• Title/Summary/Keyword: Lactation Yield

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE LACTATION LENGTH AND MILK YIELD IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

  • Chaudhry, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 1992
  • The effect of certain factors such as sex of calf, status of buffalo, season of calving, parity and sire on lactation length and total lactation yield was studied in 391 Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The average lactation length was $301.73{\pm}1.87$ (mean $\pm$ SE) days with a range of 181 to 505 days whereas the average lactation yield was $2031.08{\pm}19.16kg$ and ranged from 1023 to 6535 kg for 984 lactations. The differences in the means of lactation length and lactation yield due to the sex of calf were significant (p<0.05). The status of buffaloes had a significant (p<0.05) effect on lactation length but its effect on lactation yield was non-significant. The season of calving had no effect on lactation length but it influenced the lactation yield significantly. The milk yield was highest ($2150.81{\pm}43.52kg$) in buffaloes which calved in spring and lowest ($1959.92{\pm}30.83kg$) in autumn. The effect of parity on both traits under study was significant (p<0.01). The maximum and minimum lactation lengths of $309.82{\pm}3.96$ and $284.16{\pm}7.17$ days were observed in the first and sixth lactations, respectively. The milk yield was maximum ($2150.38{\pm}58.79kg$) in the seventh lactation and minimum (1818.31 60.04 kg) in the sixth lactation. The influence of sire was significant on lactation length (p<0.05) and milk yield (p<0.01).

Dairy Potential of Pabna Cows and Crossbreds with Sahiwal and Friesian and Within- and Between-Breed Sire Effects

  • Hoque, M.A.;Amin, M.R.;Hussen, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 1999
  • Dairy performances of Pabna cows and its crossbreds with Sahiwal (SL) and Friesian (F) in the Baghabarighat dairying area of Bangladesh were evaluated. Four SL and three F sires were used for the crossbreeding. The exotic sire effect of individuals on their daughters were also evaluated in this study. It showed that the genetic group had a significant (p<0.05) effect on birth weight, age at first heat, calving interval, lactation length and lactation yield. The lowest birth weight (17.9 kg), longest age at first heat (39.2 m) and calving interval (16.3 m) shortest lactation length (199 d) and lowest lactation yield (728 L) were found in Pabna cows. The highest birth weight (22.5 kg). shortest age at first heat (25.5 m) and calving interval (13.7 m), longest lactation length (253 d) and highest lactation yield (1936 L) were found in the F crossbreds. Within the same breed, the effect of individual sire was significant (p<0.05) on age at first heat, lactation length and lactation yield. Individual sire effects of SL bulls differed significantly (p<0.05) but F sires had a non-significant (p>0.05) effect on calving interval in their progeny. The fat % and SNF % in milk and number of services required for conception did not differ (p>0.05) among inter-and intra- breed sire groups.

A Study of Some Economic Traits of Indigenous Cattle and their Crossbreeds in Southern Bangladesh

  • Ashraf, A.;Islam, S.S.;Islam, A.B.M.M.;Ali, S.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1189-1192
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    • 2000
  • The experiment was conducted on 69 cows to identify the quantitative variations of some economic traits of five genetic groups as $Local{\times}Friesian $ $F_1$, $Local{\times}Sahiwal$ $F_1$, Local (indigenous zebu type), $Local{\times}Sindhi $ $F_1$, and $Local{\times}Hariana$ $F_1$. The traits studied were age at weaning, age at first heat, age at first conception, services per conception, daily milk yield, lactation length, lactation yield and post partum heat period. The records on milking and reproduction performances of cows and heifers were obtained from farm register and by interviewing the farmers. It was observed that the lowest age at weaning, age at first heat and age at first conception were $5.37{\pm}0.24$, $27.17{\pm}1.72$ and $27.83{\pm}1.82$ months respectively in $Local{\times}Hariana$ $F_1$. Services per conception were lowest in $Local{\times}Sahiwal$ $F_1$ $(1.08{\pm}0.18)$ although not significantly (p>0.05) affected by farms, genetic groups and $farm{\times}genetic$ groups interaction. Average daily milk yield was highest in $Local{\times}Friesian$ $F_1$ $(5.81 {\pm}0.40 kg)$. Lactation length and lactation yield were highest in $Local{\times}Sahiwal$ $F_1$ ($299.38{\times}9.74$ days and $1863.00{\pm}141.00kg $ respectively). Average post partum heat period was lowest in $Local{\times}Sindhi$ $F_1$ ($3.19{\pm}0.38$ months). Least squares ANOVA showed that farm had significant (p<0.001) effect on age at weaning, age at first heat, age at first conception and post partum heat period. There was insignificant (p>0.05) effect of farm on services per conception, daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation yield, whereas genetic groups had a significant effect for all the traits under review except services per conception. $Farm{\times}genetic$ groups interaction was insignificant for all of the traits under consideration except age at weaning.

Disposal Pattern and Its Impact on Milk Production and Herd Size in Karan Fries and Karan Swiss Cows

  • Singh, M.K.;Gurnani, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1214-1218
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    • 2004
  • Data on 958 Karan Fries (KF) and 780 Karan Swiss (KS) cows, born during 1974 to 1992 at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal were evaluated for causes of culling and their impact on milk performance and herd strength. Causes of culling were classified as voluntary culling (low milk yield) and involuntary culling (other than milk yield). The milk yield of cows was evaluated inretrospectively by estimating expected breeding value (EBV) on the basis of first lactation yield (FLY) and all available lactation yield (ALY). The culling rate of KF cows over the years varied from 10.89 (1988) to 33.92% (1991) with an overall average of 20.96% and in KS from 19.91 (1984) to 33.74% (1989) with an overall average of 25.01%. Reproductive disorders, teat and udder problems, low milk production, health and locomotive disorders were the major reasons of culling accounted respectively for 5.56, 4.97, 4.61, 3.18 and 2.24% of herd strength in KF cows. The corresponding causes of culling were 6.20, 6.26, 7.69, 1.49 and 2.67% of herd strength in KS cows. The involuntary culling of cows accounted for 82.4% in K F and 76.1% in KS cows of total culling. The average annual disposal rate in KF and KS was 26 and 30% whereas annual replacement rate was 24 and 26% respectively. The EBV of involuntary culled cows on the basis of FLY and ALY was 3,111 and 3,515 kg in KF; and 2,669 and 2,940 kg in KS cows respectively. The EBV of selected cows on the basis of FLY and ALY was 3,242 and 3,549 kg in KF and 2,893 and 3,245 kg in KS cows respectively. The average breeding value of involuntary culled cows was not significantly different from selected cows in both the herds. The high rate of involuntary culling of potential cows might be major factor responsible for declined performance and size in these herds. The results indicated that higher genetic gain (2.14% of herd average in KF and 3.49% of herd average in KS) could be obtained by restricting the involuntary culling (50% of total culling) through improved management practices and increasing replacement rate.

Selection of Sahiwal Cattle Bulls on Pedigree and Progeny

  • Bhatti, A.A.;Khan, M.S.;Rehman, Z.;Hyder, A.U.;Hassan, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2007
  • The objective of the study was to compare ranking of Sahiwal bulls selected on the basis of highest lactation milk yield of their dams with their estimated breeding values (EBVs) using an animal model. Data on 23,761 lactation milk yield records of 5,936 cows from five main Livestock Experiment Stations in Punjab province of Pakistan (1964-2004) were used for the study. At present the young A.I bulls are required to be from A-category bull-dams. Dams were categorized as A, B, C and D if they had highest lactation milk yield of ${\geq}$2,700, 2,250-2,699, 1,800-2,249 and <1,800 litres, respectively. The EBVs for lactation milk yield were estimated for all the animals using an individual animal model having fixed effect of herd-year and season of calving and random effect of animal. Fixed effect of parity and random effect of permanent environment were incorporated when multiple lactation were used. There were 396 young bulls used for semen collection and A.I during 1973-2004. However, progeny with lactation yields recorded, were available only for 91 bulls and dams could be traced for only 63 bulls. Overall lactation milk yield averaged 1,440.8 kg. Milk yield was 10% heritable with repeatability of 39%. Ranking bulls on highest lactation milk yield of their dams, the in-vogue criteria of selecting bulls, had a rank correlation of 0.167 (p<0.190) with ranking based on EBVs from animal model analysis. Bulls' EBVs for all lactations had rank correlation of 0.716 (p<0.001) with EBVs based on first lactation milk yield and 0.766 (p<0.001) with average EBVs of dam and sire (pedigree index). Ranking of bulls on highest lactation yield of their dams has no association with their ranking based on animal model evaluation. Young Sahiwal bulls should be selected on the basis of pedigree index instead of highest lactation yield of dams. This can help improve the genetic potential of the breed accruing to conservation and development efforts.

Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Lactation Yield and Milk Compositions in Holstein Cow (Holstein종 유우(乳牛)의 비유량(泌乳量) 및 유조성분(乳組成分)에 미치는 유전(遺傳) 및 환경(環境)의 효과(效果))

  • Sang, Byong Chan;Seo, Kil Woong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on lactation yield and milk compositions in Holstein cows. The data analysis were the records of 159 cows rearing at Nation Animal Breeding Institute from 1990 to 1991. The least square means were estimated on milk and fat yield in lactation yield, and the percent of fat, protein, solids-not-fat and total solid in milk composition. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The average yield of milk and fat in 305 days were $7,26.56{\pm}3,57.24$ and $254.65{\pm}44.94Kg$ and the percent of fat, protein, solids-not-fat and total solid were $3.69{\pm}0.43$, $3.32{\pm}0.41$, $9.15{\pm}0.49$ and $12.75{\pm}0.96$ and the coefficients of variation were 18.68, 17.64, 11.88 and 12.34% for milk yield, fat yield, fat percent and protein percent, respectively. 2. The effect of sires was highly significant at 1% level in milk and fat yield and fat percent, and significant at 5% level in protein and total solid percent. Among the sires, B, L and O sire were superior in milk yield with 7,571.22, 7,499.11 and 7,420.58 Kg, and A, F and K sire were superior in protein percent with 3.75, 3.64 and 3.65, respectively. 3. The effect of parity was highly significant at 1% level in milk yield, and significant at 5% level in fat yield. Among the parities, the 3rd parity was superior in milk and fat yield with 7,634.54 and 274.98 Kg, and the 4th and over was superior in fat and protein percent with 3.90 and 3.50, respectively. 4. The effect of calving seasons was highly significant at 1% level in milk yield, and significant at 5% level in fat yield, and the percent of fat, protein and total solid. Among the calving seasons, spring and winter were superior in milk yield with 7,310.31 and 7,364.57 Kg, also spring and winter were superior in protein percent with 3.68 and 3.52, respectively.

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PRESENT STATUS OF BUFFALOES AND THEIR PRODUCTIVITY IN BANGLADESH

  • Faruque, M.O.;Hasnath, M.A.;Siddique, N.U.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 1990
  • 1.86 million (Indigenous river, swamp, and swamp X river type) buffaloes are distributed mainly in the plain land, sugarcane belt and coastal area of Bangladesh and are raised by the small farm holders. Buffaloes per house-hold ranges from 5.79 to 2.12. Height at wither is $123{\pm}3.09$ and $112.5{\pm}2.15cm$ for buffaloes of central and eastern region respectively. Growth rate of buffalo calves ranges from 360 to 340 g/day. Late maturity ($1411.58{\pm}43.01d$) along with long life span facilitates farmers to use buffaloes longer period. Average daily milk yield is $2.32{\pm}0.63L$ with average lactation yield of $730{\pm}90l$ for $328{\pm}28.76d$. Both male and female individuals are used for draught purpose. A pair of buffalo can prepared $0.23{\pm}0.06ha$ of land daily and can work for $6.1{\pm}0.78hr$.

Direct Selection Response to Growth and Correlated Response to Lactation Traits in Black Bengal Goats

  • Amin, M.R.;Husain, S.S.;Islam, A.B.M.M.;Saadullah, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.899-904
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    • 2001
  • A field trial on selection for increased live weight in Black Bengal (BB) goat was conducted over two generations. Parents of both sexes were selected (mass selection) based on mature body weight criteria set against age. A parallel randomly mated line was maintained to compare the response (R) of selection at birth. 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age in both generations. Lactation yield (LY), average per day yield (APDY) and lactation length (LL) were evaluated in the selected line in comparison to randombreds as a result of correlated response. Live weights were significantly improved at onward bir:th in first generation and only at birth in second generation. Improvements (%) in live weight at 3, 6. 9 and 12 months in first generation were 17.6, 18.4, 16.6, and 12.0 at birth in second generation. Significant correlated R were found in LY and APDY. Results suggest that there may be a positive relationship between live weight and lactational traits in BB goats of Bangladesh. It was also concluded that such a field scheme can be effectively used for genetic improvement of goats in subsistence farming, at least for short term gain.

Heritability Estimates under Single and Multi-Trait Animal Models in Murrah Buffaloes

  • Jain, A.;Sadana, D.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.575-579
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    • 2000
  • First lactation records of 683 Murrah buffaloes maintained at NDRI, Karnal which were progeny of 84 sires used for comparing the heritability estimates of age at first calving, first lactation milk yield and first service period under single and multiple trait models using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method of estimation under an individual animal model. The results indicated that the heritability estimates may vary under single and multiple trait models depending upon the magnitude of genetic and environmental correlation among the traits being considered. Therefore, a single or multiple trait model is recommended for estimation of variance components depending upon the goal of breeding programme. However, there may not be any advantage of considering a trait with zero or near zero heritability and having no or very low genetic correlation with other traits in the model. Lower heritability estimates of part lactation yield (120-day milk yield) implied that there may not be any advantage of considering this trait in place of actual 305-day milk yield, whereas, comparable heritability estimates of predicted 305-day milk yield suggested that it could be used for sire evaluation to reduce the cost of milk recording under field conditions.

Genetic Parameters of Milk Yield and Milk Fat Percentage Test Day Records of Iranian Holstein Cows

  • Shadparvar, A.A.;Yazdanshenas, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1231-1236
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    • 2005
  • Genetic parameters for first lactation milk production based on test day (TD) records of 56319 Iranian Holstein cows from 655 herds that first calved between 1991 and 2001 were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood method under an Animal model. Traits analyzed were milk yield and milk fat percentage. Heritability for TD records were highest in second half of the lactation, ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 for milk yield and 0.038 to 0.094 for milk fat percentage respectively. Estimates for lactation records for these traits were 0.24 and 0.26 respectively. Genetic correlations between individual TD records were high for consecutive TD records (>0.9) and decreased as the interval between tests increased. Estimates of genetic correlations of TD yield with corresponding lactation yield were highest (0.78 to 0.86) for mid-lactation (TD3 to TD8). Phenotypic correlations were lower than corresponding genetic correlations, but both followed the same pattern. For milk fat percentage no clear pattern was found. Results of this study suggested that TD yields especially in mid-lactation may be used for genetic evaluation instead of 305-day yield.