better than that of the inspector. This nondestructive quality evaluation system could be useful in the field, warehouse, and supermarket

Metal 첨가물질에 따른 비정질 IGZO 투명전극 특성 연구

  • Sin, Han-Jae;Hwang, Do-Yeon;Lee, Jeong-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Ik;Park, Seong-Eun;Park, Jae-Seong;Kim, Seong-Jin;Lee, Yeong-Ju;Seo, Chang-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.368-370
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    • 2013
  • 투명 전극은 전기전도도를 갖는 동시에 가시광선을 투과하는 소재를 말하며, 구체적으로는 빛의 파장이 400~700 nm 영역대의 가시광선을 80% 이상 투과하며 전기전도도가 비저항으로 $10^{-3}{\Omega}cm$이하이거나 면저항이 $10^3{\Omega}$/${\Box}$소재를 의미한다. 투명 전극은 전기전도도에 따라 사용되는 용도가 다양하다. LCD, PDP, OLED 와 같은 평판디스플레이 및 3D 디스플레이의 투명전극으로 사용되는 핵심재료일 뿐만 아니라 터치스크린, 투명필름, 대전방지막, 열반사막, EMI 방지막, 태양전지 분야에 광범위하게 이용되고 있다. 일반적으로, 투명전극 박막에 가장 많이 사용되고 있는 소재는 ITO (indium tin oxide)이나, 주성분인 In의 사용량 증가로 상용 ITO 타겟 가격이 급등하고 있음으며, 고가의 ITO 타겟을 대체하기 위한 저가의 투명전극 소재 개발이 절대적으로 요구되며, 신규 소재 개발을 통한 기술력 우위 선점이 필수적으로 요구되는 상황이다. 본 연구에서는 기존에 디스플레이 분야에서 널리 활용되는 고가의 ITO를 대체하기 위한 다성분 금속산화물 투명전극 스퍼터링 타겟 제조기술을 개발하기 위한 연구로서, Metal이 첨가된 In-Ga-Zn-O기반의 3성분계 투명도전성 소재를 조성설계, 고밀도 균질 타겟 제조 및 투명전극 박막을 형성하는 연구를 실시하였다. 고체산화물 산화인듐(In2O3)분말, 산화갈륨(Ga2O3) 분말그리고 산화아연(ZnO)분말과 Metal을 몰비로 칭량한 후 분말을 폴리에틸렌제 포트에 넣고 에탄올을 충분히 채운 후 지르코니아(ZrO2) 볼(ball)을 이용하여 24 h 동안 볼 밀링(ball milling) 방법으로 혼합한 뒤, $120^{\circ}C$의 플레이트위에서 마그네틱 바로 stirring하면서 건조하였다. 이 분말을 건조기에서 완전히 건조한 후 알루미나 유발을 이용해서 pulverizing한 후 sieving기를 이용하여 분말의 조립화를 하였다. 이 분말을 금형에 넣고 300 kg/$cm^2$의 압력으로 press하여 성형한 뒤 대기중에서 소결하였다 소결을 위한 승온 온도는 $10^{\circ}C$/min이었고 소결은 $1,450^{\circ}C$에서 6 h 동안 하였다. IGZO target의 조성 비율은 1:1:12 (mol%)를 사용하였으며, 첨가한 Metal은 Boron (B), Germanium (Ge), Barium (Ba)을 사용하여 타겟을 제작하였다. M-IGZO 박막은RF magnetron Sputter를 이용하여 증착하였으며, 앞선 실험에서 제작한 타겟을 사용하여 M-IGZO박막을 투명전극으로 사용하기 위한 각각의 특성을 파악하였다. 모든 박막은 상온에서 증착을 하였으며, 증착된 박막두께를 측정하기 위해 ${\alpha}$-step IQ를 사용하였고, 광학적 특성을 분석하기 위해 UV-Visible spectrophotometer 로 투과율을 측정하였다. 그리고 전기적 특성을 측정하기 위해 Hall effect measurement 및 4-probe를 사용하였으며, 결정성 분석을 위하여 XRD를 이용하여 분석하였다. 표1은 M-IGZO타겟을 사용하여 증착시간에 따른 면저항 특성을 나타내었다. Ge, B, Ba이 첨가된 IGZO 박막은 증착시간이 증가할수록 면저항이 낮아짐을 알 수 있었다. 또한, Ge이 첨가된 IGZO 박막이 다른 금속이 첨가된 IGZO 박막의 면저항보다 현저히 낮음을 알 수 있었다. Fig. 1(a), (b), (c)는 각 타겟을 동일한 조건으로 증착을 하여 광학적특성을 나타내는 그래프이다. GZO 박막의 광학적 특성을 보면 가시광 영역에서 평균 투과율은 모두 80% 이상으로 우수한 광투과 특성을 보여 투명전자소자로 사용가능하다. 특히, 자외선 영역을 모두 차단하는 UV cut 능력이 우수함을 알 수 있었다. 따라서, 금속이 첨가된 IGZO 박막을 태양전지용 투명전극으로 사용할 경우, 자외선에 의하여 수명이 단축되는 현상을 줄여줄 수 있음을 기대할 수 있으며 내구성 향상에 크게 기여할 것으로 보인다. Fig. 2는 Ge=0, 0.5, 5%인 IGZO 투명전극을 총 40회 반복하여 증착을 실시한 후 각각의 면저항을 측정한 결과이다. 실험결과에 따르면 Ge가 0%, 5%인 IGZO 투명전극은 증착을 거듭할수록 면저항이 증가하는 결과를 나타내었으며, 0.5%인 IGZO 투명전극은 점차 안정화되어가는 결과를 나타내었다. 따라서 안정화 되었을 때 평균 면저항은 26ohm/sq.로 나타났으며, 광투과율은 Fig. 3과 같이 가시광영역에서 평균 80%이상의 결과를 보였으며, 550 nm에서는 86.36%의 우수한 특성을 나타내었다. 본 연구에서는 Metal이 첨가된 In-Ga-Zn-O기반의 3성분계 투명도전성 소재 target을 제작하여 RF magnetron sputter로 박막을 형성한 후 특성을 비교하였다. M-IGZO target 중 Ge (0.5%)을 첨가한 IGZO 타겟을 사용한 투명전극이 가장 우수한 특성을 보였으며, 제작된 M-target의 In 비율이 30% 정도로 기존의 ITO (90%) 대비하여 투명전극 제작 단가를 절감할 수 있다.

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