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Protective Activity of Seolitae Chungkukjang Added with Green Tea against Cellular Oxidative Stress induced by AAPH

  • Park, Hyun-Young;Lee, Hee-Seob;Cho, Eun-Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2009
  • The protective activity of seolitae chungkukjang added with green tea against oxidative stress was investigated under the cellular systems using LLC-$PK_1$ cells. The treatment of 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) showed increase in lipid peroxidation, and decrease in endogenous antioxidant enzymes activity and cell viability. However, the methanol extract of seolitae chungkukjang inhibited lipid peroxidation by 58.3%, and increased cell viability up to more than 60%. In addition, it enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Seolitae chungkukjang improved oxidative stress-induced cellular injury through the radical scavenging activities. In particular, the addition of green tea in seolitae chungkukjang showed stronger effect against oxidative stress induced by AAPH. The more addition of green tea resulted in the greater antioxidative effect through elevation in activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, eventually leading to increase in cell viability. Theses results suggested that seolitae chungkukjang added with green tea have protective effects from cellular oxidative damage and could be considered as an application for the development of chungkukjang with functionality.

Protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in vitro and in vivo

  • Baek, Seung-Hoon;Shin, Byong-kyu;Kim, Nam Jae;Chang, Sun-Young;Park, Jeong Hill
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2017
  • Background: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect in cisplatin chemotherapy. Previously, we reported that the ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 reduced cisplatin toxicity on porcine renal proximal epithelial tubular cells (LLC-PK1). Here, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on kidney function and elucidate their antioxidant effect using in vitro and in vivo models of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Methods: An enriched mixture of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 (KG-KH; 49.3% and 43.1%, respectively) was purified from sun ginseng (heat processed Panax ginseng). Cytotoxicity was induced by treatment of $20{\mu}M$ cisplatin to LLC-PK1 cells and rat model of acute renal failure was generated by single intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg cisplatin. Protective effects were assessed by determining cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histopathological examination. Results: The in vitro assay demonstrated that KG-KH ($50{\mu}g/mL$) significantly increased cell viability (4.6-fold), superoxide dismutase activity (2.8-fold), and glutathione reductase activity (1.5-fold), but reduced reactive oxygen species generation (56%) compared to cisplatin control cells. KG-KH (6 mg/kg, per os) also significantly inhibited renal edema (87% kidney index) and dysfunction (71.4% blood urea nitrogen, 67.4% creatinine) compared to cisplatin control rats. Of note, KG-KH significantly recovered the kidney levels of catalase (1.2-fold) and superoxide dismutase (1.5-fold). Conclusion: Considering the oxidative injury as an early trigger of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, our findings suggest that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 protect the kidney from cisplatin-induced oxidative injury and help to recover renal function by restoring intrinsic antioxidant defenses.

Protective Effect of Angelica keiskei Juice and Oenanthe javanica DC Juice on Oxidative Stress (산화 스트레스에 대한 신선초 녹즙과 돌미나리 녹즙의 보호효과)

  • Lee, Doo-Jin;Lee, Jin-Ha;Lee, Ok-Hwan;Kim, Boh-Kyung;Park, Kun-Young;Kim, Jong-Dai
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.517-524
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    • 2015
  • The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Angelica keiskei juice and Oenanthe javanica juice against oxidative damage in LLC-$PK_1$ renal epithelial cells and to evaluate their free radical-scavenging activities. Both A. keiskei juice and O. javanica juice showed a strong in vitro antioxidant activities such as ${\alpha}$, ${\alpha}$-diphenyl-${\beta}$-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), $O_2{^-}$, and ${\cdot}OH$ radical-scavenging activities. The LLC-$PK_1$ cells showed significant lipid peroxidation and cell death due to oxidative stress when it was induced by 2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), pyrogallol, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). Treatment with both A. keiskei juice and O. javanica juice significantly increased cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that A. keiskei juice and O. javanica juice are potential natural antioxidants.

The Effects of Lycium Chinense Milie on the $H_{2}O_{2}$-treated $LLC-PK_1$ Cell's Redox Status and $NF-{\kappa}B$Signaling (지골피(地骨皮)가 $H_{2}O_{2}$에 의한 $LLC-PK_1$ 세포의 Redox Status 및 $NF-{\kappa}B$ Signaling에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Gyu-Ho;Shin, Hyeon-Cheol
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.36-50
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : This study was aimed to verify the cytoprotective function, antioxidative effect and inflammation genes inhibitory effects of Lycium chinense Milie. Therefore the generation of superoxide anion radical ( $O_2\;^-$), peroxynitrite ($ONOO^-$), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ $(PGE_2)$ was investigated in the renal epithelial cells of mouse. Effects of Lycium chinense Milie on the expression of inflammation-related proteins, $IKK-{\alpha}$. $p-IKK-\alpha\beta$, $p-I{\kappa}B-\alpha$, $NF-{\kappa}B$ (p50, p65), COX-2 and iNOS, were examined by western blotting. Methods : For this study, the fluorescent probes were used, namely dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123), 4.5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA). Western blotting was performed using anti-$IKK-\alpha$, anti-phospho $IKK-\alpha\beta$, anti-phospho $I{\kappa}B-\alpha$, anti-$NF-{\kappa}B$ (p50, p65), anti-COX-2 and anti-iNOS, respectively. Results : Lyciutn chinense Milie reduced $H_{2}O_{2}$-induced cell death dose-dependently. It inhibited the generation of $O_2\;^-$, $ONOO^-$, NO and $PGE_2$ in the $H_{2}O_{2}$-treated renal epithelial cells of mouse in vitro. Lycium chinense Milie inhibited the expression of $IKK-\alpha$, $p-IKK-\alpha\beta,\;p-I{\kappa}B-\alpha$, COX-2 and iNOS genes by means of decreasing activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$. Conclusions : According to above results. Lycium chinense Milie recommended to be applied in treatment for the inflammatory process and inflammation-related diseases.

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Chemical and Free Radical-scavenging Activity Changes of Ginsenoside Re by Maillard Reaction and Its Possible Use as a Renoprotective Agent

  • Yamabe, Noriko;Song, Kyung-Il;Lee, Woo-Jung;Han, Im-Ho;Lee, Ji-Hwan;Ham, Jung-Yeob;Kim, Su-Nam;Park, Jeong-Hill;Kang, Ki-Sung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2012
  • Reactive oxygen species play critical role in kidney damage. Free radical-scavenging activities of Panax ginseng are known to be increased by heat-processing. The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are closely related to the increased free radical-scavenging activities. In the present study, we have demonstrated the Maillard reaction model experiment using ginsenoside Re and glycine mixture to identify the renoprotective effect of MRPs from ginseng or ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture was increased in a temperature-dependant manner by heatprocessing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant MRPs which led to the protection of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Although the free radical scavenging activities of less-polar ginsenosides were weak, they could protect LLC-PK1 cells from oxidative stress. Therefore, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effects against oxidative renal damage.

Protective effects of Seoritae Chungkukjang added with green tea powder against 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced oxidative stress (녹차 첨가 서리태 청국장의 3-morpholinosydnonimine에 의한 산화적 스트레스 개선 효과)

  • Cho, Eun-Ju;Park, Hyun-Young;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.407-414
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    • 2015
  • To increase antioxidative activity of Chungkukjang, the protective effect of Seoritae Chungkukjang (SC) added with green tea powder against oxidative stress was evaluated under the cellular system using LLC-$PK_1$ cells. The treatment of 3-morpholinosydnonimine showed increase in lipid peroxidation, and decrease in endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes activity and cell viability. The methanol extract of SC inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70.9%, and significantly increased cell viability up to more than 33.2%. In addition, it enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Particularly, the addition of green tea in SC exerted protective effect against oxidative stress by ONOO- through elevation in activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. More addition of green tea showed stronger protective activity. These results suggest that the addition of green tea to SC leads to the increase in the antioxidative effect of Chungkukjang through elevation in antioxidative enzyme activities and protection from lipid peroxidation.

Free radical scavenging activity and protective effect from cellular oxidative stress of active compound from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) (가지(Solanum melongena L.) 활성물질의 라디칼 소거능과 산화적 스트레스에 대한 세포 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun-Young;Cho, Yun-Ju;Yamabe, Noriko;Cho, Eun-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.625-629
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the protective effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its active compound, delphinidin, we used in vitro and cellular system. The active fraction from eggplant, BuOH fraction, showed protective effect from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in WI-38 fibroblast cells. It suggests that eggplant would have the protective activity from radical-induced oxidative damage and its BuOH fraction would play the crucial role with antioxidative activity. In addition, delphinidin, the active compound from eggplant, exerted the strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging effect with $IC_{50}$ value of 6.59 ${\mu}g/mL$. Furthermore, the cellular oxidative stress was induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in LLC-$PK_1$ cells, while treatment of delphinidin atteunated AAPH-induced oxidative stress as dose-dependent manner. The present study suggests the antioxidative activity of eggplant and delphinidin against free radical-induced oxidative stress.

The protective effect of Perilla frutescens from ONOO--induced oxidative stress and antiaging effect under cellular system (Cellular system에서의 깻잎의 ONOO-에 의한 산화적 스트레스 개선 및 항노화 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun Young;Hwang, Bo Ra;Wu, Ting Ting;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.467-471
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we investigated the antioxidative and antiaging activity of Perilla frutescens using LLC-$PK_1$ porcine renal epithelial cell and WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cell. The extract from Perilla frutescens showed strong protective effect against nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide ($O_2{^-}$)-induced oxidative stress generated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and pyrogallol, respectively. The result showed that P. frutescens increased the cell viability and showed scavenging activity of NO and $O_2{^-}$. In addition, the extract of P. frutescens exerted the protective effect against peroxynitrite ($ONOO^-$) induced by 3-morpholinosydnonimine. It suggests that P. frutescens would have the protective role against $ONOO^-$ itself and its precursors, NO and $O_2{^-}$. Furthermore, the aging model of hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)-treated WI-38 human diploid fibroblast was employed to investigate the anti-aging effect of P. frutescens. $H_2O_2$-treated WI-38 cells showed the loss of cell viability, however before-treatment with P. frutescens to WI-38 cells under premature senescence could delay the cellular aging process. The present study suggests the antioxidative and antiaging potential against free radical-induced oxidative damage of P. frutescens.

Antioxidative effects of Kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress

  • Kim, Boh Kyung;Choi, Ji Myung;Kang, Soon Ah;Park, Kun Young;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.638-643
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable containing several ingredients. We investigated the protective activity of methanol extract of kimchi under different fermentation stages against oxidative damage. MATERIALS/METHODS: Fresh kimchi (Fresh), optimally ripened kimchi (OptR), and over ripened kimchi (OvR) were fermented until the pH reached pH 5.6, pH 4.3, and pH 3.8, respectively. The radical scavenging activity and protective activity from oxidative stress of kimchi during fermentation were investigated under in vitro and cellular systems using LLC-$PK_1$ cells. RESULTS: Kimchi exhibited strong radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the free radical generators led to loss of cell viability and elevated lipid peroxidation, while treatment with kimchi resulted in significantly increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the protective effect against oxidative stress was related to regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ p65, and $I{\kappa}B$ expression. In particular, OvR showed the strongest protective effect from cellular oxidative stress among other kimchi. CONCLUSION: The current study indicated that kimchi, particularly OptR and OvR, played a protective role against free radical-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that kimchi is a promising functional food with an antioxidative effect and fermentation of kimchi led to elevation of antioxidative activity.

Structure-Activity Relationships of Polyhydroxyursane-type Triterpenoids on the Cytoprotective and Anti-inflammatory Effects

  • Jung, Hyun-Ju;Nam, Jung-Hwan;Lee, Kyung-Tae;Lee, Yong-Sup;Choi, Jong-Won;Kim, Won-Bae;Chung, Won-Yoon;Park, Kwang-Kyun;Park, Hee-Juhn
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2007
  • Eleven polyhydroxyursane triterpenoids (PHUTs) were tested to determine their cytoprotective, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects. To compare the bioactivities of $19{\alpha}$-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids {23-hydroxytormentic acid (6), its methyl ester (7), tormentic acid (8), niga-ichigoside $F_1$ (9),euscaphic acid (10) and kaji-ichigoside $F_1$ (11)} of the Rosaceae crude drugs (Rubi Fructus and Rosa rugosae Radix) with PHUTs possessing no $19{\alpha}-hydroxyl$ of Centella asiatica (Umbelliferae), the four PHUTs, asiaticoside (1), madecassoside (2), asiatic acid (3), and madecassic acid (4) were isolated from C. asiatica and 23-hydroxyursolic acid (5) from Cussonia bancoensis. Cytoprotective effects were assessed by measuring cell viabilities against cisplatin-induced cytotoxocity in $LLC-PK_1$, cells (proximal tubule, pig kidney) to determine whether these agents have protective effects against nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin. The inhibitory effect of 11 PHUTS on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$ were evaluated by measuring nitrite accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, and their anti-inflammatory effects were tested in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model. Six MHUTs (compounds 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 11) exhibited higher cell viabilities during cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity testing even at a concentration of $200\;{\mu}g/ml$ than cisplatin only-treated group, suggesting that ese compounds have the potentcytoprotective efffcts. Compounds 1 and 3 of the C. asiatica and niga-ichigoside $F_1$ exhibited no inhibitory effect on NO and/or $PGE_2$ production whereas other PHUTs produced mild to significant NO and/or $PGE_2$ production.The four compounds (2, 5, 9, and 10) potently inhibited mouse ear edema induced by TPA whereas two compounds (1 and 3) had no activity in this test. These results suggest that many PHUTs are potentchemopreventives. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) was also discussed in each assay with regard to the significant role of OHs at the position of 2, 3, 6, 19, and 23 and to the glycoside linkage at the 28-carboxyl.