• Title/Summary/Keyword: Lactation Length

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE LACTATION LENGTH AND MILK YIELD IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

  • Chaudhry, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 1992
  • The effect of certain factors such as sex of calf, status of buffalo, season of calving, parity and sire on lactation length and total lactation yield was studied in 391 Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The average lactation length was $301.73{\pm}1.87$ (mean $\pm$ SE) days with a range of 181 to 505 days whereas the average lactation yield was $2031.08{\pm}19.16kg$ and ranged from 1023 to 6535 kg for 984 lactations. The differences in the means of lactation length and lactation yield due to the sex of calf were significant (p<0.05). The status of buffaloes had a significant (p<0.05) effect on lactation length but its effect on lactation yield was non-significant. The season of calving had no effect on lactation length but it influenced the lactation yield significantly. The milk yield was highest ($2150.81{\pm}43.52kg$) in buffaloes which calved in spring and lowest ($1959.92{\pm}30.83kg$) in autumn. The effect of parity on both traits under study was significant (p<0.01). The maximum and minimum lactation lengths of $309.82{\pm}3.96$ and $284.16{\pm}7.17$ days were observed in the first and sixth lactations, respectively. The milk yield was maximum ($2150.38{\pm}58.79kg$) in the seventh lactation and minimum (1818.31 60.04 kg) in the sixth lactation. The influence of sire was significant on lactation length (p<0.05) and milk yield (p<0.01).

Response to Selection for Milk Yield and Lactation Length in Buffaloes

  • Khan, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.567-570
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    • 1997
  • A multiple trait animal model having milk yield and lactation length was used to estimate genetic parameters using data from four institutional herds and four field recording centers. Response to selection for milk yield alone and in combination with lactation length was estimated by using principles of genetic theory. Lactation records (n = 2,353) adjusted for age at calving to 60 months were utilized. Milk yield was 17% heritable with repeatability of 0.44. Lactation length had a low heritability of 0.06 with repeatability of 0.16. Genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.70. Selection response in milk yield can be improved slightly (103.8 vs 102.8 kg) when information on covariance with lactation length is used together with the information on milk yield.

Production Characteristics of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

  • Khan, R.N.;Akhtar, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 1999
  • Production and reproduction data of 47 Nili-Ravi buffaloes (162 records) were analyzed with regression techniques. Average lactation milk yield was $2,020.04{\pm}44.59$ liters, lactation length $277.42{\pm}5.70$ d and calving interval $467.10{\pm}11.58$ d. The ranges for these parameters respectively were : 609-3591 lit, 122-614 d and 228-982 d. Year of calving and lactation length had significant effect on total milk yield (p < 0.01), whereas other factors such as month of calving, lactation number and calving interval had no effect on total lactation milk yield. Year of calving had influenced significantly other traits (p < .01) such as calving interval and lactations completed. This indicated considerable environment role in buffalo productivity. Effect of month of calving on total lactation milk yield and other traits was however, found to be non-significant. Nili-Ravi buffaloes produced maximum milk during their first three lactations as compared to subsequent lactations. Regression model explained 40 percent variation in total lactation milk yield due to factors analyzed : animal (dam), year and month of calving lactation length and calving interval.

Dairy Potential of Pabna Cows and Crossbreds with Sahiwal and Friesian and Within- and Between-Breed Sire Effects

  • Hoque, M.A.;Amin, M.R.;Hussen, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 1999
  • Dairy performances of Pabna cows and its crossbreds with Sahiwal (SL) and Friesian (F) in the Baghabarighat dairying area of Bangladesh were evaluated. Four SL and three F sires were used for the crossbreeding. The exotic sire effect of individuals on their daughters were also evaluated in this study. It showed that the genetic group had a significant (p<0.05) effect on birth weight, age at first heat, calving interval, lactation length and lactation yield. The lowest birth weight (17.9 kg), longest age at first heat (39.2 m) and calving interval (16.3 m) shortest lactation length (199 d) and lowest lactation yield (728 L) were found in Pabna cows. The highest birth weight (22.5 kg). shortest age at first heat (25.5 m) and calving interval (13.7 m), longest lactation length (253 d) and highest lactation yield (1936 L) were found in the F crossbreds. Within the same breed, the effect of individual sire was significant (p<0.05) on age at first heat, lactation length and lactation yield. Individual sire effects of SL bulls differed significantly (p<0.05) but F sires had a non-significant (p>0.05) effect on calving interval in their progeny. The fat % and SNF % in milk and number of services required for conception did not differ (p>0.05) among inter-and intra- breed sire groups.

Performance Evaluation of Jersey Cattle at Islamabad

  • Khan, R.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.695-698
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    • 2002
  • Performance data (from 1985 to 2000) of Jersey cattle imported from USA and maintained at Islamabad, Pakistan were evaluated. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic merit of Jersey breed under Pakistani environment for further propagation. Cows with at least two calvings were considered for this study; records on 50 daughter-dam pairs were available on production and reproduction performance traits for genetic evaluation. The average age at first calving in parents was $25.2{\pm}2.4$ m as compared to $23.9{\pm}6.6$ m in progeny. Calving interval in parents and progeny was $416{\pm}74$ and $446{\pm}105$ d; lactation length $301{\pm}51$ and $325{\pm}73$ d; lactation milk yield $2,908{\pm}669$ and $2,707{\pm}903$ lit respectively. All these differences were found to be statistically significant except lactation length. The correlations between age at first calving and total lactation milk was -0.25, between calving interval and total lactation milk yield was 0.14, and between lactation length and total lactation milk yield was 0.79. The $h^2$ of these traits were low indicating important role of environment in expressing the genetic potential of animals. The S.E of $h^2$ of all the traits was high due to large variation in data.

Estimation of Genetic, Phenotypic and Environmental Trends in Hariana Cattle

  • Singh, K.;Sangwan, M.L.;Dalal, D.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.7-10
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    • 2002
  • The breeding data relating to Hariana herd spread over 18 years (1979-96) were analysed to estimate genetic, phenotypic and environmental changes in characters of economic importance which might have taken place during the several years of selective breeding practiced in the herd. The average genetic changes in a given character were estimated by four methods. The phenotypic trends observed for different economic traits were not significant. On changing the method of estimation, magnitude and direction of genetic trends changed. Comparison of estimates of genetic trends by different methods showed that adjustments for biases due to non-random allotment of dams with respect to their age and merit suggested by Powell and Freeman (1974) were useful for increasing the precision of the estimates. Hence, this method was found to be the best method for estimation of genetic trends. The estimate of genetic trends by this method were 4.03${\pm}$6.21 days, 3.24${\pm}$5.33 kg, 0.15${\pm}$0.43 days, 0.09${\pm}$0.59 days, 0.01${\pm}$0.02 kg and 0.01${\pm}$0.01 kg for age at first calving, first lactation milk yield, first lactation length, first calving interval, first lactation milk yield per day lactation length and first lactation milk yield per day of calving interval, respectively.

MILK PRODUCTION OF LOCAL AND MURRAH CROSSBRED BUFFALOES AND LOCAL AND JERSEY CROSSBRED COWS ON FARMS IN THE HILLS OF EASTERN NEPAL

  • Shrestha, N.P.;Oli, K.P.;Gatenby, R.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 1994
  • The lactation milk yields of 209 buffaloes and cattle were measured on farms in Taplejung and Dhankuta Districts in East Nepal. This includes local and crossbred buffaloes and cows. The average milk yield (${\pm}\;SD$) of 97 local buffaloes was $833\;{\pm}\;94.6\;kg$ whereas that for 83 local cows was only $455\;{\pm}\;61.5\;kg$. The milk yield of buffaloes decreased with number of calvings, but that for the cows increased. The milk yields of 18 Murrah crossbreds were on average 215 kg higher than the yields of local buffaloes, and the yields of 11 Jersey crossbred cows averaged 247 kg more than the local cows. Lactation length (${\pm}\;SD$) which averaged $326\;{\pm}\;100$ days for the buffaloes and $292\;{\pm}\;98$ days for the cows, was not affected by crossbreeding. The milk yields of the crossbreds were more variable than the local buffaloes and cows. In addition to milk yield the overall productivity of a milking animal depends on calf mortality, age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, food intake, the work performance of male cattle and the meat production of male buffaloes. Among these parameters, the work performance of Jersey crossbred and local male cattle was studied later. However, other factors could not be measured.

Performance Evaluation of Karan Fries and Karan Swiss Cattle under Closed Breeding System

  • Singh, M.K.;Gurnani, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2004
  • The 490 and 380 performance records of Karan Fries and Karan Swiss cows developed through crossbreeding followed by inter-se mating were evaluated for production, reproduction performance and disposal rate. Duration of study (1982-92) was grouped into five periods (1982-83; 1984-85; 1986-87; 1988-89; 1990-92) and each year was divided into four seasons (Winter: Dec.-Jan.; Spring: Feb.-March; Summer: April-June; Rainy: July-Sept.; Autumn: Oct.-Nov). Data were also classified according to sire and level of inbreeding. The least squares means of FLY (first lactation yield -305 days), FLL (first lactation length), FSP (first service period), FDP (first dry period), FCI (first calving interval ), MY/FLL (milk yield per day of first lactation length), MY/FCI (milk yield per day of first calving interval), EBV (expected breeding value) and EBE (expected breeding efficiency) were $3,173{\pm}82$ kg, $34611{\pm}$days, $143{\pm}11$ days, $75{\pm}6$ days, $423{\pm}11$ days, $10.6{\pm}0.2$ kg, $8.9{\pm}0.2$ kg, $3,380{\pm}26$ kg, and $88.2{\pm}1.3$% respectively in Karan Fries. Corresponding estimates in Karan Swiss cows were $2,616{\pm}82$ kg, $328{\pm}8$ days, $148{\pm}12$ days, $103{\pm}9$ days, $435{\pm}13$ days, $8.9{\pm}0.2$ kg, $7.2{\pm}0.3$ kg, $2,924{\pm38}$ kg and $86.0{\pm}3.8$% respectively. The effect of sire was significant on FLY, MY/FLL, MY/FCI and EBV in both the herd (p<0.01). The 10 and 15% sires showed superiority (FLY) over herd average of 11 and 7% in Karan Fries and 32 and 21% in Karan Swiss cattle respectively. Inbreeding has adversely and significantly (p<0.05) affected the FLY, MY/FLL, MY/FCI and survivability of Karan Fries females; FDP and disposal through culling of Karan Swiss heifers. The Karan Fries heifers with inbreeding above 12.5% performed 16% lower FLY to herd average. The effect of season of calving was significant on FLL, FSP and FCI (p<0.05) in Karan Fries. Summer calvers ($361{\pm}12$) were have higher lactation length and autumn calvers ($329{\pm}14$) had minimum. Period of calving significantly influenced the FSP, FCI, MY/FLL and MY/FCI in Karan Fries and FLY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI in Karan Swiss. Production efficiency traits in Karan Fries herd witnessed higher yield in the last two periods whereas, Karan Swiss heifers showed fluctuating performance. The findings suggested judicious use of available genetic variability, keeping of inbreeding under safer level and managemental interventions for the consistent improvement of both herds.

A Study of Some Economic Traits of Indigenous Cattle and their Crossbreeds in Southern Bangladesh

  • Ashraf, A.;Islam, S.S.;Islam, A.B.M.M.;Ali, S.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1189-1192
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    • 2000
  • The experiment was conducted on 69 cows to identify the quantitative variations of some economic traits of five genetic groups as $Local{\times}Friesian $ $F_1$, $Local{\times}Sahiwal$ $F_1$, Local (indigenous zebu type), $Local{\times}Sindhi $ $F_1$, and $Local{\times}Hariana$ $F_1$. The traits studied were age at weaning, age at first heat, age at first conception, services per conception, daily milk yield, lactation length, lactation yield and post partum heat period. The records on milking and reproduction performances of cows and heifers were obtained from farm register and by interviewing the farmers. It was observed that the lowest age at weaning, age at first heat and age at first conception were $5.37{\pm}0.24$, $27.17{\pm}1.72$ and $27.83{\pm}1.82$ months respectively in $Local{\times}Hariana$ $F_1$. Services per conception were lowest in $Local{\times}Sahiwal$ $F_1$ $(1.08{\pm}0.18)$ although not significantly (p>0.05) affected by farms, genetic groups and $farm{\times}genetic$ groups interaction. Average daily milk yield was highest in $Local{\times}Friesian$ $F_1$ $(5.81 {\pm}0.40 kg)$. Lactation length and lactation yield were highest in $Local{\times}Sahiwal$ $F_1$ ($299.38{\times}9.74$ days and $1863.00{\pm}141.00kg $ respectively). Average post partum heat period was lowest in $Local{\times}Sindhi$ $F_1$ ($3.19{\pm}0.38$ months). Least squares ANOVA showed that farm had significant (p<0.001) effect on age at weaning, age at first heat, age at first conception and post partum heat period. There was insignificant (p>0.05) effect of farm on services per conception, daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation yield, whereas genetic groups had a significant effect for all the traits under review except services per conception. $Farm{\times}genetic$ groups interaction was insignificant for all of the traits under consideration except age at weaning.

Robustness of Selection Indices in Murrah Buffaloes

  • Gandhi, R.S.;Joshi, B.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.159-163
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    • 2004
  • Data pertaining to first lactation records of 316 Murrah buffaloes, progeny of 47 sires, maintained at NDRI Farm for a period of 18 years were analysed to construct selection indices and to examine their robustness by changing the relative economic values of different economic traits. A total of 120 selection indices were constructed for three sets of relative economic values ( 40 for each set) considering different combinations of seven first lactation traits viz. age at first calving (AFC), first lactation 305 day or less milk yield (FLMY), first lactation length (FLL), first calving interval (FCI), milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL), milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI) and milk yield per day age at second calving (MY/ASC). The three sets of relative economic values were based on economic values of different traits, 1% standard deviation of different traits and regression of different traits on FLMY. The 'optimum' indices for the first two sets had five traits each namely AFC, FLMY, FLL, FCI and MY/ASC giving improvement in aggregate genotype of Rupees 269.11 and Rs. 174.88, respectively. The accuracy of selection from both indices was 70.79 and 69.39%, respectively. The 'best' selection index from the third set of data again had five traits (AFC, FLMY, FLL, FCI and MY/FLL) giving genetic gain of Rs. 124.16 and accuracy of selection of 71.81%. The critcal levels or break-even points for FLMY for varying levels of AFC and FCI estimated from the "optimum index" suggested the need of enhancement of present production level of the herd or reduction of AFC or FCI. It was concluded that economic values of various first lactation traits were the most appropriate to construct selection indices as compared to other criteria of assigning relative economic weights in Murrah buffaloes.