• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Lysine

검색결과 1,667건 처리시간 0.048초

Bioefficacy of Lysine from L-lysine Sulfate and L-lysine⋅HCl for 10 to 20 kg Pigs

  • Liu, M.;Qiao, S.Y.;Wang, X.;You, J.M.;Piao, X.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1580-1586
    • /
    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to compare the bioefficacy of L-lysine sulfate relative to L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl for 10 to 20 kg pigs. Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioefficacy of the two sources of lysine using daily gain, feed conversion, plasma urea nitrogen and nitrogen retention as the response criteria. In experiment 1, 168 crossbred barrows ($Landrace{\times}Large$ White), weaned at $28{\pm}3$ d ($9.07{\pm}0.78$kg body weight), were allotted to one of seven dietary treatments in a $2{\times}3$ (two lysine $sources{\times}three $ lysine levels) factorial arrangement of treatments with an added negative control treatment group. The basal diet was based on corn, peanut meal and soybean meal and provided 0.67% lysine. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3% lysine equivalents supplied from either L-lysine sulfate or L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl. Each treatment was fed to six pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. The trial lasted 21 days. The relative bioefficacy value of lysine in L-lysine sulfate using daily gain, feed conversion and plasma urea nitrogen as response criteria was 1.01, 1.05 and 1.04 of the lysine in L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl, respectively. In experiment 2, 42 crossbred ($Landrace{\times}Large$ White) pigs ($16.03{\pm}1.58$ kg body weight) were housed in stainless steel metabolism cages for 10 d and fed the seven diets used in the nitrogen-balance trial. The relative bioefficacy value of L-lysine sulfate was estimated to be 0.95 as effective as L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl for nitrogen retention on an equimolar basis. The t-test analysis revealed that bioefficacy of lysine in L-lysine sulfate was not significantly different from lysine in L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl, which was set at 1.00. In conclusion, L-lysine sulfate can be used instead of L-lysine${\cdot}$HCl to fortify lysine-deficient diets fed to 10 to 20 kg pigs.

Comparison of Synthetic Lysine Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Weaning Pigs

  • Ju, W.S.;Yun, M.S.;Jang, Y.D.;Choi, H.B.;Chang, J.S.;Lee, H.B.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.90-96
    • /
    • 2008
  • We compared the effects of supplementing $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ to L-lysine HCl on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in weaning pigs. A total of 96 crossbred pigs, weaned at $21{\pm}3$ days of age and with an average initial body weight (BW) $6.23{\pm}0.01kg$, were given one of 4 treatments, which translated into 6 replicates of 4 pigs in each pen. The animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments according to a randomized completely block design (RCBD) as follows: 1) control-no synthetic lysine, lysine deficient (0.80% total lysine); 2) L-C (= 0.2% L-lysine HCl); 3) K-L-S (= 0.332% $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$, A company); 4) C-L-S (= 0.332% $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$, B company). Diets were formulated with corn, soy bean meal, and corn gluten meal as the major ingredients, and all nutrients except the lysine met or exceeded NRC requirements (1998). The lysine content of supplemented synthetic lysine was the same in all treatment groups except the control. No clinical health problems associated with the dietary treatments were observed. During the entire experimental period, body weight, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F ratio) increased (p<0.01) in pigs fed the experimental diets supplemented with L-lysine??HCl or $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ produced by A company, irrespective of the two synthetic lysine sources. Although the supplementation of $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ produced by B company tended to improve the ADG and G:F ratio, significant differences were not seen among all treatments and tended to be lower than the L-C (L-lysine HCl) and K-L-S ($L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ groups using the product from A company). The digestibility of crude protein (CP) was increased by the supplementation of synthetic lysine (p<0.05), irrespective of the L-lysine source (L-C, K-L-S, C-L-S). The results of this study showed that ADG, G:F ratio, and CP digestibility improved when $L-lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ or L-lysine HCl was supplemented into the weaning pigs' diet. There was a clear difference in efficacy between the two $lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ products based upon the growth performance of weaning pigs. Consequently, the bioavailability of $lysine{\cdot}SO_4$ products should be evaluated before supplementation of synthetic lysine in swine diets.

STUDIES ON POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN BROILER CHICKS 2. EFFECT OF POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON BLOOD PARAMETER, SERUM AND BONE COMPOSITION

  • Shin, H.Y.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.145-150
    • /
    • 1992
  • To determine the effect of dietary potassium and lysine levels on blood parameters, serum and bone composition, 360 male broiler chicks of 3 days of age were used in a completely randomized $3{\times}3$ factorial experiment for 6 weeks. Experimental diets contained three supplemented levels of dietary potassium (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2%) and three supplemented levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4%). Dietary levels of potassium and lysine did not influence blood pH, $pCO_2$, $pO_2$, $HCO_3$ and total $CO_2$ and interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05). Serum lysine and arginine contents were significantly different by the levels of dietary lysine (p < 0.05). Lysine-arginine antagonism was observed in high lysine diet. But increasing dietary potassium did not alleviated the lysine-arginine antagonism. Serum sodium, potassium and chloride were not affected by dietary potassium and lysine levels (p > 0.05). Femur weight, length and P contents were affected by the levels of dietary lysine (p < 0.01). But no difference was observed in femur ash and Ca contents (p > 0.05). Interaction between potassium and lysine was shown in ash and P contents (p < 0.01).

EFFECTS OF LYSINE AND SODIUM ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BONE PARAMETER, SERUM COMPOSITION AND LYSINE-ARGININE ANTAGONISM IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Yun, C.H.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.;Park, B.C.;Lee, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.4 no.4
    • /
    • pp.353-360
    • /
    • 1991
  • An experiment with completely randomized design was performed to investigate the effects of lysine and supplemented sodium on growth performance, nutrients utilization, acid-base balance and lysine arginine antagonism in broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out with 3 levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 1.8%) and 3 levels of sodium(0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) for an experimental period of 7 weeks. Body weight gain of 1.2% lysine group was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of low or high lysine group. The highest feed consumption was obtained at 1.2% lysine and 0.4% sodium supplemented level (ML-1.2) and the lowest at LL-1.2. The best feed efficiency was obtained at ML-0.8 level and the worst at LL-1.2 level. Mortalities of high (1.8%) and low (0.6%) lysine groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than medium lysine (1.2%) group. Among the sodium levels, the mortality at 1.2% sodium supplemented level was significantly (p<0.01) different by the levels of dietary lysine. Lysine-arginine antagonism was observed in high lysine diet. Among the lysine levels, the lowest none weight and length were shown in low lysine group. Interactions between lysine and sodium were significantly (p<0.05) shown in femur weight. The levels of sodium and lysine affected significantly (p<0.01) the utilization of nitrogen, ether extract, total carbohydrate and energy.

Influence of the Lysine to Protein Ratio in Practical Diets on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Use in Growing Pigs

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.11 no.6
    • /
    • pp.718-724
    • /
    • 1998
  • Twelve gilts were used to investigate the effect of lysine to protein ratio (5.2 g lysine/100 g CP vs. 6.7 g lysine/100 g CP) in practical diets on nitrogen retention and the efficiency of utilization in growing pigs. Treatments involved 2 levels of dietary lysine (5.2 or 6.7 g/100 g CP) and 3 levels of dietary crude protein (11, 14 and 17% in diet). Nitrogen retention was greatest when pigs were fed the control diet containing 17% protein. Nitrogen retention progressively increased as dietary protein increased (p < 0.01), but it was not affected by lysine concentration (g/100 g CP). Apparent biological value (ABV, nitrogen retained/apparently digestible nitrogen) was estimated to be ~50% at the maximum nitrogen retention. ABV was not affected by lysine concentration, but declined (p < 0.05) as the dietary protein level increased. The efficiency of intake N used for maximum nitrogen retention was approximately 44%. One gram of lysine supported approximately 9 to 10 g apparent protein accretion (nitrogen retention ${\times}$ 6.25/lysine intake) in pigs fed control diets. The efficiency of lysine utilization for protein accretion was lower in pigs fed high-lysine diets (6.7 g lysine/l00 g CP) so that 1 g of lysine accounted for 7 to 8 g of protein accretion in these pigs (p < 0.01). The lysine required to support maximum nitrogen retention in pigs fed high-lysine diets was higher than that in pigs fed control diets, which suggests that lysine was over-fortified relative to crude protein, since practical diets can not be formulated without excess of some amino acids. In summary the concentration of 5.2 g total lysine/100 g CP in diet is more appropriate for corn-soybean diets than the commonly suggested the content of 6.7 g total lysine/100 g CP.

Lysine Requirement of Piglets

  • Jin, C.F.;Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Kwon, K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.89-96
    • /
    • 1998
  • The experiment was conducted with 120 barrows weaned at 21 days of age to estimate their lysine requirement weaned at 21 days of age when other important amino acids were fortified to get optimal ratio to lysine. The treatments were 1.15% (control), 1.25%, 1.35%, 1.45%, 1.55%, 1.65% total lysine in the diet. Based on the growth performance total lysine requirement of 21-day old pigs appears to be 1.45%. The lowest digestibilities of dry matter and crude fat were found in pigs fed 1.15% total lysine diet and the highest were found in pigs fed 1.65% total lysine diet with no significant differences among treatments. Nitrogen digestibility increased as the total lysine level increased up to 1.35% (p < 0.05) and remained relatively constant beyond 1.35%. However, the best nitrogen digestibility was observed in pigs fed 1.45% total dietary lysine. Gross energy, crude ash and phosphorus digestibilities did not differ due to the increase in total lysine level. The amounts of excreted dry matter and nitrogen differed significantly by the increase in lysine level up to 1.35% (p < 0.05), while phosphorus excretion was not influenced by the lysine level. Dry matter and nitrogen excretion were reduced by 13.6% and 18.4%, respectively, when 1.45% lysine was offered to the pigs compared to the those fed on 1.15% lysine diet. The amino acid digestibilities increased as the total lysine level increased up to 1.45% (p < 0.05), and remained constant beyond 1.45%. The lysine requirement for the pigs weighing 6 to 14 kg seems to be higher than the previous estimates and in order to reduce pollutant excretion the accurate nutrient requirement should be set and applied to the animal.

STUDIES ON POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN BROILER CHICKS 1. EFFECT OF POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND NUTRIENT UTILIZABILITY

  • Shin, H.Y.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.139-144
    • /
    • 1992
  • In order to study the effects of dietary potassium and lysine levels on growth performance and nutrient utilizability in broiler chicks, an experiment was conducted in $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement with three levels of dietary potassium (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2%) and three supplemented levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4%). A total number of 360 male broiler chicks was used for 6 weeks. Birds fed optimum lysine (1.2%) diets had the highest body weight gain and feed efficiency, followed by those fed low lysine (0.6%) and high lysine (2.4%) diets (p < 0.01). But levels of dietary potassium had no effects on the body weight gain and feed efficiency. Interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05). High level of lysine resulted in higher mortality than that of optimum or low level of lysine (p < 0.01). The levels of supplemented lysine affected utilizability of ether extract, total carbohydrate, and nitrogen retention (p < 0.01). But supplemented potassium levels did not affect nutrient utilizability and interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05).

EFFECTS OF LYSINE LEVEL AND NA+K-CI RATIO ON LUSINE-ARGININE ANTAGONISM, BLOOD pH, BLOOD ACID-BASE PARAMETERS AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Kim, H.W.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-16
    • /
    • 1989
  • To determine the effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio and lysine level on blood pH, blood acid-base parameters, lysine-arginine antagonism and growth performance, four hundred and thirty two chicks of 3 days age were used in a completely randomized $3{\times}3$ factorial experiment. Variables contained three levels of lysine (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6%) and dietary electrolyte (100, 200 and 300 mEq/kg). Birds fed 200 mEq/kg and electrolyte had the best growth rate and feed efficiency, followed by those fed 300 mEq/kg and 100 mEq/kg electrolyte. It is proposed that high levels of dietary electrolyte may improve the growth of chicks fed diets containing excess lysine by increasing lysine catabolism. High or low levels of lysine and dietary electrolyte resulted in higher mortality than those of optimum level (1.2%) of lysine and 200 mEq/kg of electrolyte balance. When the electrolyte level was increased, the pH, $pCO_2$, base excess, $HCO_3{^-}$ and total $CO_2$ of blood plasma were increased. The utilization of nutrients was changed when the electrolyte and lysine were manipulated. Plasma chloride tended to be greater in chicks receiving high chloride diet and was the highest in chicks fed the high lysine diet. Plasma sodium and potassium were unaffected by dietary lysine. Diet containing high lysine decreased the level of arginine and excess dietary electrolyte increased arginine level in plasma. It may be concluded that cation supplementation tended to alleviate the lysine-arginine antagonism but chloride exacerbated. Tibia bone length and ash contents were significantly affected by electrolyte balance and lysine level.

Corynebacterium glutamicum 균주 개량 및 발효 공정 최적화에 의한 L-lysine 생산성 증진 (Enhancement of L-lysine Productivity by Strain Improvement and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions in Corynebacterium glutamicum)

  • 서진미;현형환
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.79-84
    • /
    • 2006
  • 본 연구에서는 Corynebacterium glutamicum I 균주에 salt tolerance를 도입하여 L-lysine 생산량을 증가시키고자 하였다. I 균주를 이용하여 mutagenesis를 수행한 후 모균주가 생장하는 못하는 9%의 NaCl이 포함된 배지에서 빠르게 생장하는 C14-49-3-15-7-3-20 균주를 선별하였다. flask 배양으로 L-lysine 생산을 조사한 결과 모균주 I의 경우 L-lysine 농도가 53.3 g/L, 수율이 51.6%인 반면 변이주 C14-49-3-15-7-3-20의 경우에는 L-lysine 농도 61.2 g/L, 수율 61.0%로 나타났다. 그리고 5 L 발효조에서 유가식 배양법으로 배양하여 L-lysine 생산량을 조사하였다. 그 결과 모균주는 113.0 g/L의 L-lysine을 생산하였고 수율은 41.8%이었다. 하지만 변이주의 경우에는 $33^{\circ}C$로 유지하여 배양한 후 PCV가 7.5%가 되는 시점에 배양 온도를 $35^{\circ}C$로 올려주고 배양하였을 때 L-lysine 생산량이 130.6 g/L, 수율이 48.6%로 모균주보다 많은 양의 L-lysine을 생산하였다. L-lysine 생산과 균주의 생장에 대한 osmotic pressure의 영향을 조사하기 위해 변이주 C14-49-3-15-7-3-20을 고농도의 NaCl과 당이 포함되어 있는 배지에 각각 배양하여 균체 생장 및 L-lysine 생산량을 조사하였다. 그 결과 모균주는 균체 생장이 느리고 생산량도 낮은 반면 변이주 C14-49-3-15-7-3-20의 경우에는 균체 생장 정도가 높고 생산량도 모균주보다 높았다. 그리고 2%의 NaCl이 포함되어 있는 배지에 osmoprotectant 를 첨가하였을 경우 모균주는 균체 생장 및 L-lysine 생산량이 높아졌다. 하지만 C14-49-3-15-7-3-20 균주의 경우에는 proline의 영향을 받지 않았다. 이러한 결과로 Corynebacterium glutamicum 균주에 salt tolerance를 도입하면 L-lysine 생산성을 크게 향상시킬 수 있음을 확인하였다.

재래식 간장 및 된장 제조가 대두단백질의 영양가에 미치는 영향 -제3보 Lysine 가용도의 변화- (The Effect of Korean Soysauce and Soypaste Making on Soybean Proteion Quality -Part III. Changes in the Lysine Availability-)

  • 이철호
    • 한국식품과학회지
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.63-69
    • /
    • 1976
  • 재래식 간장 및 된장 제조중에 일어나는 대두단백질 중의 lysine 가용도의 변화에 관하여 화학적 방법 및 생물학적 방법을 이용하여 측정하였으며 서로 다른 측정 방법에 의한 결과의 차이에 대하여 고찰 하였다. TLMI법에 의한 FDNB-reactive lysine의 동향을 보면 대두의 삶음과 메주 발효과정중 lysine의 가용도는 저하하나, 8개월간의 메주 장숙성과정에서 그 가용도가 다시 증가되어 원료대두 단백질중의 lysine가용도와 거의 같은 수준으로 되었다. 한편 백쥐의 사양시험에 의한 생물가 (BV), NPU, NER 및 상대적 lysine 가용율등에 의하면 메주 제조과정에서 뿐만 아니라 숙성과정중에도 lysine 가용도는 계속 저하되는 것으로 나타났다.

  • PDF