• Title, Summary, Keyword: LLC-PK1 cells

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Protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng against FK506-induced damage in LLC-PK1 cells

  • Lee, Dahae;Kang, Ki Sung;Yu, Jae Sik;Woo, Jung-Yoon;Hwang, Gwi Seo;Eom, Dae-Woon;Baek, Seung-Hoon;Lee, Hye Lim;Kim, Ki Hyun;Yamabe, Noriko
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2017
  • Background: Compound FK506 is an immunosuppressant agent that is frequently used to prevent rejection of solid organs upon transplant. However, nephrotoxicity due to apoptosis and inflammatory response mediated by FK506 limit its usefulness. In this study, the protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) against FK506-induced damage in LLC-PK1 pig kidney epithelial cells was investigated. Methods: LLC-PK1 cells were exposed to FK506 with KRG and cell viability was measured. Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses evaluated protein expression of MAPKs, caspase-3, and KIM-1. TLR-4 gene expression was assessed. Caspase-3 activities were also determined. The number of apoptotic cells was measured using an image-based cytometric assay. Results: The reduction in LLC-PK1 cell viability by $60{\mu}M$ FK506 was recovered by KRG cotreatment in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38, p44/42 MAPKs (ERK), KIM-1, cleaved caspase-3, and TLR-4 mRNA expression was increased markedly in LLC-PK1 cells treated with $60{\mu}M$ FK506. However, with the exception of p-ERK, elevated levels of p-p38, KIM-1, cleaved caspase-3, and TLR-4 mRNA expression were significantly decreased after cotreatment with KRG. Activity level of caspase-3 was also attenuated by KRG cotreatment. Moreover, image-based cytometric assay showed that apoptotic cell death was increased by $60{\mu}M$ FK506 treatment, whereas it was decreased after cotreatment with KRG. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that the molecular mechanism of KRG in the FK506-induced nephrotoxicity may lead to the development of an adjuvant for the inhibition of adverse effect FK506 in the kidney.

Effect of Cisplatin on Sodium-Dependent Hexose Transport in LLC-$PK_1$ Renal Epithelial Cells

  • Lee, Suk-Kyu;Kim, Jee-Yeun;Yu, Tai-Hyun;Kim, Kyoung-Ryong;Kim, Kwang-Hyuk;Park, Yang-Saeng
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 1997
  • Cis-dichlorodiammine platin${\mu}M$II (Cisplatin), an effective chemotherapeutic agent, induces acute renal failure by unknown mechanisms. To investigate direct toxic effects of cisplatin on the renal proximal tubular transport system, LLC-$PK_1$ cell line was selected as a cell model and the sugar transport activity was evaluated during a course of cisplatin treatment. Cells grown to confluence were treated with cisplatin for 60 min, washed, and then incubated for up to 5 days. At appropriate intervals, cells were tested for sugar transport activity using ${\alpha}-methyl-D-[^{14}C]glucopyranoside$ (AMG) as a model substrate. In cells treated with 100 ${\mu}M$ cisplatin, the AMG uptake was progressively impaired after 3 days. The viability of cells was not substantially changed with cisplatin of less than 100 ${\mu}M$, but it decreased markedly with 150 and 200 ${\mu}M$. In cisplatin-treated cells, the $Na^+$ -dependent AMG uptake was drastically inhibited with no change in the $Na^+$ -independent uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that Vmax was suppressed, but Km was not altered. The $Na^+$ -dependent phlorizin binding was also decreased in cisplatin-treated cells. However, the AMG efflux from preloaded cells was not apparently retarded by cisplatin treatment. These data indicate that the cisplatin treatment impairs $Na^+$ -hexose cotransporters in LLC-$PK_1$ cells and suggest strongly that defects in transporter function at the luminal plasma membrane of the proximal tubular cells constitute an important pathogenic mechanism of cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

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Protection of LLC-PK1 Cells Against Hydrogen Peroxide­Induced Cell Death by Modulation of Ceramide Level

  • Yoo Jae Myung;Lee Youn Sun;Choi Heon Kyo;Lee Yong Moon;Hong Jin Tae;Yun Yeo Pyo;Oh Seik Wan;Yoo Hwan Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2005
  • Oxidative stress has been reported to elevate ceramide level during cell death. The purpose of the present study was to modulate cell death in relation to cellular glutathione (GSH) level and GST (glutathione S-transferase) expression by regulating the sphingolipid metabolism. LLC­PK1 cells were treated with H$_2$O$_2$ in the absence of serum to induce cell death. Subsequent to exposure to H$_2$O$_2$, LLC-PK1 cells were treated with desipramine, sphingomyelinase inhibitor, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), GSH substrate. Based on comparative visual observation with H202-treated control cells, it was observed that 0.5 $\mu$M of desipramine and 25 $\mu$M of NAC exhibited about 90 and $95\%$ of cytoprotection, respectively, against H$_2$O$_2$-induced cell death. Desipramine and NAC lowered the release of LDH activity by 36 and $3\%$ respectively, when compared to $71\%$ in H$_2$O$_2$-exposed cells. Cellular glutathione level in 500 $\mu$M H202-treated cells was reduced to 890 pmol as compared to control level of 1198 pmol per mg protein. GST P1-1 expression was decreased in H$_2$O$_2$-treated cells compared to healthy normal cells. In conclusion, it has been inferred that H$_2$O$_2$-induced cell death is closely related to cellular GSH level and GST P1-1 expression in LLC-PK1 cells and occurs via ceramide elevation by sphingomyelinase activation.

Optimization of Experimental Conditions for In vitro P-glycoprotein Assay Using LLC-GA5 Cells

  • Ahn, A-Ra;Oh, Ju-Hee;Lee, Joo-Hyun;Lee, Young-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.363-366
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    • 2010
  • Identification of compounds that function as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates or inhibitors can facilitate the selection and optimization of new drug candidates. The purpose of this study is to optimize the experimental conditions for in vitro P-gp assay using LLC-GA5 cells, which is a well-known transformant cell line derived by transfecting LLC-PK1 with human MDR1. The amount of rhodamine123 transported by the LLC-GA5 and LLC-PK1 cells was evaluated under the following experimental conditions: 3 different types of transport media, colchicine pretreatment or nontreatment of the cells in the culture media, and with and without poly-L-lysine coating of the culture plates. The assay sensitivity was found to considerably differ depending on the diluents used in the transport media. P-gp-mediated transport in LLC-GA5 cells was most clearly characterized in the Hanks' balanced salt solution based transport media. The sensitivity of P-gp-mediated transport was not changed by colchicine pretreatment or poly-L-lysine coating of the culture plates.

Disruption of Sphingolipid Metabolism as a Potential Mechanism of Fumonisin Inhibition of Cell Growth in $LLC-PK_1$ Cells

  • Yoo, Hwan-Soo;Yun, Yeo-Pyo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1995
  • Fumonisins are a family of mycotoxins produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme which is a common contaminant in corn. Fumonisins are potent inhibitors of sphingosine and sphinganine N-acyltransferase (ceramide synthase), key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to provide the evidence that the elevated levels of free sphingoid bases (primarily sphinganine) and depletion of complex sphingolipids were closely related to the inhibition of cell growth in LLC-$PK_1$ cells exposed to fumonisin $B_1$$(\leq 35 {\mu}M)$. Concentrations of fumonisin $B_1$ between 10 and $35 {\mu}M$ were known to inhibit cell growth without cytotoxicity in $LLC-PK_1$ cells (Yoo et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 114, 9-15, 1992). Cells exposed to 35$\mu M$ fumonisin B$_1$ for 48 and 72 hr developed a fibroblast-like (elongated and spindle-shaped) appearance and were less confluent than normal cells. At between 24 and 48 hr after exposure to fumonisin $B_1$ cells were beginning to show the inhibition of cell growth and at 72 hr the number of viable cells in fumonisin-treated cultures was about 50% of concurrent control cultures. During the 24 hr lag period preceding inhibition of cell growth, the free sphinganine levels in cells exposed to $35 {\mu}M$ fumonisin $B_1$ were highly elevated (approximately 230 fold higher than normal cells). The elevated levels of free sphinganine were $435\pm14$$pmoles/{10^6}$ cells at 48 hr and approximately TEX>$333\pm11$$pmoles/{10^6}$ cells in cells exposed to $35{\mu}M$ fumonisin$B_1$ at 72 hr, while the levels of free sphinganine in normal cells were less than 2$pmoles/{10^6}$ cells. Under the same condition, depletion of intracellular complex sphingolipids as a consequence of fumonisin inhibition of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and turnover pathway was appeared. Content of free sphingold bases in dividing cells was more elevated than in confluent cells at 24-48 hr after cells were exposed to $20{\mu}M$ fumonisin $B_1$. The dividing cells were showing the inhibition of cell growth at 48-72 hr and $20{\mu}M$ fumonisin $B_1$. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the inhibition of cell growth is very well related to the disruption of sphingolipid metabolism in $LLC-PK_1$ cells.

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Protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 against tacrolimus-induced apoptosis in renal proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells

  • Lee, Dahae;Lee, Dong-Soo;Jung, Kiwon;Hwang, Gwi Seo;Lee, Hye Lim;Yamabe, Noriko;Lee, Hae-Jeong;Eom, Dae-Woon;Kim, Ki Hyun;Kang, Ki Sung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of six ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1, and Rg3) isolated from Panax ginseng against tacrolimus (FK506)-induced apoptosis in renal proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells. Methods: LLC-PK1 cells were treated with FK506 and ginsenosides, and cell viability was measured. Protein expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases, caspase-3, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were evaluated by Western blotting analyses. The number of apoptotic cells was measured using an image-based cytometric assay. Results: Reduction in cell viability by $60{\mu}M$ FK506 was ameliorated significantly by cotreatment with ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. The phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and KIM-1, and cleavage of caspase-3, increased markedly in LLC-PK1 cells treated with FK506 and significantly decreased after cotreatment with ginsenoside Rb1. The number of apoptotic cells decreased by 6.0% after cotreatment with ginsenoside Rb1 ($10{\mu}M$ and $50{\mu}M$). Conclusion: The antiapoptotic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on FK506-induced apoptosis were mediated by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and caspase activation.

Differential Effects of Fumonisin $B_1$ on Cell Death in Cultured Cells: the Significance of the Elevated Sphinganine

  • Yu, Chang-Hun;Lee, Yong-Moon;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Yoo, Hwan-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 2001
  • Fumonisins are specific inhibitors of ceramide synthase in sphingolipid metabolism. An alteration in sphingolipid metabolism as a result of fumonisin exposure is related to cell death (Yoo et al., 1992). The objective of this study was to investigate whether elevated free sphinganine levels are related to the sensitivity of cultured cells to fumonisin exposure. Fumonisin $B_1$ elevated the intracellular free sphinganine concentraions in both LLC-$PK_1$ and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, CHO cells are resistant to fumonisin cytotoxicity at 50${u}m$, while LLC-$PK_1$ cells are sensitive at concentrations greater than 357M. The intracellular concentration of free sphinganine in LLC-$PK_1$ cells treated at 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$ for 72 h was approximately 1450 pmol/mg protein relative to the 37 pmol observed in the control culture. Under the same conditions, the population of apoptotic cells in the 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$-treated culture was approximately 37% of the total compared to 12% in the control. The caspase III-like activity after 72 h in the 50${\mu}$M fumonisin $B_1$-exposed culture Increased to approximately 50 $pmol/mg$ protein/hr compared to 6 $pmol/mg$ protein/hr in the control. L-cycloserine, a serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitory reduced the fumonisin $B_1$-stimulated caspase III-like activity down to the control level. Under the same culture conditions, the intracellular concentration of free sphinganine after-cycloserine plus fumonisin $B_1$ treatment was 140 pmol/mg protein compared to 1450 $pmol/mg$ protein in fumonisin $B_1$ alone. The intracellular concentration of free sphinganine in CHO cells treated with 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$ for 72 h was al)proximately 460 pmol/mg protein, indicating that the mass amount of elevated free sphinganine in the CHO cells was about 32% of that in LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Adding exogenous sphinganine to the CHO cells along with 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$ treatment for 72 h caused both necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, the elevated endogenous sphinganine acts as a contributing factor to the fumonisin-induced cell death.

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Protective Effects of the Fermented Laminaria japonica Extract on Oxidative Damage in LLC-PK1 Cells

  • Park, Min-Jung;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the protective effect of the butanol (BuOH) fraction from fermented Laminaria japonica extract (BFLJ) on AAPH-induced oxidative stress in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 cells). L. japonica was fermented by Aspergillus oryzae at $35{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. Freeze-dried fermented L. japonica was extracted with distilled water, and the extracted solution was mixed with ethanol and then centrifuged. The supernatant was subjected to sequential fractionation with various solvents. The BuOH fraction was used in this study because it possessed the strongest antioxidant activity among the various solvent fractions. The BuOH fraction of fermented L. japonica had a protective effect against the AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cells damage and increased cell viability while reducing lipid peroxidation formation and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The inhibitory effect of BFLJ on lipid peroxidation formation had a higher value of $0.11{\pm}0.01nmol$ MDA at $100{\mu}g/mL$ concentration in comparison with intact BuOH fraction showing $0.22{\pm}0.08nmol$ MDA at the same concentration. Furthermore, BFLJ treatment increased glutathione concentration. GSH concentration in the cell treated with BFLJ of $100{\mu}g/mL$ was $1.80pmol/L{\times}10^5cells$. These results indicate that BFLJ protects the LLC-PK1 cells against AAPH-induced cell damage by inhibiting lipid peroxidation formation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione concentration.

Effects of Polygoni Cuspidati Radix on the $H_2O_2$-treated LLC-$PK_1$ Cell's Redox Status and NF-${\kappa}B$ Signaling (호장근(虎杖根)이 $H_2O_2$에 노출된 LLC-$PK_1$ 세포의 Redox Status 및 NF-${\kappa}B$ Signaling에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sol-Ri;Jeong, Ji-Cheon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to identify the effects of Polygoni cuspidati Radix(PCR) on the generation of superoxide anion radicals (${\cdot}O_2{^-}$), nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite ($ONOO^-$) in the renal epithelial cells of mouse(LLC-$PK_1$). The effects of PCR on the expression of inflammation-related proteins, IKK-${\alpha}$, phospho-$I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$, NF-${\kappa}B$ (p50, p65), COX-2, iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, VCAM-1, were examined by western blotting. For this study, the fluorescent probes, namely dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123), 2',7'-dichloro dihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA), 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) were used. Protein expression levels of IKK-${\alpha}$, phospho-$I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$, NF-${\kappa}B$ (p50, p65), COX-2, iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, VCAM-1 were assayed by western blot. PCR reduced $H_2O_2$-induced cell death dose-dependently. It inhibited the generation of ${\cdot}O_2{^-}$, NO, $ONOO^-$ and $PGE^2$ in the $H_2O_2$-treated LLC-PK1 cells in vitro. PCR inhibited the espression of IKK-${\alpha}$, phospho-$I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$, COX-2, iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$ and VCAM-1 genes by means of decreasing the NF-${\kappa}B$ activation. These results suggest that PCR is an effective NO, ${\cdot}O_2{^-}$, $ONOO^-$ scavenger, and this substance recommended to be applied in treatment for the inflammatory process and inflammation-related disease.

Inhibitory Effect of Mori Ramulus on Oxidative Stress Induced by High Glucose in LLC-$PK_1$ Cells (고농도 포도당에 노출된 마우스 신장상피세포에서 상지(桑枝)의 산화 스트레스 억제 효과)

  • Jang, Soo-Young;Shin, Hyeon-Cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.56-67
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : Recent etiological studies show that oxidative stress might play a major role in the diabetes and its complications. Mori Ramulus (MR) has been known to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. The methanol extract of MR was tested for its effectiveness in LLC-PK1 cells exposed to high glucose. Methods : The cytoprotective effect of MR was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The antioxidative effect was measured in terms of generation amount of ${\cdot}O_2^-$ by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA), NO by 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2), $ONOO^-$ by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) in the high glucose -treated LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Western blotting was performed using anti-AGE, anti-RAGE, anti-MAPKs(ERK1/2, JNK, p38), anti-PI3K, anti-Akt, and anti-NF-${\kappa}$B (p50, p65) respectively. Results : MR extract reduced cell death and inhibited the generation of ${\cdot}O_2^-$, NO, $ONOO^-$ in the high glucose-treated LLC-$PK_1$ cells. MR inhibited the expression of AGE, RAGE, MAPKs, PI3K, and Akt by means of decreasing NF-${\kappa}$B activation. MR also inhibited NF-${\kappa}$B activation itself. Conclusions : These results indicate MR has cytoprotective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore it is suggested that MR might prevent and cure diabetes and its complications.