• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lysine

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L-Lysine Production by Amplification of the ddh Gene in a Lysine-producing Brevibacterium lactofementum. (Brevibacterium lactofermentum에서 ddh 유전자의 증폭에 의한 L-Lysine의 생산)

  • 김옥미;박선희;이승언;배준태;김현정;이별나;이갑랑
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.400-405
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    • 1998
  • The ddh gene encoding meso-DAP-dehydrogenase (DDH) involved in the dehydrogenase pathway is essential for high-level lysine production in Brevibacterium lactofermentum. To investigate the effect of the ddh gene amplification on lysine production by B. lactofementum, we constructed two E. coli -B. lactofermentum shuttle vector, pEB1 and pEB2. The recombinant plasmids, pRK1 and pRK2, carrying the ddh gene were introduced into B. lactofermentum by electroporation. The specific activity of DDH by amplification of the ddh gene was increased 7-fold, and also L-Lysine production of B. lactofermentum strains harboring recombinant plasmids were 18∼20% higher than that of the control.

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Comparison of Free and Dipeptide Lysine Utilization in Diets for Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

  • Rahimnejad, Samad;Lee, Kyeong-Jun
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.433-439
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    • 2014
  • We compared the utilization efficiency of free lysine (FL) and dipeptide lysine-glycine (LG) in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal experimental diet was formulated to contain 0.5% (basal) lysine from fish meal, and four other diets were prepared by supplementing 0.5% or 1.0% of either FL or LG. The experiment was performed in triplicate, and 20 randomly selected fish averaging $5.41{\pm}0.16g$ were fed one of the test diets at the rate of 3% BW/day twice daily for 6 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed the basal diet showed significantly less weight gain than did the other groups. The results of a two-way ANOVA showed that both lysine level (P = 0.001) and type (P = 0.034) influenced growth rate; however, we found no significant interaction between lysine level and form (P > 0.05). Our results revealed a significant improvement in protein efficiency ratio (PER) with each increment of dietary lysine, and the groups fed LG-supplemented diets showed higher PER than did those offered FL. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices were significantly influenced by lysine level and form, and higher values were recorded in fish fed diets containing LG. Significantly higher whole-body arginine levels were found in LG-fed groups, and a significant interaction was observed between lysine level and form (P = 0.009). Whole-body valine and aspartic acid contents were affected by lysine level, and alanine concentration was influenced by both lysine level and form. Our findings indicate that juvenile olive flounder can utilize LG more efficiently than FL for protein synthesis.

Effects of Dietary Energy Concentration and Lysine on the Digestible Energy Ratio for Apparent Amino Acid Digestibility in Finishing Barrows

  • Cho, S.B.;Lee, H.J.;Chung, I.B.;Long, H.F.;Lim, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.232-236
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of two energy levels and four lysine:digestible energy (DE) ratios on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in finishing pigs. The experiment was conducted using a $2{\times}4$ randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replicates. Twenty-four cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) with an average body weight of $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ were assigned to one of eight treatments. Each barrow was placed in an individual metabolism crate and dietary treatment and water was provided ad libitum. Diets were designed to contain lysine:ME ratios of 1.5, 1.8, 2.1 and 2.4 g/Mcal at 3.35 and 3.6 Mcal/kg of diet in a $4{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Dry matter (DM), ash, Ca and P digestibility were not affected by energy density or lysine:DE ratios. Crude fat digestibility increased as the energy density increased from 3.35 to 3.6 Mcal of DE/kg. Increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased crude protein digestibility. There were no interactions between energy density and lysine:DE ratio in terms of nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen excretion via feces was not affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio, while nitrogen excretion via urine was significantly affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for isoluecine, arginine and aspartic acid as well as average values of essential amino (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid digestibility (p>0.05) were not affected by energy density. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for leucine, proline, alanine and tyrosine, NEAA and total amino acid digestibility were significantly affected by lysine: DE ratio (p<0.05). Interactive effects of energy and lysine:DE ratio also significantly affected amino acid digestibility except for isoleucine, alanine, cystine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine and proline (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that maintaining the appropriate lysine:DE ratio becomes more important as the energy density of the diet increases. Consequently, increasing the lysine:DE ratio can result in increased crude protein digestibility and urinary nitrogen excretion, although apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen excretion were not affected by energy density Furthermore, increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased the apparent digestibility of essential amino acids, except for leucine, regardless of energy density. The optimum lysine:DE ratio for maximum essential amino acid digestibility of the $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ pig is approximately 2.4 g of lysine/Mcal of DE.

Characterization of cadC and cadR Mutants in Mediating the Expression of the Salmonella typhimurium cadBA Operon (Salmonella typhimurium cadBA 오페론의 발현에 관여하는 돌연변이체의 선별 및 그 특성)

  • 방성호;박용근
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2001
  • It has been well known that the expression of S. typhimurium cadBA operon requires at least two extracellular signals: low pH and high concentration of lysine. To better understand the nature of pH-dependent and lysine dependent signal transduction, mutants were isolated in JF2238(cadA-lacZ) by Tn10 insertion, spontaneous mutagenesis, and EMS treatment. Two mutants were isolated from JF2238, expressed as a cadA-lacZ operon fusion in various growth conditions, and analyzed to have mutations in cadC, a gene encoding a function necessary for transcriptional activation of cadBA. One isolate (cadC6) conferred pH-independent and lysine-independent cadBA expression and the other(cadC4) showed pH-independent and lysine-dependent cadBA expression. cadR::Tn10 and cadR4 mutants were expressed in the absence of exogenously added lysine. They were also resistant to thiosine and complemented by lysP clone from E. coli. Thus, in the absence of exogenous lysine, cadR is a negative regulator of cadBA expression. Cadaverine, the product of lysine decarboxylation, was shown to inhibit expression of cadA-lacZ fusion in cad $C^+$ cell.

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A Study of Liver Lipid Accumulation, Free Amino Acid in Plasma and Liver on Rats Fed Wheat Flour Diet Supplemented With Lysine and Sesame (소맥분(小?粉)에 참깨와 Lysine을 보족(補足)한 흰쥐의 간지질축적(肝脂質蓄積)과 Plasma 및 간장중(肝臟中)의 유리(遊離) 아미노산(酸)에 대(對)하여)

  • Lee, Myoung-Hi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1981
  • The effect of sesame of L-lysine HCI and sesame supplementing a wheat flour diet on growth, liver lilpid content, and on the free amino acid levels in the plasma and liver was studied in young male rats with an initial body weight of $75{\pm}3g$. The free amino acids were analyzed by amino acid auto analyzer (JLC - 6HA, NO. 310). The results were as follows. The body weitht gain on L-lysine HCI and sesame supplemented diet was more than weight in the sesame added diet or wheat flour diet groups. Also the liver lipid contents of rats on a wheat flour diet supplemented with L-lysine HCI and sesame showed greater increases than the levels in rats on the wheat flour diets. The rate of liver lipid accumulation was depressed in rats fed L-lysine HCI supplemented wheat flour containing sesame than in rats fed soybean oil or shortening oil instead of sesame. The free phe. Tyr. Leu. Ileu. Val. Lys. levels in the plasma of rats administered the wheat flour diets supplemented with 0.25% L-lysine HCI were higher than those of rats without L-lysine HCI. The free phe. Tyr. Asp. His. Lys. contained in the liver were increased, but other free amino acids were decreased according to the L-lysine HCI amount.

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EFFECTS OF LYSINE OR RUMINALLY PROTECTED LYSINE ADMINISTRATION ON NITROGEN UTILIZATION IN GOATS FED A DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH RUMINALLY PROTECTED METHIONINE

  • Muramatsu, T.;Tsutsumi, K.;Hatano, T.;Hattori, M.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 1993
  • The objectives of the present study were to investigate whether or not dietary lysine addition could improve N balance of female Japanese Saanen goats at 15 to 32 months of age, weighing 31 to 40 kg, fed on a wheat bran-hay cube diet supplemented with methionine, and whether or not ruminally protected lysine supplementation could give as good an N balance performance as lysine in the presence of ruminally protected methionine when given orally to the goats. It was considered from changes in N balance and N utilization that the first-and second-limiting amino acids in the diet were methionine and lysine respectively, under the present experimental conditions. The ruminally protected lysine in addition to the ruminally protected methionine gave no improvement in N balance and N utilization compared with the ruminally protected methionine alone, suggesting that the ruminally protected lysine used in the present study was not effectively utilized by the goats.

The Effect of Lysine to Protein Ratio on Growth Performance and Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization in Pigs

  • Li, Defa;Xi, Pengbin;Wang, Junxun;Wang, Jitan;Ren, Jiping;Kang, Yufan;Thacker, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1282-1289
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    • 2001
  • One feeding trial and two metabolic trials were conducted to investigate the effects of lysine to protein ratio in practical swine diets on growth performance and efficiency of nitrogen retention and utilization in different growing phases. In Trial one (the feeding trial), 90 mixed sex pigs weighing $9.1{\pm}1.4kg$ (Duroc ${\times}$ Landrance ${\times}$ Beijing Black) were used to study the effects of concentrations of 5.2, 5.3, 5.8, 6.4 and 7.2 g lysine/100 g CP in diets containing 1.2% lysine on growth performance and serum urea nitrogen. The results showed that feed conversion efficiency and economic efficiency were best for pigs fed the diet containing the lysine concentration of 5.8 g /100 g crude protein. Serum urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly (p=0.0009) and serum free lysine content increased linearly (p=0.0017) as the lysine to protein ratio in diets increased from 5.2 to 7.2 g/100 g. In Trials two and three (the metabolic trials), five growing barrows (Duroc ${\times}$ Landrance ${\times}$ Beijing black), with initial body weights of approximately $26{\pm}2.4kg$ and $56.3{\pm}3.5kg$, respectively, were allotted to five dietary treatments according to a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design. Trial two contained 5.2, 5.7, 6.1, 6.7 and 6.8 g lysine/100 g CP treatments. Trial three contained 4.6, 5.0, 5.6, 6.1 and 6.6 g lysine/100 g CP treatments. The results showed that nitrogen retention in growing pigs decreased linearly (p=0.0011 in Trial two; p=0.0099 in Trial three) as the lysine to protein ratio in diets increased. The ratio of lysine to protein in diets resulting in maximum nitrogen retention was 5.2 g/100 g and 5.0 g/100 g in Trial two and Trial three, respectively. In Trial two, apparent biological value and gross nitrogen efficiency increased linearly (p=0.0135 and p=0.0192, respectively) as the lysine to protein ratio increased from 5.2 to 6.8 g lysine/100 g CP. In summary, we concluded that the optimal Lysine to Protein Ratios for 8-20 kg and 20-80 kg pigs were 5.8 g/100 g and 5.0 to 5.2 g/100 g, respectively.

Effects of Dietary Lysine and Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs

  • Kim, Y.W.;Ingale, S.L.;Kim, J.S.;Kim, K.H.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1256-1267
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    • 2011
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary lysine and energy level on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 288 weaned pigs (initial BW $5.77{\pm}0.85\;kg$) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (4 replicates per treatment with 18 pigs in each replicate). Experimental diets were fed in the 3 phases: phase I (d 0 to 7), phase II (d 8 to 14) and phase III (d 15 to 28). Isocalorific diets (3,450 kcal/kg) with incremental lysine levels (Phase I: 1.51, 1.61, 1.71 and 1.81; Phase II: 1.35, 1.46, 1.56 and 1.66; Phase III: 1.18, 1.28, 1.39 and 1.49% lysine respectively for T1, T2, T3 and T4) were used as treatments. An increase in the dietary lysine levels linearly improved (p<0.05) the ADG and G:F during phases I, II and III as well as overall study period. The ATTD of DM (d 7 and 28) and CP (d 7, 14 and 28) were linearly improved (p<0.05) with increasing dietary lysine levels. ATTD of ash, Ca and P were not affected by dietary lysine level. In Exp. 2, 64 weanling pigs (initial BW $4.79{\pm}0.79\;kg$) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (4 replicates per treatment with 4 pigs in each replicate) in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement on the basis of BW. Effects of two levels of energy (high, 3,450 or low, 3,350 kcal/kg) and lysine (high or low; 1.70 or 1.50, 1.55 or 1.35 and 1.40 or 1.20% in phase I, II and III diets, respectively) on performance and ATTD of nutrients were investigated. High energy and lysine diets improved ADG (p<0.05) in pigs during phase I, II and III and overall period (p<0.001), while G:F increased (p<0.05) during phase I and overall period. Pigs fed high lysine diets consumed more (p<0.05) feed during phase III and overall period. Additionally, pigs fed high energy diets had greater (p<0.05) ATTD of GE (d 7 and 14), CP (d 7 and 28) and DM (d 28); whereas, pigs fed high lysine diets had greater (p<0.05) ATTD of GE and CP during d 7, 14 and 28. ATTD of ash, Ca and P remained unaffected (p>0.05) by dietary energy and lysine level. However, there was no energy${\times}$lysine interaction for any of the measured variables. Results obtained in present study suggested that high energy and lysine level improve the growth performance and ATTD of nutrients in weanling pigs.

Determination of the dietary lysine requirement by measuring plasma free lysine concentrations in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation

  • Yun, Hyeonho;Park, Gunjun;Ok, Imho;Katya, Kumar;Hung, Silas SO;Bai, Sungchul C.
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.4.1-4.7
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    • 2016
  • This study evaluated the dietary lysine requirement by measuring the plasma free lysine concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A basal diet containing 36.6 % crude protein (29.6 % crystalline amino acids mixture, 5 % casein and 2 % gelatin) was formulated to one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of lysine (0.72, 1.12, 1.52, 1.92, 2.32, 2.72 or 3.52 % dry diet). A total of 35 fish averaging $512{\pm}6.8g$ ($mean{\pm}SD$) were randomly distributed into seven groups with five fish in each group. After 48 h of feed deprivation, each group of fish was fed one of the experimental diets by intubation at 1 % body weight. Blood samples were taken at 0, 5 and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free lysine concentrations (PPlys, 5 h after intubation) of fish fed diets containing ${\geq}2.32%$ lysine were higher than those of fish fed diets containing ${\leq}1.92%$ lysine. Post-absorptive free lysine concentrations (PAlys, 24 h after intubation) of fish fed diets containing 2.32 and 3.52 % lysine were higher than those of fish fed diets containing ${\leq}1.52%$ lysine. The brokenline regression analysis on the basis of PPlys and PAlys indicated that the lysine requirement of rainbow trout could be 2.34 and 2.20 % in diet. Therefore, these results strongly suggested that the dietary lysine requirement based on the broken-line model analyses of PPlys and PAlys could be greater than 2.20 % but less than 2.34 % (corresponding to be $6.01%{\leq},but{\leq}6.39%$ in dietary protein basis, respectively) in rainbow trout. Also, these results shown that the quantitative estimation of lysine requirement by using PPlys and PAlys could be an acceptable method in fish.

Effects of X-irradiation on the Oxygen Consumption and Lysine Uptake of HeLa Cells in the Presence of Metabolic Substrates and Inhibitors (培養 HeLa 細胞의 酸素消費量과 Lysine 吸收에 미치는 X-線 照射의 影響)

  • Kang, Yung-Sun;Ha, Doo-Bong;Ahn, Kyung-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 1968
  • The effects of x-irradiation on the utilization of glucose, succinate, citrate and $\\alpha$-ketoglutarate, on the response of the cell metabolism to $NaN_3$ and DNP, and on the uptake of lysine in the presence or absence of the metabolitesor the inhibitors were studied using HeLa cells and the results are summarized as follows: 1. 200r of x-irradiation had no immediate effect on the oxygen consumption of cells. 2. The oxygen consumption was greatly stimulated by succinate, $\\alpha$-ketoglutarate and citraed and in decreasing order and x-irradiation caused no remarkable change in this order. 3. The respiratory response of the cell to the metabolic inhibitors seems to be altered by x-irradiation. 4. The initial rate of the uptake of lysine was markedly retarded and the accumulation of lysine in the cell was decreased by irradiation. 5. Glucose increased the lysine uptake whereas succinate had no effect and citrate and $\\alpha$-ketoglutarate reduced the absorption. X-irradiation did not alter this tendency. 6. The inhibitory effects of $NaN_3$ and DNP on the lysine uptake were quite different from those seen in the oxygen consumption.

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