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Studies on the Constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (덩굴차(Gynostemma pentaphylum Makino)의 성분에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Heon-Ok;Ko, Young-Su
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.69-83
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    • 1990
  • Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino is a kind of perennial liana plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. Since it was first discovered and reported to the Japanese academy in 1977, it came to be widely known to China and Southeast Asia areas as well as Japan. In Korea its name began to appear in the first half of 1980's, and it is now being nationwidely cultivated and popularized as tea stuffs. Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino has remarkably strong propagation power. In addition. since it contains a great quantity of beneficial components, especially saponin it is believed to have excellent medical effects, too. This study was undertaken to examine the value of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino as a health-promotint tea, by investigating the components creating the flaver of tea and the saponin ingredient making medical effects as well as by inspecting whether Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino products show different component arrangements according to their growing districts. As raw materials of the experiment, three kinds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino samples produced in Suwon, Geochang and Uleungdo were taken. To accomplish the formerly stated goals, the contained quantity of the proximate composition, free sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acid, minerals, tannin, caffeine and vitamin C were measured respectively and compared between the samples, while the saponin content was compared with heat extracted from panax ginseng. The results of the experiment are as follows: 1. In the case of the proximate composition, the crude fat content was the highest in the Gymostemma pentaphyllum Makino material from Geochang (1.62%), the second in that from Suwon (1.56%), and the lowest in that from Uleungdo (1.0%). In addition the Geochang: produced sample had the greatest quantity of the crude protein and ash contents: the order of the crude Protein content was the Geochang produced (17.83%), the Suwon-produced (15.87%), and the Uleungdo-produced(12.28%), while that of the ash content was the Geochang-produced (14.80%), the Uleungdo-produced(10.17%), and the Suwon-produced(9.34%). 2. As for the reducing sugar contents, the Suwon-produced scored the highest of the three (3.3%), while the Geochang-produced was 1.3% and the Uleungdo-produced 0.5%. The total content of free sugar was 1.07% (the Suwon-produced), and 0.49% (the Geochang-produced) respectively but the sample from Uleungdo showed almost no free sugar content. The contained quantity of fructose and glucose was the highest among the kinds of free sugar both in the Suwon-produced and in the Geochang-produced. 3. The content of amino acid was the highest in the Suwon-produced(1.41%), the second in the Geochang-produced(1.37%), and the lowest in the Uleungdo-produced(0.53%). In the experiment, sixteen kinds of amino acid were extracted-Asp. Thr. Ser. Glu. Gly. Ala. Val. Het. Ileu. Leu. Tyr. Phe. Lys. His. Arg. Try. All of them except glutamic acid and methionine showed the highest quantity score in the Suwon-produced, while the glutamic acid content was the higest in the Uleungdo-produced and the methionine content in the Geochang-produced. The sequential arrangement of the sixteen contents according to their magnitude ranged from glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid (the highest) to tryptophan, serine and lysine (the lowest). 4. Ten kinds of mineral were detected-Ca, Mn, Cd, K, Na, Pb, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu. Among them, the content of Cd, Na, Mg, Zn and Fe was the highest in the Geochang-produced and that of K in the Suwon-produced. 5. The Geochang-produced materials contained much a larger quantity of tannin (6.3%) than the Suwon-produced (2.6%). Neither caffeine nor vitamin C was detected in the three kinds of materials. 6. In the case of the saponin content the Geochang-produced showd 2.39%, the Uleungdo-produced 1.77% and the Suwon-produced 1.49% respectively. However, it was found also that the saponin content of Gymostemma pentaphyllum Makino was the same kind as that of panax ginseng.

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Meat Quality and Nutritional Properties of Hanwoo and Imported New Zealand Beef (한우고기와 뉴질랜드산 냉장수입육의 육질 및 영양성분 비교)

  • Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Geun-Ho;Seong, Pil-Nam;Park, Beom-Young;Jung, Seok-Geun;Kang, Sun-Moon;Kim, Young-Chun;Kim, Ji-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.935-943
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the proximate composition, meat color, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), cooking loss (CL), fatty acids composition, amino acid composition and mineral contents of Hanwoo beef (QG $1^+$, 1) and imported New Zealand black Angus beef with loin, strip loin, eye of round and chuck tender. The intramuscular fat contents were higher in the strip loin, loin and chuck tender of Hanwoo beef than New Zealand beef (p<0.05). Hanwoo QG 1 beef had higher Fe contents in the strip loin (30.52 mg/100g) and chuck tender (40.70 mg/100g) (p<0.05). Hanwoo beef had lower cooking loss and than those of New Zealand beef, whereas New Zealand beef had higher protein and amino acids contents (%) than their counterpart. There was no significant difference in the WBS between two origin samples except the chuck Hanwoo beef had significantly lower saturated fatty acids (SFA) and higher monounsaturated fatty acids contents than New Zealand beef (p<0.05). WBS values indicated that Hanwoo and New Zealand beef had similar tenderness in the loin, striploin and eye of round due to the longer aging periods of the New Zealand beef than Hanwoo beef during the distribution.

Larvae Growth and Biochemical Composition Change of the Pacific Oyster Crassostra gigas, Larvae during Artificial Seed Production (참굴 Crassostrea gigas 인공종묘생산 시 유생의 성장과 체성분 변화)

  • Hur, Young-Baek;Min, Kwang-Sik;Kim, Tae-Eic;Lee, Seung-Ju;Hur, Sung-Bum
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.203-212
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    • 2008
  • A nutritional demand of oyster, Crassostrea gigas larva as part of research for improving of utilization of microalgae being used for the artificial oyster seed production. The change of body growth and biochemical compositions of larvae were investigated during larvae rearing in hatchery. The larvae were cultured in 60 M/T tank and fed mixture 6 different phytoplankton species, Isochrysis galbana (30%), Cheatoceros gracilis (20%), Pavlova lutheri (20%), Phaeodactylum triconutum (10%), Nannochryis oculata (10%) and Tetraselmis tetrathele (10%). The initial feeding amount was $0.3{\times}10^4cells/mL$ at three times a day to D-shaped larva and the feeding amount had been increased 30% gradually every two day since the larvae were raising. The larvae were developed from D shape to pediveliger stage for 12 days. The daily growth of shell length and hight were $5.8{\sim}30.8\;{\mu}m$ and $8.7{\sim}31.4\;{\mu}m$, respectively and weight gains were changed from D shape to pediveliger as follow: wet weight was $0.52{\sim}15.0\;{\mu}g/larva$, dry weight was $0.2{\sim}6.5\;{\mu}g/larva$, and ash free dry weight was $0.1{\sim}8.5\;{\mu}g/larva$. The larvae growth pattern shown a logarithmic phase from D shape to umbone stage but after that stage shown a exponential growth aspect. The crude protein, crude lipid and nitrogen free extract (NFE) of larvae during rearing periods were analyzed as $6.1{\sim}10.6%$, $0.6{\sim}1.1%$ and 1.0-2.7%, respectively. And the total amino acid contents of the larvae during rearing periods were in order as glutamic acid $1.26{\sim}2.24%$, aspartic acid $0.97{\sim}1.70%$, and methionine $0.12{\sim}0.33%$. Of the total fatty acid in the analyzed larvae, the saturated fatty acid (SSAFA) was decreased from 54.3% (D shaped larvae) to 17.1 % (pediveliger) as larvae development but the total mono-unsaturated fatty acid (${\Sigma}MOFA$) and Poly-unsaturated fatty acid (${\Sigma}PUFA$) were increased from 29.9% and 7.8% to 40.6% and 45.6%, respectively. By the way the each fatty acid of the larvae were composed of palmitic acid $9.89{\sim}36.95%$, oleic acid $12.17{\sim}32.29%$, linoleic acid $1.96{\sim}33.55%$, EPA $2.17{\sim}11.58%$ and DHA $1.95{\sim}4.51%$. As a result of this study, the larvae of oyster were demanded a various nutrients for healthy growth and the feeding control, expecially after umbone stage larvae are a rapidly growing time, is very important for success of artificial seed production.

Current Status and Perspectives in Varietal Improvement of Rice Cultivars for High-Quality and Value-Added Products (쌀 품질 고급화 및 고부가가치화를 위한 육종현황과 전망)

  • 최해춘
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47
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    • pp.15-32
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    • 2002
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s-1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and quality evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice cultivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm, aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer, Recently, new special rices such as extremely low-amylose dull or opaque non-glutinous endosperm mutants were developed. Also, a high-lysine rice variety was developed for higher nutritional utility. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and texture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak, hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscosities with year difference. The high-quality rice variety "IIpumbyeo" showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic microscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high probability of determination. The $\alpha$-amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were IIpumbyeo, Chucheongyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tonsil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice breed. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large grain rices showed better suitability far fermentation and brewing. The glutinous rice were classified into nine different varietal groups based on various physicochemical and structural characteristics of endosperm. There was some close associations among these grain properties and large varietal difference in suitability to various traditional food processing. Our breeding efforts on improvement of rice quality for high palatability and processing utility or value-adding products in the future should focus on not only continuous enhancement of marketing and eating qualities but also the diversification in morphological, physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of rice grain suitable for processing various value-added rice foods.ice foods.

Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties of Meat and Viscera of Dried Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Prepared using Different Drying Methods (건조방법에 따른 건조 전복 (Haliotis discus hannai)의 이화학적 특성 비교)

  • Park, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Young-Jae;Park, In-Bae;Shin, Gung-Won;Jo, Yeong-Cheol;Koh, So-Mi;Kang, Seong-Gook;Kim, Jeong-Mok;Kim, Hae-Seop
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.686-698
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    • 2009
  • We sought basic data for product development and storage improvement of abalone. We explored drying methodologies, such as shade drying, cold air drying, and vacuum freeze drying. We also examined various physicochemical features of both meat and viscera. Raw abalone meat had $78.88{\pm}1.01%$ moisture, $9.24{\pm}0.27%$ crude protein, and $10.05{\pm}0.81%$ carbohydrate (all w/w). The moisture level of dried abalone meat was highest after cold air drying, at $18.38{\pm}0.91%$, and lowest after vacuum freeze drying, at $1.05{\pm}0.05%$. The total amino acid content of raw abalone meat was $17,124.05{\pm}493.18\;mg%$, and fell after shade-drying to $12,969.92{\pm}583.65\;mg%$, and to $13,328.78{\pm}653.11\;mg%$ after cold air drying. The total free amino acid content of raw abalone meat was $4,261.99{\pm}106.55\;mg%$, and rose after shade-drying to $6,336.50{\pm}285.15\;mg%$, to $5,072.04{\pm}248.53\;mg%$ after cold air drying, and to $4,638.85{\pm}218.03\;mg%$ after vacuum freeze drying. The fatty acid proportions in raw abalone meat were $47.00{\pm}0.99%$ saturated, $22.18{\pm}1.05%$ monounsaturated, and $30.82{\pm}1.45%$ polyunsaturated. In the viscera, however, the proportions were $36.72{\pm}0.74%$ saturated, $25.44{\pm}1.12%$ monounsaturated, and $37.84{\pm}1.67%$ polyunsaturated. The contents of chondroitin sulfate in raw abalone were $11.95{\pm}0.35%$ in meat and $7.71{\pm}0.19%$ in viscera (both w/w). After shade-drying, the chondroitin sulfate content was $16.57{\pm}0.90%$ in meat and $9.24{\pm}0.50%$ in viscera. The figures after cold air drying were $16.17{\pm}0.79%$ and $12.44{\pm}0.61%$, and those after vacuum freeze drying $25.17{\pm}1.16%$ and $15.22{\pm}0.70%$ (thus including the highest meat content). The level of collagen in raw abalone was $69.80{\pm}3.07\;mg/g$ in meat and $40.62{\pm}1.79\;mg/g$ in viscera. Meat and viscera dried in the shade had $144.05{\pm}7.78\;mg/g$ and $44.16{\pm}2.39\;mg/g$ collagen, respectively, whereas the figures after cold air drying were $133.29{\pm}6.53\;mg/g$ and $69.20{\pm}3.39\;mg/g$, and after vacuum freeze drying $137.51{\pm}6.33\;mg/g$ and $60.61{\pm}2.79\;mg/g$. Volatile basic nitrogen values of raw abalone showed a higher content in viscera, at $19.01{\pm}0.84\;mg%$, compared to meat ($10.10{\pm}0.44\;mg%$). The value for shade-dried abalone meat was $136.77{\pm}7.37\;mg%$ and that of viscera $197.97{\pm}10.69\;mg%$. After cold air drying the meat and visceral values were $27.32{\pm}1.34\;mg%$ and $71.37{\pm}3.50\;mg%$, respectively.

Studies on the physio-chemical properties and the cultivation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus) (느타리버섯의 생리화학적성질(生理化學的性質) 및 재배(栽培)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jai-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.150-184
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    • 1978
  • Nutritional characteristics and physio-chemical properties of mycelial growth and fruitbody formation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus)in synthetic media, the curtural condition for the commerical production in the rice straw and poplar sawdust media, and the changes of the chemical components of the media and mushroom during the cultivation were investigated. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Among the carbon sources mannitol and sucrose gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while lactose and rhamnose gave no mycelial growth. Also, citric acid, succinic acid, ethyl alcohol and glycerol gave poor fruit-body formation, and acetic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, n-butyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol inhibited mycelial growth. 2. Among the nitrogen sources peptone gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while D,L-alanine, asparatic acid, glycine and serine gave very poor fruit-body formation, and nitrite nitrogens, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine inhibited mycelial growth. Inorganic nitrogens and amino acids added to peptone were effective for fruit-body growth, and thus addition of ammonium sulfate, ammonium tartarate, D,L-alanine and L-leucine resulted in about 10% increase fruit-body yield. L-asparic acid about 15%, L-arginine about 20%, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine about 25%. 3. At C/N ratio of 15.23 fruit-body formation was fast, but the yield decreased, and at C/N ratio of 11.42 fruit-body formation was slow, but the yield increased. Also, at the same C/N ratio the higher the concentration of mannitol and petone, the higher yield was produced. Thus, from the view point of both yield of fruit-body and time required for fruiting the optimum C/N ratio would be 30. 46. 4. Thiamine, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and magnecium sulfate at the concentration of $50{\mu}g%$. 0.2% and 0.02-0.03%, respectively, gave excellent mycelial and fruit-body growth. Among the micronutrients ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate showed synergetic growth promoting effect but lack of manganese resulted in a little reduction in mycelial and fruit-body growth. The optimum concentrati on of each these nutrients was 0.02mg%. 5. Cytosine and indole acetic acid at 0.2-1mg% and 0.01mg%, respectively, increased amount of mycelia, but had no effect on yield of fruit-body. The other purine and pyrimidine bases and plant hormones also had no effect on mycelial and fruit-belly yield. 6. Illumination inhibited mycelial growth, but illumination during the latter part of vegetative growth induced primordia formation. The optimum light intensity and exposure time was 100 to 500 lux and 6-12 hours per day, respectively. Higher intensity of light was injurous, and in darkness only vegetative growth without primordia formation was continued. 7. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was $25^{\circ}C$ and for fruit-body formation 10 to $15^{\circi}C$. The optimum pH range was from 5.0 to 6.5. The most excellent fry it-body formation were produced from the mycelium grown for 7 to 10 days. The lesser the volume of media, the more rapid the formation of fruit-body; and the lower the yield of fruit-body; and the more the volume of media, the slower the formation of fruit-body, and the higher the yield of fruit-body. The primordia formation was inhibited by $CO_2$. 8. The optimum moisture content for mycelial growth was over 70% in the bottle media of rice straw and poplar sawdust. 10% addition of rice bran to the media exhibited excellent mycelial growth and fruit-body formation, and the addition of calciumcarbonate alone was effective, but the addition of calcium carbonate was ineffective in the presence of rice bran. 9. In the cultivation experiments the total yield of mushroom from the rice straw media was $14.99kg/m^2$, and from the sawdust media $6.52kg/m^2$, 90% of which was produced from the first and second cropping period. The total yield from the rice straw media was about 2.3 times as high as that from the sawdust media. 10. Among the chemical components of the media little change was observed in the content of ash on the dry weight basis, and organic matter content decreased as the cultivation progressed. Moisture content, which was about 79% at the time of spawning, decreased a little during the period of mycelial propagation, after which no change was observed. 11. During the period from spawning to the fourth cropping about 16.7% of the dry matter, about 19.3% of organic matter, and about 40% of nitrogen were lost from the rice straw media; about 7.5% of dry mallet, about 7.6% of organic matter, and about 20% of nitrogen were lost from the sawdust media. For the production of 1kg of mushroom about 232g of organic matter and about 7.0g of nitrogen were consumed from the rice straw media; about 235g of organic matter and about 6.8g of nitrogen were consumed from the sawdust media, 1㎏ of mushroom from either of media contains 82.4 and 82.3g of organic matter and 5.6 and 5.4g of nitrogen, respectively. 12. Total nitrogen content of the two media decreased gradually as the cultivation progressed, and total loss of insoluble nitrogen was greater than that of soluble nitrogen. Content of amino nitrogen continued to increase up to the third cropping time, after which it decreased. 13. In the rice straw media 28.0 and 13.8% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, lost during the whole cultivation period was lost during the period of mycelial growth; in the sawdust media 24.1 and 11.9% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, was lost during the period of mycelial growth. Lignin content in the media began to decrease slightly from the second cropping time, while the content of reduced sugar, trehalose and mannitol continued to increase. C/N ratio of the rice straw media decreased from 33.2 at spawining to 30.0 at ending; that of the sawdust media decreased from 61.3 to 60.0. 14. In both media phosphorus, potassium, manganese and zinc decreased, at magnesium, calcium and copper showed irregular changes, and iron had a tendency to be increased. 15. Enzyme activities are much higher in the rice straw media than in the sawdust media. CMC saccharifying and liquefying activity gradually increased from after mycelial propagation to the second cropping, after which it decreased in both media. Xylanase activity rapidly and greatly increased during the second cropping period rather than the first period. At the start of the third cropping period the activity decreased rapidly in the rice straw media, which was not observed in the sawdust media. Protease activity was highest after mycelial propagation, after which it gradually decreased. The pH of the rice straw media decreased from 6.3 at spawning to 5.0 after fourth cropping; that of the sawdust media decreased from 5.7 to 4.9. 16. The contents of all the components except crude fibre of the mushroom from the rice straw media were higher than those from the sawdust media. Little change was observed in the content of the components of mushroom cropped from the first to the third period, but slight decrease was noticed at the fourth cropping.

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Studies on the Effects of Caponization and Various Hormone Treatment on the Meat Production and Quality in Growing Chicken (닭에 있어서 거세(去勢) 및 Hormone 처리(處理)가 산육성(産肉性) 및 육질(肉質)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ra, Kwang Yon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-47
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    • 1975
  • These experiments were caried out to study the effects of caponization and various hormone treatments upon meat production and improvement of meat quality of growing chicken. Sixtyseven days old 160 New Hampshire cockerels were treated and growth rate, carcass yield, change of weight of individual organs, meat composition and change of amino acid were measured and analysed. Otherwise change of testis and thyroid gland by hormone treatment were investigated histologically. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The effectst of caponization and hormone treatment upon meat production were; 1) Body weight of cockerels in D. E. S. group without caponization was increased. upon 96.86% than initial period and A. C. T. H. group was 104.22% but other groups and all carponization groups were lighter than those of control group. 2) Weekly body gain of D. E. S. group without caponization was best showing the significance (102.69 g) and the group with caponization were lower than those groups without caponization. 3) Carcass yield was best in Testo. group without caponization (831.2 g) and the group with caponization were lower than the group without caponization. 4) Carcass rate was highest in A. C. T. H. group with caponization and (67.22%) lowest in Testo. group without caponization (63.37%), but any significance was not recognized. 2. The effects of caponizatitn and hormone treatments upon the coposition of meat and amino acids were; 1) Any significance was not recognized between treated and untreated group about change of moisture, crude protein, crude ash and glycogen contents in meat. 2) Fat co tent in muscle in the all treated groups were higher than that of control group. 3) Extracts of group without caponization were higher than those of groups with caponization. 4) Lysin contents were highest in D. E. S. group with caponization (11. 12/ 16.0 g N) and generelly Testo. group was lower compared with D. E. S. group. 5) Histidine and Arginine contents were higher in the groups with caponization than without caponization. 6) Aspartic acid content were higher in D. E. S. group and A. C. T. H. group without depend on caponization. 7) Treonine content was higher in Testo. group without caponization and in the group with caponization and without hormone treatment compared with those of control group without caponization. 8) Serine content was decreased in the group with caponization and increased by D. E. S. and A. C. T. H treatment groups and glutamic acid was also decreased in Testo. group with out caponization. 9) Cystine content was decreased by Testo. treatment and was not appeared in Testo. group without caponization. 10) Valine content was lower in control group with caponization but significance was not recognized between other groups and control group without caponization. 11) Glycine, Alanine, Methionine. Isoleucine, Leucine, Thyrosine and Phenylalanine contents were not so difference between hormone treated groups and control group without caponization. 3. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon the change of organs were: 1) The weight of all organs were heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (18.5g) and lightest in A. C. T. H. group without caponization (155. 3g) but no significance was recognized between hormone treatment groups. 2) Heart weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization (7.46 g) and lightest in Testo. group without caponization (5.95 g). 3) Liver weight was heaviest in D. E. S. group without caponization(32.89g) and lightest in hormone untreated group with caponization(29.66g). Significance was not recognized. 4) Spleen weight was heaivest in Testo. group with caponization (3.22 g) and lightest in D. E. S. group without caponization(2.00g) in contrast with the other groups. High significance was recognized among the groups (P<0.01). 5) Cloacal thymus weight was lightest in D. E. S. group with or without caponization compared with control group without caponization. High significance was recognized among the groups. 6) Muscle fat content was not appeared in A. C. T. H. group with caponization, but it was highly increased in D. E. S. group with or without caponization. 7) Testis weight was lightest in D. E. S. group (0.38g) compared with control group (2.66g). Significance was recognized among the groups. 8) Large intestine, small intestine and cecum weight and length were heavier and longer in D. E. S. group without caponization and control group without caponization was lighter than those of hormone treated groups. 4. The effects of caponization and hormone treatment upon histological change of testis and thyroid gland: 1) The histological change of testis was significantly appeared in D. E. S. group that seminifirous tubles was slowly atrophied, the funtion of spernatogenesis was ceased, spermatocyte was changed as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and interstitial cell was also atrophied, but in Testo. and A. C. T. H. group were similar as control group. 2) The histological change of thyroid gland in Testo. and A. C. T. H. groups without caponization were similar to that of control group without caponization, but in D. E. S. group without caponization, was changed squamously. Thyroid gland of the groups with caponization, epithelium of was atrophied and changed squamously as degeneration by pyknosis and karyorrhexis and the function of thyroid gland was slowly ceased in colloid and in hormone treated group with caponization.

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