• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lysine

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Conversion of D-$\alpha$-Amino-$\varepsilon$-Caprolactam into L-Lysine Using Cell-free Extracts of Alcaligenes eutrophus A52 (Alcaligenes eutrophus A52의 무세포 추출액에 의한 D-$\alpha$-Amino-$\varepsilon$-Caprolactam으로부터 L-Lysine으로의 전환)

  • 박희동;최선택;이인구
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 1987
  • D-$\alpha$-Amino-$\varepsilon$-carpolactam racemase (EC 5.1.1) and L-$\alpha$-amino-$\varepsilon$-caprolactam hydrolase (EC 3.5.2) were fractionated from cell-free extracts of Alcaligenes eutrophus A52 using ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. It was made sure that D-$\alpha$-amino-$\varepsilon$-caprolactam was converted to L-$\alpha$-amino-$\varepsilon$-caprolactam by racemase, and then hydrolyzed into L-lysine by hydrolase in Alcaligenes eutrophus A52. For the conversion of D-$\alpha$-amino-$\varepsilon$-caprolactam into L-lysine by cell-free extracts of Alcaligenes eutrophus A52, the optimum temperature and pH were 6$0^{\circ}C$ and 8.5 respectively. The results showed that 0.5% D-$\alpha$-amino-$\varepsilon$-caprolactam was converted to L-lysine at 55$^{\circ}C$ for 10 hr with a conversion rate of 98% by cell-free extracts containing 3.1mg of protein.

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Intraspecific Protoplast Fusion of Brevibacterium and Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion between Brevibacterium flavum and Corynebacterium glutamicum and the Metabolic Control of L-Lysine Biosynthesis in Improved Bacterial Strains (Brevibacterium flavum의 동종간 및 Corynebacterium glutamicum과의 이속간 원형질체 융합 및 개량균주의 L-Lysine 생합성의 대사제어)

  • Park, Chung;Im, Beon-Sam;Jeon, Moon-Jin
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.104-111
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    • 1987
  • As a trial method of breeding L-lysine producing strains, the intraspecific protoplast fusion bet-ween Brevibacterium flavum ATCC 21528R and Brevibacterium flavum ATCC 21529S and the intergeneric protoplast fusion between Brevibacterium flavum ATCC 21528R and Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13058S were performed. The optimum conditions for protoplast formation of these strains were examined and the effect of plasma expander on regeneration and/or fusion was also observed. Both fusants No. CH23 and No. CH4l showed higher productivity of L-lysine than those of parental cells under the optimum cultural conditions at a rate of 21% and 8.9%, respectively. And, activity of several enzymes in L-lysine biosynthetic pathway including aspartokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme, was determined. Besides, metabolic control mechanism of L-lysine biosynthesis in fusant No. CH23 and in No. CH41 was investigated to compare with that of parental strains.

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Studies on the production of lysine by fermentation process (1) -Isolation of lysine producing microorganisms and cultural conditions of lysine accumulation- (발효에 의한 라이신(L-lysine) 생산에 관한 연구(1) -라이신 생산균주의 분리 및 라이신 생산조건의 검토-)

  • Mheen, Tae-Ick;Kwon, Tai-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 1971
  • Ninty four strains of lysine producing micro-organisms in culture broth during fermentation have been isolated from soil and other sources. From the comparison of the amounts of lysine produced, 6 strains have been selected as the potentially useful strains, and identified tentatively as Micrococcus sp. (S-16-4), Corynebactcrium sp. (S-27-12, S-281-3, CBY-4) and Brevibacterium sp. (M-6-71, F-629-2), respectively. From the further studies with Corynebacterium sp., S-27-12, its maximum yield was found to be 4mg lysine/ml of synthetic medium, consist of glucose(7.5%), urea(0.6%), $KH_2PO_4(0.2%)$, $Na_2HPO_4(0.05%)$, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O(0.03%)$, $MnSO_4{\cdot}4H_2O(0.001%)$ and $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O(0.0005%)$ at pH 7.2 and $30^{\circ}C$ after 4 days.

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Site-speci fic Inactivation o meso-Diaminopimelate-dehydrogenase Gene (ddh) in a Lysine-producing Brevibacterium lactofementum. (Brevibacterium lactofermentum 에서 meso-Diaminopimelate-dehydrogenase Gene (ddh)의 Site-specific Inactivation)

  • 김옥미;박선희;이갑랑
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.387-392
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    • 1998
  • Brevibacterium lactofermentum, a gram-positive bacteria, has both the diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway and meso-DAP-dehydrogenase (DDH) pathway for L-lysine biosynthesis. To investigate importance of DDH pathway and the related ddh gene in lysine production, we introduced site-specific mutagenesis technique. A 300 bp DNA fragment central to the meso-DAP-dehydrogenase gene (ddh) of B. lactofermentum was used to inactive chromosomal ddh gene via homologous recombination. Southern hybridization analysis confirmed that the chromosomal ddh gene was disrupted by the vector sequence. The B. lactofementum ddh mutant obtained have an inactive DDH pathway. The results reveal that inactivation of the ddh gene in B. lactofermentum leads to dramatic reduction of lysine production as well as decrease of the growth rate, indicating that the DDH pathway is essential for high-level lysine production as well as biosynthesis of meso-DAP.

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Determination of Optimal Dietary Sulfur Amino Acids Ratio Relative to Lysine for Growing Barrows and Gilts

  • Chang, W.H.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, S.W.;Xuan, Z.N.;Kim, Y.Y.;Paik, I.K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.1003-1007
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary SAA (sulfur-containing amino acids) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) content, and to determine the optimal SAA:lysine ratio for growing barrows and gilts. A total of 150 pigs (75 barrows and 75 gilts, Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire${\times}$Duroc) were assigned to 6 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 pigs per pen. All pigs were fed diets containing either 1.12 (for barrows) or 1.33% (for gilts) dietary lysine with increasing SAA levels (50, 55 and 60% of dietary lysine) in a $2{\times}3$ factorial design. Throughout the whole experimental period (15 to 54 kg body weight), there was no interaction between sexes and SAA:lysine ratios on ADG, ADFI and FCR. However, increasing the SAA:lysine ratio from 50 to 60% in a diet showed a trend to increase ADG and ADFI of barrows. None of differences in nutrient digestibilities except for calcium and phosphorus were observed and gilts showed higher digestibility of calcium and phosphorus (p<0.05). Among dietary SAA:lysine ratios, there were no differences in apparent nutrient digestibility. Mean values of the essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acids (TAA) digestibilities were higher in gilts than barrows (p<0.01). However, no differences in mean value of EAA, NEAA and TAA digestibilities were observed among dietary SAA:lysine ratios. Between sexes and among SAA:lysine ratios, no significant difference in BUN concentration was observed. This study demonstrated that the optimal inclusion ratio of SAA:lysine was 55% and below 50% in barrows and gilts, respectively.

The Effects of Different Methionine and Lysine Levels in. 15% Iso-protein Diet on the Performance of Laying Hens (동일한 단백질 수준의 사료에서 Methionine과 Lysine수준이 산란계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이상진;김삼수;정선부;곽종형;하정기;이규호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.9-31
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary methionine and lysine levels on laying hen performance. The level of protein was fixed 15% during whole experiment period, but the levels of methionine and lysine were 0.30% and 0.58% (Low), 0.32% and 0.64% (Medium), 0.35% and 0 70% (High), respectively. Total 288 laying pullets of 22 weeks age were reared from January 28, 1989 to March 23, 1990 for 60weeks. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. The e99 Productions were highest in medium treatment in phase I (22~42weeks of age), phase II (42~62 weeks of age) and phase III (62~82weeks of age) and especially, there was significant difference among treatments during phase II (P<0.05). 2. Egg weight was significantly increased as the levels of methionine and lysine were increased up to methionine and lysine were 0.32% and 0.64%, respectively(P<0.01). 3. Daily egg mass was highest when the levels of methionine and lysine were 0.32% and 0.64%, respectively and there were significant differences among treatments during phase I and phase II (P<0.01) 4. Daily feed intake was increased as the levels of methionine and lysine were increased, and there was significant difference among treatments during phase III (P<0.05). 5. Feed efficiency was best in medium treatment in phase I and phase II (P<0.01) 6, Viability was highest in medium treatment, but there was no significant difference among treatments. 7. Nutrient utilizability of experimental diets was not significantly different among treatments. 8. Eviscerated yield was highest and abdominal fat accumulation was lowest in medium treatment, but there was no significant difference among treatments. 9. Egg shell quality and chemical composition of egg content were not different among treatments. 10. The feed cost per kg egg mass was lowest in medium treatment and there were significant differences among treatments in phase I, phase II and whole egg laying period(P<0.05)

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Effects of Dietary Lysine and Leucine Levels on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Parameters in Finishing Pigs (사료 중 Lysine과 Leucine 수준별 첨가가 비육돈의 생산성 및 육질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Hong-Kil;Lee, Sung-Dae;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Young-Hwa;Park, Jun-Cheol;Ji, Sang-Yun;Kwon, Oh-Sub;Kim, In-Cheul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.687-694
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary supplementation of lysine and leucine on growth performance and meat quality parameters in finishing pigs. The experiment was designed using lysine levels(0.45%, 0.75%) and leucine levels(1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%) according to 2×3 factorial design. A total of thirty-six pigs[(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial weight of 75.5±2kg were allotted to one of the six dietary treatments. Each treatment had three replications of two pigs per replicate. No difference was found in average daily gain(P>0.05), while feed intake and feed/gain were higher in 0.45% of lysine treatments than in 0.75% of lysine treatments(P<0.05). Retail lean meat percentage was lower in 0.45% of lysine treatments than in 0.75% of lysine treatments(P<0.05), but there were no differences in other carcass characteristics(P>0.05). Marbling score was significantly increased(P<0.05) in 0.45% of lysine treatments compared to 0.75% of lysine treatments, while other meat quality parameters were not affected by lysine levels(P>0.05). Supplemental dietary leucine had no effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality parameters(P>0.05) except that Hunter b* value were increased with added levels of leucine(P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding of lysine-deficient diets in finishing pigs improved marbling scores of pork. Feeding diets high in leucine, however, did not increase intramuscular fat or marbling scores.

Recemization of L-Lysine for Pharmaceutical Synthesis and its Chiral Separation by GC-MS Spectroscopy

  • Cheong, Jae-Yeon;Choi, Su-Hang;Nam, Tae-Woo;Shin, Jae-Young;Kim, Su-Woong;Jung, Won-Tae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 1995
  • In order to improve physico-chemical properties and to enhance stability of drugs, amino acid salt has been widely adoptd in pharmaceutical synthesis. Acetylsalicylic acid lysinate is one of the widely used analgesics and it is a good example of t5his synthesis. In the case of bacetylsalicylic acid lysinate synthesis, racemization of natrually occurred lysine is esential because the racemic lysine salt of the drug shows better yield, crystallinity and dryness than that of the L-lysine salt. To esatablish a simple, practical and economical process for L-lysine racemization, L-lysine treatments with phosphoric acid and with acetic acid were compared and the optimum conditions for its process and derivatization were investigated by chiral separation methods using GC_MS spectroscopy.

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Oxidative damage of DNA induced by the reaction of methylglyoxal with lysine in the presence of ferritin

  • An, Sung Ho;Kang, Jung Hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 2013
  • Methylglyoxal (MG) is an endogenous metabolite which is present in increased concentrations in diabetics and reacts with amino acids to form advanced glycation end products. In this study, we investigated whether ferritin enhances DNA cleavage by the reaction of MG with lysine. When plasmid DNA was incubated with MG and lysine in the presence of ferritin, DNA strand breakage was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The ferritin/MG/lysine system-mediated DNA cleavage was significantly inhibited by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. These results indicated that ROS might participate in the ferritin/MG/lysine system-mediated DNA cleavage. Incubation of ferritin with MG and lysine resulted in a time-dependent release of iron ions from the protein molecules. Our data suggest that DNA cleavage caused by the ferritin/MG/lysine system via the generation of ROS by the Fenton-like reaction of free iron ions released from oxidatively damaged ferritin.

Writing, erasing and reading histone lysine methylations

  • Hyun, Kwangbeom;Jeon, Jongcheol;Park, Kihyun;Kim, Jaehoon
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.9.1-9.22
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    • 2017
  • Histone modifications are key epigenetic regulatory features that have important roles in many cellular events. Lysine methylations mark various sites on the tail and globular domains of histones and their levels are precisely balanced by the action of methyltransferases ('writers') and demethylases ('erasers'). In addition, distinct effector proteins ('readers') recognize specific methyl-lysines in a manner that depends on the neighboring amino-acid sequence and methylation state. Misregulation of histone lysine methylation has been implicated in several cancers and developmental defects. Therefore, histone lysine methylation has been considered a potential therapeutic target, and clinical trials of several inhibitors of this process have shown promising results. A more detailed understanding of histone lysine methylation is necessary for elucidating complex biological processes and, ultimately, for developing and improving disease treatments. This review summarizes enzymes responsible for histone lysine methylation and demethylation and how histone lysine methylation contributes to various biological processes.