• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lysine

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Effect of Environmental Factors on Protein and Lysine Content of Wheat (소맥(小麥)의 단백질(蛋白質) 및 Lysine함량(含量)에 미치는 환경적(環境的) 변이(變異))

  • Kim, Ze-Uook;Chang, Hak-Gil
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 1986
  • 869 wheat lines were selected and analyzed for protein and lysine composition. Also, high protein-high lysine wheat were evaluated by stability parameter to determine varietal response to environments. Protein content had highly significant positive correlation coefficient of $0.902^{**}$ with lysine content but negatively correlated with lysine per protein content. Bezostaya and Lancota with low regression coefficient provided relatively low response to environment in protein content, while CI 13449 and Centurk with high regression coefficients (1.0) had a relatively high response. High heritability has been formed for protein $(h^2=0.809)$ and lysine content $(h^2=0.647)$.

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Characterization of a New High-lysine Mutant in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

  • Kim, Hong-Sik;Kim, Dea-Wook;Kim, Sun-Lim;Baek, Seong-Bum;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Hwang, Jong-Jin;Kim, Si-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 2011
  • A chemical, MNU-induced hulless barley mutant line designated as 'Mutant 98 (M98)' was developed from a Korean hulless waxy barley cultivar, 'Chalssalbori'. The objective of the study was to determine the genetic basis of 'M98' and the possibility of using 'M98' as breeding parent to improve lysine level. Compared to 'Chalssalbori', 'M98' had large embryo and higher lysine content in both the embryo and endosperm. Significantly different lysine content in 'M98' and the other high-lysine barley mutant stocks was observed for two years. However, the genotype by year interaction was not significant. 'M98' was higher than the other high-lysine barley mutant stocks in the percentage of lysine of total amino acid composition (0.75%). The trait of shrunken endosperm of 'M98', which was typical in the high-lysine mutants, was inherited by a single recessive gene. Based on seed morphology and lysine content of $F_1$ seeds, 'M98' had a genetically different gene from the other high-lysine mutants for shrunken endosperm. Segregation of $F_2$ for plump/shrunken endosperm did not fit the expected ratio of Mendelian inheritance except for only one cross combination (GSHO1784 (lys1)/M98). The amino acid analysis of $F_5$ and $F_6$ progenies from the cross between 'M98' and 'Chalssalbori' revealed that the attempt to increase the range of lysine content of plump lines did not go beyond the limit of the average high-lysine barley germplasm.

Generation and DNA Characterization of High-lysine Mutants by Biochemical Selection from Callus Culture of 'Hwayeongbyeo'

  • Yi Gi-Hwan;Choi Jun-Ho;Kim Kyung-Min;Jeong Eung-Gi;Park Hyang-Mi;Kim Doh-Hoon;Ku Yeon Chung;Eun Moo-Young;Kim Ho-Yeong;Nam Min-Hee
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 2005
  • Lysine is the first essential amino acid for optimal nutrient quality in rice grain. For the narrow genetic diversities of lysine contents in rice, somaclonal variation was the source of mutation in our breeding program. Biochemical selection was conducted using 1 mM S-(2-aminoethyl) cysteine followed by two passages of 5 mM lysine plus threonine in the callus subculture medium. The lysine contents in endosperm of all progenies recovered from the biochemical selection were higher than those of their donor cultivar 'Hwayeongbyeo'. These elevated lysine levels of mutants were successfully transmitted to $M_4$ generation. The lysine contents in endosperm varied 3.85 to $4.80\%$ compare to their donor cultivar 'Hwayeongbyeo' was $3.85\%$. Three of high-lysine germplasms, Lys-l, Lys-2 and Lys-7 were selected by biochemical selection and rapid screening methods. DNA analysis showed that a new insertion of Tos 17 which mapped to rice chromosome 11 on the high-lysine mutant, Lys-2.

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Low Lysine Treatment Increases Adipogenic Potential of Bovine Intramuscular Preadipocytes

  • Beloor, Jagadish;Kang, Hye Kyeong;Yun, Cheol-Heui;Kim, Sang Hoon;Moon, Yang Soo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.721-726
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    • 2009
  • The molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation has been well documented. However, the effect of specific nutrients such as lysine on adipocyte differentiation is poorly understood especially in ruminant animals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of lysine on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic genes in cultured bovine preadipocytes. The preadipocytes were treated with different concentrations of lysine (40, 160, 320 mg/L) or troglitazone (10 ${\mu}M$) for 2 days and then subsequently cultured in differentiation medium until day 6. Expression levels of $C/EBP{\alpha}$ were significantly higher (p<0.001) in 40 and 160 mg/L lysine-treated cells compared to 320 mg/L treatment. Though there was an increasing trend in $PPAR{\gamma}$ expression levels with the decreasing lysine concentration, the results were not significant. The preadipocyte factor (pref-1), expression significantly (p<0.001) reduced with decreasing lysine concentration. The Oil red O staining results were better in 40 mg/L treated cells compared to 160 and 320 mg/L lysine treated cells. Our overall results indicate that insufficient supply of lysine increases the adipogenic potential in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes.

Effects of Lysine Intake during Middle to Late Gestation (Day 30 to 110) on Reproductive Performance, Colostrum Composition, Blood Metabolites and Hormones of Multiparous Sows

  • Zhang, R.F.;Hu, Q.;Li, P.F.;Xue, L.F.;Piao, X.S.;Li, D.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1142-1147
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    • 2011
  • Lysine intake during gestation has a major impact on subsequent reproductive performance. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of lysine intake from mid-gestation until farrowing on the reproductive performance of multiparous sows. On day 30 of gestation, 200 Landrace${\times}$Large White sows were randomly assigned to one of four groups based on body weight and parity (n = 50). The gestation diets contained 0.46, 0.56, 0.65 or 0.74% lysine. Increasing dietary lysine concentration improved sow body condition at farrowing and increased litter weights (p<0.05). Dietary lysine level also had a significant effect on the dry matter (p<0.05) and protein content (p<0.05) of colostrum. Increased lysine intake increased serum insulin concentration (p<0.05) and there was a trend towards increased serum prolactin content (linear, p = 0.07). However, increased lysine tended to decrease blood urea N (quadratic, p = 0.05). These results suggest that higher lysine levels (0.65-0.75%) than those recommended by the National Research Council improved reproductive performance for multiparous gestating sows and this increase may be partially mediated through blood metabolites or metabolic hormone levels.

Optimization of Direct Lysine Decarboxylase Biotransformation for Cadaverine Production with Whole-Cell Biocatalysts at High Lysine Concentration

  • Kim, Hyun Joong;Kim, Yong Hyun;Shin, Ji-Hyun;Bhatia, Shashi Kant;Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan;Seo, Hyung-Min;Choi, Kwon Young;Yang, Yung-Hun;Park, Kyungmoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.1108-1113
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    • 2015
  • Cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) is an important industrial chemical with a wide range of applications. Although there have been many efforts to produce cadaverine through fermentation, there are not many reports of the direct cadaverine production from lysine using biotransformation. Whole-cell reactions were examined using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain overexpressing the E. coli MG1655 cadA gene, and various parameters were investigated for the whole-cell bioconversion of lysine to cadaverine. A high concentration of lysine resulted in the synthesis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and it was found to be a critical control factor for the biotransformation of lysine to cadaverine. When 0.025 mM PLP and 1.75 M lysine in 500 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH6) were used, consumption of 91% lysine and conversion of about 80% lysine to cadaverine were successfully achieved.

Effects of Ionic Speciation of Lysine on Its Adsorption and Desorption Through a Sulfone-type Ion-Exchange Column

  • Choi, Dong-Hyouk;Lee, Ki-Say
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1527-1532
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    • 2007
  • Lysine produced during microbial fermentation is usually recovered by an ion-exchange process, in which lysine is first converted to the cationic form (by lowering the pH to less than 2.0 with sulfuric acid) and then fed to a cationexchange column containing an exchanger that has a sulfone group with a weak counterion such as NH;. Ammonia water with a pH above 11 is then supplied to the column to displace the purified lysine from the column and allow its recovery. To enhance the adsorption capacity and for a possible reduction in chemical consumption, monovalent lysine fed at pH 4 was investigated in comparison with conventional divalent lysine fed at pH 1.5. The adsorption capacity increased by more than 70% on a mass basis using pH 4 feeding compared with pH 1.5 feeding. Lysine adsorbed at pH 4 started to elute earlier than that adsorbed at pH 1.5 when ammonia water was used as the eluant solution, and the extent of early elution became more notable at lower concentrations of ammonia. Moreover, the elution of monovalent lysine fed at pH 4 displayed a stiffer front boundary and higher peak concentration. However, when the ammonium concentration was greater than 2.0 N, complete saturation of the bed was delayed during adsorption and the percent recovery yield from elution was lowered., both drawbacks that were considered inevitable features originating from the increased adsorption of monovalent lysine.

Antioxidative Effect of Methionine and Lysine on Oil Rancidity (유지의 산화에 대한 Methionine과 Lysine의 항산화 효과)

  • 박성원;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 1994
  • Soybean oil and lard containing different level (0.02, 0.1, 1%) of methionine, lysine and some antioxi-dants (TBHQ, a-tocopherol) were stored at 60$^{\circ}C$ and heated at 180$^{\circ}C$ to compare their antioxidative effects. Peroxide values (POV) and acid values (AV) of each oil were monitored. Methionine and Iysine showed antioxidative effects in all concentration and the higher concentration, the higher effect. In case of incubating antioxidative effect of methionine was similer to that of TBHQ and that of lysine was considerably higher than that of a-tocopherol, but was lower than that of methionine. In case of heating the antioxidative effects of methionine and lysine were showed higher than those of THHQ and u-tocopherol. Methionine and lysine also had higher antioxidative effects in animal fat than in vegetable oil. Synergistic effects among methionine, Lysine and some food antioxidants were shown to be available in all substrates and the best effect was shown in substrate added com-pound of methionine and a-tocopherol.

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PROTEIN SPARING EFFECT AND AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITIES OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE AND METHIONINE IN WEANLING PIGS

  • Han, I.K.;Heo, K.N.;Shin, I.S.;Lee, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.393-402
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    • 1995
  • Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritive values of supplemental L-lysine, liquid and powder type, and DL-methionine in weanling pigs. For feeding trial, 165 weanling pigs were treated in 2 controls; 18 and 16% CP, 6 supplementations of lysine alone to 16% CP diets; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% of liquid and powder type each, and 3 supplementations of lysine + methionine to 15% CP diets; 0.05 + 0.025, 0.1 + 0.05 and 0.2 + 0.1%. Pigs were fed for 5 week to investigate the protein sparing effect of supplemental amino acid, and the optimal supplemental level. A metabolic trial included the measurements of digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, energy, phosphorus and amino acids. The liver acinar cell culture was conducted for the protein synthesis activity of the pigs fed each experimental diet. Supplementation of both type of L-lysine in 16% CP diet showed improved daily weight gain and feed efficiency which were compatible with those of pigs fed 18% CP diet. Groups fed liquid lysine did not differ from those fed powder type in growth performance. Supplementation of lysine and methionine to 15% CP diet did not improve growth performance of pigs to the extent that 18% CP diet was fed. In nutrient digestibility, 16% CP control diet showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower crude protein digestibility than any other treatments. Digestibilities of 16% CP diets with lysine supplementation were equal to that of 18% CP control, while digestibilities of 15% CP diets with the supplementation of lysine + methionine was inferior to that of 18% CP control. Supplementation of lysine alone reduced the nitrogen excretion compared to the none supplemented control groups. However, addition of lysine + methionine excreted more nitrogen than controls. Pigs fed diet supplemented with lysine alone, or lysine + methionine excreted less fecal phosphorus than those fed none supplemetation. Retained protein from liver tissue of pigs fed 18% diet was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than those fed 16% CP diet. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in physical type of lysine. Feeding of powder type showed less secreted protein and greater retained protein in the culture of liver acinar cell. It is concluded that supplementation of lysine at the level of 0.1 to 0.2% can spare 2% of dietary protein and reduce nitrogen excretion by 19.3%. Also, no difference in nutritional values was observed between liquid and powder lysine in weanling pigs.

Studies on Heated Protein Quality Using Homoarginine Method

  • Lee, Kyung--Hee;Hel
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 1996
  • To determine the quality of heated protein, in vitro method, invluding lysine, lysionalanine, and fructose-lysine as well as homoarginine by guanidination of lysine, was assessed using heated casein with of without glucose. In vivo methods such as PER, digestibility and BV were also tried on homoarginine, lysinoalanine, fructoselysine, and lysine. The nonreactive lysine for huanidination was hardly digestive, while the non heat damaged lysine side chanis in the protein were accessible for guanidination as well as for the digestion. A linear correlation(${\gamma}$=0.80) was obstained between PER and digestibility of the analysed lysine. Digestibility of homoarginine was higher that of true protein. However, in the guanidinated heated casein with glucose, digestibility of homoarginine was significantly reduced. It is suggested that the homoarginine method may mislead to over- or underestimation of the damaged protein quality.

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