• Title/Summary/Keyword: Laser

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Improvement of Bioavailability for Lovastatin using Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (미세유화약물송달시스템을 이용한 로바스타틴의 생체이용률 향상)

  • Yoon, Bok-Young;Kang, Bok-Ki;Jeung, Sang-Young;Lee, Young-Won;Lee, Si-Beum;Hwang, Sung-Joo;Yuk, Soon-Hong;Khang, Gil-Son;Lee, Hai-Bang;Cho, Sun-Hang
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.267-275
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    • 2002
  • A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed to increase the dissolution rate, solubility, and ultimately bioavailability of a poorly water soluble drug, lovastatin. SMEDDS was thε mixtures of oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants, which emulsify under conditions of gentle agitation, similar to those which would be encountered in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Various types of self-emulsifying formulations were prepared using four types of oil (Capryol 90, Lauroglycol 90, Labrafil M 1944 CS and Labrafil M 2125), two surfactants (Cremophor EL and Tween 80), and three cosurfactants (Carbitol, PEG 400 and propylene glycol). Thε efficiency of emulsification was studied using a laser diffraction size analyzer to determine particle size distributions of the resultant emulsions. Optimized formulations selected for bioavailability assessment were Carpryol 90 (40%), Cremophor EL (30%) and Carbitol (30%). SMEDDS containing lovastatin (20 mg and 5 mg) were compared to a conventional lovastatin tablet $(Mevacor^{\circledR},\;20\;mg/tab)$ by the oral administration as prefilled hard gelatin capsules to fasted beagle dogs for in vivo study. The arεa under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measured time in serum, $AUC_{0{\rightarrow}24h}$, was significantly greater in SMEDDS, suggesting that bioavailability increase 130% and 192% by the SMEDDS, respectively. The self-emulsifying formulations of lovastatin afforded the improvement in absolute oral bioavailability relative to previous data of lovastatin tablet formulation. These data indicate the utility of dispersed self-emulsifying formulations for the oral delivery of lovastatin and potentially other poorly absorbed drugs.

Association between Axial Length and Anthropometric Value in Korean Children (한국 어린이의 안축장과 신체 계측치와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Hyojin;Lyu, Jungmook
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To investigate the relationship between axial length (AL) and anthropometric parameters in Korean children. Methods: This study included 40 urban school children aged 11-12 years (mean age, $11.95{\pm}0.22$ years; 45.0% girls) residing in Seoul, South Korea. AL (using partial coherence laser interferometry), corneal radius, refractive error, height (m), and weight (kg) were measured. Body mass index (BMI $[kg/m^2]=weight/[height]^2$) and degree of obesity (DO[%]=[actual weight standard weight]/standard weight) were calculated. Furthermore, the number of hours spent reading, watching television, and using a computer every day was determined using a detailed questionnaire. Results: The students had a mean spherical equivalent refraction of $1.06{\pm}0.84$ D. Weight (r=0.427, p=0.006), BMI (r=0.508, p=0.001), and DO (r=0.371, p=0.018) showed a significant positive correlation with AL. Furthermore, longer AL was significantly associated with heavier weight (p=0.041), and higher BMI (p=0.015), and higher DO quartiles (p=0.042). After adjust for age, sex, and near-work activities, multivariate linear regression models showed that weight, BMI, and DO were still significantly associated with AL. Among the near-work activities, daily reading time was significantly associated with AL. Conclusions: AL was positively related to weight as well as daily reading time in Korean urban school children.

The Effect of Myopic Degree on the Change of Higher-order Aberrations Induced by Aging (근시도가 나이에 따라 유발되는 고위수차의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Nam-Yul;Park, Kyoung-Hee;Kim, So-Ra;Park, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.353-362
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the change of higher-order aberrations induced by aging and the effect of myopic degree on the correlation between age and higher-order aberrations. Methods: The higher-order aberrations in 931 eyes aged from 20 to 60 were measured by using a LADARWave device employing Hartmann-Shack system to analyze the effect of myopic degree measured by manifest refraction test on higher-order aberrations. Results: Coma and vertical coma aberrations were significantly decreased by the increase of myopic degree while vertical astigmatic aberration was significantly increased. The correlations of age and coma, vertical coma, spherical, vertical trefoil, horizontal trefoil, vertical astigmatic, horizontal astigmatic and vertical tetrafoil aberrations depended on the myopic degree, except for horizontal coma and horizontal tetrafoil aberrations. Conclusions: It is suggested to consider the myopic degree for the refractive correction including the laser surgery based on the present result that higher-order aberrations are affected by the myopic degree.

Time-dependent proteomic and genomic alterations in Toll-like receptor-4-activated human chondrocytes: increased expression of lamin A/C and annexins

  • Ha, Seung Hee;Kim, Hyoung Kyu;Nguyen, Thi Tuyet Anh;Kim, Nari;Ko, Kyung Soo;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.531-546
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    • 2017
  • Activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) in articular chondrocytes increases the catabolic compartment and leads to matrix degradation during the development of osteoarthritis. In this study, we determined the proteomic and genomic alterations in human chondrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of TLR-4 activation. Human chondrocytes were cultured with LPS for 12, 24, and 36 h to induce TLR-4 activation. The TLR-4-induced inflammatory response was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of increased interleukin-1 beta ($IL-1{\beta}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF-{\alpha}$) expression levels. In TLR-4-activated chondrocytes, proteomic changes were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectroscopy analysis, and genomic changes were determined by microarray and gene ontology analyses. Proteomics analysis identified 26 proteins with significantly altered expression levels; these proteins were related to the cytoskeleton and oxidative stress responses. Gene ontology analysis indicated that LPS treatment altered specific functional pathways including 'chemotaxis', 'hematopoietic organ development', 'positive regulation of cell proliferation', and 'regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process'. Nine of the 26 identified proteins displayed the same increased expression patterns in both proteomics and genomics analyses. Western blot analysis confirmed the LPS-induced increases in expression levels of lamin A/C and annexins 4/5/6. In conclusion, this study identified the time-dependent genomic, proteomic, and functional pathway alterations that occur in chondrocytes during LPS-induced TLR-4 activation. These results provide valuable new insights into the underlying mechanisms that control the development and progression of osteoarthritis.

Wear Problem Improvement Manufacture Technology of Ignitor Tip Component Using 3D Printing Technology (발전소 점화자 팁 부품의 마모 문제 해결을 위한 3D 프린팅 기술을 이용한 부품 제조기술개발)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Yeon, Simo;Son, Yong;Lee, Nak-Kyu
    • Journal of Institute of Convergence Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2016
  • Ignitor tip is a component of burner to start the burning process in power plant. This is used to ignite the coal to a constant operating state by fuel mixed with air and kerosene. This component is composed of three components so that air and kerosene are mixed in the proper ratio and injected uniformly. Because the parts with the designed shape are manufactured in the machining process, they have to be made of three parts. These parts are designed to have various functions in each part. The mixing part mixes the supplied air and kerosene through the six holes and sends it to the injecting part at the proper ratio. The inject part injects mixed fuel, which is led to have a constant rotational direction in the connecting part, to the burner. And the connecting plate that the mixed fuel could rotate and spray is assembled so that the flame can be injected uniformly. But this part causes problems that are worn by vibration and rotation because it is mechanically assembled between the mixing part and the inject part. In this study, 3D printing method is used to integrate a connecting plate and an inject part to solve this wear problem. The 3D printing method could make this integrated part because the process is carried out layer by layer using a metal powder material. The part manufactured by 3D printing process should perform the post process such as support removal and surface treatment. However, while performing the 3D printing process, the material properties of the metal powders are changed by the laser sintering process. This change in material properties makes the post process difficult. In consideration of these variables, we have studied the optimization of manufacturing process using 3D printing method.

Tactics and Pitfalls of MED(Micro Endoscopic Discectomy) System for Lumbar Disc - For Surgeons Who Wish to Attempt - (요추간반 탈출증에 있어 MED(Microendoscopic Discectomy) System을 이용한 수술의 효율성과 수기)

  • Hong, Hyun Jong;Oh, Seong Hoon;Bak, Kwang Hum;Kim, Jae Min;Kim, Choong Hyun;Kim, Young Soo;Ko, Yong;Oh, Suck Jun;Kim, Kwang Myung;Lee, Sang Gu;Kim, Nam Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2000
  • Objective : Percutaneous lumbar approaches such as arthroscopic discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleotome remain controversial and have technical limitations to free fragment disc, bony pathology and access to L5-S1, The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy of this new endoscopic system and to report techniques and tactics. Methods : From July 1997 to May 1998, we treated 40 consecutive patients(43 levels) with the MED system. Mean age was 32 years(range ; 18 to 62). There were 30 males and 10 females. All patients had sciatica with SLRT limitation. There were 23 patients with disc herniation at L4-5 and 14 patients at L5-S1. Three patients had 2 level disc herniations. There was one far lateral disc herniation at L4-5. Results : Using modified MacNab criteria, there were 37 excellent results and 3 good result. Most patients were discharged within 3-4 days except 2 patients with dural tearing. There were no other complications. Mean operation time was 1.5 hours(range : 40 minutes to 2.5 hours). Conclusion : The MED system is a reliable approach to lumbar disc herniations. This system combines the advantages of conventional open surgery and a minimally invasive technique. As tactics for the doctors who wish to attempt, "palpate" the lamina by first dilator, identification of interlaminar space by removal of overlying soft tissue and confirmation of the shoulder portion of nerve root before discectomy are important to this procedure. We conclude that lumbar disc herniations can be successfully treated with MED approach.

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Synthesis of β-Galactooligosaccharide Using Bifidobacterial β-Galactosidase Purified from Recombinant Escherichia coli

  • Oh, So Young;Youn, So Youn;Park, Myung Soo;Kim, Hyoung-Geun;Baek, Nam-In;Li, Zhipeng;Ji, Geun Eog
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1392-1400
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    • 2017
  • Galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are known to be selectively utilized by Bifidobacterium, which can bring about healthy changes of the composition of intestinal microflora. In this study, ${\beta}-GOS$ were synthesized using bifidobacterial ${\beta}-galactosidase$ (G1) purified from recombinant E. coli with a high GOS yield and with high productivity and enhanced bifidogenic activity. The purified recombinant G1 showed maximum production of ${\beta}-GOSs$ at pH 8.5 and $45^{\circ}C$. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the major peaks of the produced ${\beta}-GOSs$ showed MW of 527 and 689, indicating the synthesis of ${\beta}-GOSs$ at degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3 and DP4, respectively. The trisaccharides were identified as ${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-O-${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-O-${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-glucopyranose, and the tetrasaccharides were identified as ${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-O-${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-O-${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-galactopyranosyl-($1{\rightarrow}4$)-O-${\beta}-{\text\tiny{D}}$-glucopyranose. The maximal production yield of GOSs was as high as 25.3% (w/v) using purified recombinant ${\beta}-galactosidase$ and 36% (w/v) of lactose as a substrate at pH 8.5 and $45^{\circ}C$. After 140 min of the reaction under this condition, 268.3 g/l of GOSs was obtained. With regard to the prebiotic effect, all of the tested Bifidobacterium except for B. breve grew well in BHI medium containing ${\beta}-GOS$ as a sole carbon source, whereas lactobacilli and Streptococcus thermophilus scarcely grew in the same medium. Only Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium ramosum, and Enterobacter cloacae among the 17 pathogens tested grew in BHI medium containing ${\beta}-GOS$ as a sole carbon source; the remaining pathogens did not grow in the same medium. Consequently, the ${\beta}-GOS$ are expected to contribute to the beneficial change of intestinal microbial flora.

3D Quantitative Analysis of Cell Nuclei Based on Digital Image Cytometry (디지털 영상 세포 측정법에 기반한 세포핵의 3차원 정량적 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Yun;Choi, Hyun-Ju;Choi, Heung-Kook
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.846-855
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    • 2007
  • Significant feature extraction in cancer cell image analysis is an important process for grading cell carcinoma. In this study, we propose a method for 3D quantitative analysis of cell nuclei based upon digital image cytometry. First, we acquired volumetric renal cell carcinoma data for each grade using confocal laser scanning microscopy and segmented cell nuclei employing color features based upon a supervised teaming scheme. For 3D visualization, we used a contour-based method for surface rendering and a 3D texture mapping method for volume rendering. We then defined and extracted the 3D morphological features of cell nuclei. To evaluate what quantitative features of 3D analysis could contribute to diagnostic information, we analyzed the statistical significance of the extracted 3D features in each grade using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, we compared the 2D with the 3D features of cell nuclei and analyzed the correlations between them. We found statistically significant correlations between nuclear grade and 3D morphological features. The proposed method has potential for use as fundamental research in developing a new nuclear grading system for accurate diagnosis and prediction of prognosis.

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Temperature Compensation of 8 Channel DWDM Multiplexer Using All Optical fiber Mach-Zehnder Structure (전광섬유형 8채널 DWDM용 광다중화기의 온도보상 특성)

  • Chang, Jin-Hyeon;Jung, Jin-Ho;Kim, Young-Kwon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8A
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    • pp.697-704
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, Passive Temperature Compensation Technology is apply to 8-channel Optical multiplexer with 1000Hz channel spacing. The 8-channel multiplexer is fabricated by connecting three cascaded Mach Zehnder Interferometer(MZI) of optical fiber type, and each interferometer has the wavelength interval of 100GHz, 2000Hz and 4000Hz, respectively. Furthermore, to acquire uniform insertion loss, it is fabricated by using Wavelength Flatten Coupler(WFC) in which the variation of insertion loss is low. $CO_2$ laser to adjust precisely the wavelength. The optical fiber is very sensitive in the thermal variation around. Thus, When fabrication the prototype, it is applied a technique to compensate the optical thermal effect because the center wavelength at the output is shifted according to the thermal variation around. In summary, The prototype composed by eight cascaded MZI has an insertion loss of 5.5 dB, the bandwidth of 0.8nm at 0.5 dB point, and channel crosstalk of 25 dB. Furthermore, the loss dependent on polarization is measured as 0.06dB. Consequently, the output wavelength is shifted within 0.05 m when the surrounding temperature varies until $60^{\circ}C$

An Analysis of FSK Transmission Characteristics of Spectrum Sliced Optical Signals (스펙트럼 분할된 광신호의 FSK 전송 특성 해석)

  • Ha, Eun-Sil
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2016
  • Since transmissions of large amounts of data are frequent, users require more bandwidth, and the need for communications networks having greater bandwidth is increasing. One communications network satisfying this need is an optical communications network. Therefore, studies to increase the transmission capacity of optical communications systems have been carried out. However, in a general optical communications system, a signal transmitted through optical fiber (a transmission medium) is detected through direct detection in the receiving system. This method has a disadvantage in that the entire bandwidth of the optical signal cannot be utilized. Also, when transmitting an optical signal, there is a problem where the signal-to-noise ratio is affected by neighboring channels. To overcome this situation, various studies are being conducted to minimize the influence of external interference and noise. This paper overcomes the situation by transmitting spectrum-sliced signals using the digital transmission system, FSK. Analyzing the characteristics of the signals detected in the receiver of the optical communications system, Gaussian distribution is used for the PDF of the spectrum-sliced signal, and the signal at the receiving end of the optical communications system is assumed to have a k-square distribution. The results of the analysis confirmed it is better to transmit the spectrally divided signal rather than transmit the laser source.