• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lysine

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Lysine Production by Thialysine Resistant Mutant of Candida utilis ( I ) - Isolation of High Lysine Excreting Mutant of Candida utilis - (Candida utilis의 Thialysine 내성맥리주에 의한 Lysine생산 ( I ) -Candida utilis의 Lysine을 생산하는 Thialysine 내성맥리주의 분리-)

  • Bang, Byung-Ho;Seu, Jung-Hwn
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 1983
  • Thialysine significantly inhibited the growth of wild type strain Gondida utilis NCYC-359. In the absence of thialysine, the culture reached stationary phase after 24hr, however, in the presence of 0.5% thialysine, the culture reached stationary phase after 40hr, respectively. Effect of amino acid or vitamin was investigated on recovery of the growth of wild type strain from thialysine inhibition. Glycine, methionine, arginine and tryptophan recovered growth inhibition by thialyslne to some extent. However, vitamins were inert. Especially, lysine at one eighth concentration of thialysine recovered almost fully the growth inhibition. Thialysine resistant mutants were induced from the parent strain of Condida utilis NCYC-359 by NTG treatment. Colonies of thialysine resistant mutants were obtained on agar minimal medium supplemented with 0.1-0.5% thialysine. The frequency of thialysine resistant mutants induced by the first mutation was the highest at 0.1% The wild strain produced no appreciable lysine extracellularly. However, almost thialysine resistant mutants excreted appreciably. Lysine excretion increased after repeated mutation. Finally, of the thialysine resistant mutants induced by NTG, Condida utilis TRN-4006 was obtained. This strain excreted lysine (400$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$) into the medium with a concomitant decrease of lysine in the intracellular pool.

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Varietal Difference in Amino Acid Composition of Polished Barley (피맥품종별(皮麥品種別) 정맥중(精麥中) 아미노산(酸) 조성(組成))

  • Park, Hoon;Yang, Cha-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 1976
  • The amino acid compositions of polished barley grain were investigated for 16 varieties by using amino acid autoanalyzer and simple correlation analysis between them and between protein and amino acid per protein was done. 1) Limiting amino acid is lysine, leucine and phenylalanine are high but threonine and tyrosine are low. Total essential amino acids is high. 2) Protein is significantly correlated negatively with lysine arginine, total basic amino acids (at p=0.01) and threonine, alanine, aspartic acid (at p=0.05) and positively with phenylalanine (at p=0.01) proline and cystine (at p=0.05). 3) Lysine is positively and significantly correlated with arginine and aspartic acid indicating that aspartic acid is probable precursor of lysine and that high yielding varieties or fertilization for high yielding decrease aspartic acid pool resulting low lysine. 4) Lysine content is positively correlated with dye binding capacity (at p=0.01). 5) Tryptophan is positively (at p=0.01) and significantly correlated with histidine, total basic amino acids and arginine. 6) In essential amino acids lysine, tryptophan, threonine and valine simultaneously increase or decrease while aromatic amino acids, sulfur contained amino acids, isoleucine and leucine do so together.

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Effects of Lower Dietary Lysine and Energy Content on Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Zhang, Jinxiao;Yin, Jingdong;Zhou, Xuan;Li, Fengna;Ni, Jianjun;Dong, Bing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1785-1793
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    • 2008
  • Fifty-four PIC barrows were used to evaluate the effects of lower dietary lysine content and energy level on carcass characteristics and meat quality in slaughter pigs. Pigs were allotted to one of three treatments by body weight with six replicate pens in each treatment. The dietary treatments for body weights of 20-50 kg, 50-80 kg and 80-90 kg were as follows, respectively: control diet (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.67 g/MJ, 0.53 g/MJ and 0.42 g/MJ); a low lysine group (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ); and a low lysine-low energy group or low nutrient group (digestible energy 13.11 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency were calculated in the overall growth period (nearly 12 weeks). Meanwhile, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated at 60 and 90 kg body weight respectively. During the overall growth trial, lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level both decreased weight gain (p<0.05) and feed efficiency (p<0.01). At 60 kg body weight, decreasing dietary lysine and nutrient level noticeably decreased dressing percentage (p<0.01) and back fat depth at last rib of PIC pigs (p<0.01), but enhanced marbling scores (p<0.10), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10) and water loss rate (p<0.01) of the longissimus dorsi muscle. At 90 kg body weight, lean percentage (p<0.01) was evidently reduced by both lowering lysine content and nutrient level in the diet. However, the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.05) and marbling scores of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05) were increased; Lowering dietary nutrient level could improve back fat depth of 10th rib (p<0.01) and last rib (p<0.01), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10), redness (p<0.01) and water loss rate of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05), but decrease loin area (p<0.05). Finally, when comparing the 60 kg and 90 kg slaughter weights, it was found that the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.10), 6th-7th rib (p<0.01, p<0.01), 10th-rib (p<0.01, p<0.01) and last rib back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.01) of the low lysine and low nutrient group were all obviously increased comparing with the control group. Taken together, the results showed that decreasing dietary lysine content and nutrient level increased intramuscular fat content and water loss rate of longissimus dorsi muscle; On the other hand, both lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level markedly compensated to increase back fat deposition in the later finishing period (body weight from 60 to 90 kg) in contrast to the control group.

Study on the Development of the Optimum Feeding Regimen for Pigs Weaned at 21 Days of Age

  • Ko, T.G.;Lee, J.H.;Min, T.S.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1518-1523
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various feeding regimens on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities, nitrogen retention, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and feed cost in young pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred twenty crossbred pigs (Landrace${\times}$Large White${\times}$Duroc, average 6.8 kg BW), weaned at 21 days of age, were allotted to 5 treatments in a 5 replicates by a randomized completely block (RCB) design. Treatments were as follow: 1) 1P (1-4 weeks: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%), 2) 2P-I (1 week: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 2-4 weeks: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%), 3) 2P-II (1-2 weeks: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 3-4 weeks: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%), 4) 2P-III (1-3 weeks: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 4 week: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%), 5) 3P (1 week: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 2-3 weeks: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%, 4 week: CP 19% and lysine 1.30%). Three different diets were formulated and supplied according to phase feeding programs. Diet 1 contains 23% crude protein and 1.60% lysine, diet 2 contains 21% crude protein and 1.45% lysine and diet 3 contains 19% crude protein and 1.30 lysine, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in growth performances, there was a beneficial effect of 3 phase feeding. The ADG was higher in 3P treatment than other treatments and it was observed clearly in late period (3-4 weeks) than in early period. Also, with increase in age, growth rate of pigs in 3P treatment was higher than that in 1P treatment approximately 37% (p=0.1379). There were no significant differences among all treatments in nutrient digestibility. The concentration of BUN was higher in pigs were fed diet containing 21% crude protein and 1.45% lysine (eg, 2P-1 and 3P) than those supplied diet containing high nutrient value at 2 week. The lowest feed cost/kg weight gain of pigs showed in 3P among treatments (p<0.05) whereas, high feed cost/kg weight gain of pigs was calculated in 1P and 2P-II treatments compared with 2P-I and 2 P-II (p<0.05), because of high milk products were used in those diet.

The Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction Occurred by Gamma Irradiation in Sugar-Lysine Aqueous Model Solution (당-Lysine 모델 수용액을 이용한 감마선 조사에 의한 비효소적 갈변반응 연구)

  • Lee, Ju-Woon;Oh, Sang-Hee;Kim, Jae-Hun;Byun, Eui-Hong;Kim, Mee-Ree;Kim, Kwan-Soo;Lee, Hyeon-Ja;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.583-587
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    • 2006
  • Aqueous solutions of sugar alone or in the presence of lysine were gamma irradiated at 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. Absorbances at 284 nm as an indicator of intermediate stage of non -enzymatic browning reaction increased with irradiation dose in both the solution of sugar or lysine alone and sugar-lysine mixed solution. Absorbances at 420 nm as indicator of browning increased in the irradiated sugar-lysine mixed solutions although no browning was observed in the irradiated solution of sugar or lysine alone. The degree of browning of the irradiated sugar-lysine mixed solution increased with irradiation dose and was dependent on the type of sugar. For sugar-lysine mixed solution irradiated at 30 kGy, the browning had the following order of intensity: sucrose>fructose>arabinose>xylose>glucose. However, the sugar loss of irradiated sugar lysine mixed solution had a following order of intensity: glucose>fructose>sucrose>xylose>arabinose. The reducing power of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose, was produced by gamma irradiation. The present results indicated that gamma irradiation leads to a non-enzymatic browning reaction (carbonyl-amine reaction) in an aqueous system.

Estimating total lysine requirement for optimised egg production of broiler breeder hens during the early-laying period

  • Kim, Eunjoo;Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka;Shin, Taeg Kyun;Cho, Hyun Min;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Heo, Jung Min
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.4
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    • pp.521-532
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    • 2020
  • The production performance of broiler breeder hens in response to different levels of total lysine during the early laying period was investigated. A total of 126 Ross 308 parent stock hens were offered one of seven dietary treatments formulating elevated contents of total lysine ranging from 0.55% to 0.79% (0.04 scale; 133 g of feed) from 23 to 29 weeks of age. Each treatment had six replicates with three birds per pen. Body weight was recorded triweekly and eggs were collected and weighted at 9:00 am daily. One hen from each pen was euthanized to collect blood samples and visceral organs were harvested and weighed. Egg production, egg weight and egg mass were lower (p < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.55% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing higher total lysine. Hens offered a diet containing 0.71%, 0.75%, and 0.79% total lysine had greater (p = 0.008) egg production rate compared to those offered a diet containing lysine less than 0.71%. The number of total eggs produced tended to be greater (p = 0.083) in hens offered a diet containing 0.71 and 0.75% total lysine compared to the other treatments. The number of settable egg production was higher (p < 0.001) in hens offered a diet contacting 0.79% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing lower levels of total lysine. The relative weights of oviduct and ovary were lower (p < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.59% total lysine compared to the other treatments. No difference found in body weight, the number of total eggs, double-yolk eggs and abnormal shell eggs among the treatments. The urea nitrogen, estradiol-17 beta and progesterone in plasma were not affected by treatments. Based on linear- and quadratic-plateau models, total lysine requirements for egg production, settable egg production and egg mass at the early laying period were to be 0.73%, 0.77%, and 0.71%, respectively. Modern broiler breeder hens likely require higher total lysine than NRC recommendation in a diet for enhancing productivity during the early-laying period.

Release of Cytarabine from $Poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)$/Poly(ethylene oxide)/Poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)$ Block Copolymer Microspheres ($Poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)$/Poly(ethylene oxide)/$Poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)$ 블록 공중합체 미립자에서 Cytarabine의 방출특성)

  • Cho, Chong-Su;Kwon, Joong-Kuen;Jo, Byung-Wook;Lee, Kang-Choon;Sung, Yong-Kiel
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.323-326
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    • 1992
  • $Poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)/poly(ethylene oxide)/poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)$ (LEL) block copolymers containing $poly({\varepsilon}-carbobenzoxy\;L-lysine)$ (PCLL) as the A component and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as the B component were investigated as drug delivery matrix. PCLL homopolymer and LEL block copolymer microspheres containing anticancer drug, cytarabine, were prepared by a solvent evaporation process and the release patterns of cytarabine from the microspheres were investigated in vitro. The size of PCLL homopolymer and LEL block copolymer microspheres was ranged from $0.2\;{\mu}m$ to $1\;{\mu}m$ in diameter and the shape of the microspheres was almost round. The release pattern of cytarabine from the block copolymer microspheres was dependent on the mole % of PEO of the block copolymers.

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Regulatory Mechanism of Lysine Biosynthetic Genes in Escherichia coli

  • Joe, Min-Ho;Mun, Hyo-Young;Hong, Mi-Ju;Kim, Seong-Jun;Park, Young-Hoon;Rhee, Sang-Ki;Kwon, Oh-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.236-241
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    • 2004
  • In Escherichia coli, L-lysine biosynthetic pathway is composed of nine enzymatic reactions. It has been well established that most of the lysine biosynthetic genes are regulated by the lysine availability, even though they are all scattered around the chromosome without forming any multigenic operon structure. However, no transcriptional regulatory mechanism has been identified except for the activation of lysA gene by the LysR. In this study, changes in transcriptome profiles of wild type cells and lysR deletion mutant cells grown in the absence or presence of lysine were investigated by using DNA microarray technique. Microarray data analysis revealed three groups of genes whose expression varies depending on the availability of lysine or LysR or both. To further examine the regulatory patterns of lysine biosynthetic genes, lacZ operon fusions were constructed and their expression was measured under various conditions. Obtained results strongly suggest that there is an additional regulatory mechanism which senses the lysine availability and coordinates gene expression.

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Development of L-Lysine Producing Strains from Cellulosic Substrate by the Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion - Conditions for Fusion and Properties of Fusants- (속간 원형질체 융합에 의한 섬유질 기질로부터 L-Lysine 생산균주 개발 -융합조건 및 융합체의 성질 -)

  • 성낙계;정덕화;박법규;정영철;전효곤
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 1988
  • To produce L-lysine from cellulosic substrate, the intergeneric protoplast fusion between Cellulomonas flavigena and Corynebacterium glutamicum, Cellulomonas flavigena and Brevibacterium flavum was performed. The fusion frequencies were 1.9$\times$10$^{-6}$ to 2.1$\times$10$^{-6}$ for the regenerated protoplasts when two parental strains were treated with 30% of polyethyleneglycol (M.W.6000) containing 5 mM EDTA at 3$0^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. Two fusants, FCB3 and FCC 19 were finally selected by comparision of their genetic stability and L-lysine productivity. The properties of fusants-DNA con-tent, G+C content and L-lysine productivity-were investigated. The DNA content of fusants was greater than those of the parental strain and their G+C contents are equal to half of total G+C con-tent of two parental strains. The fusants showed high productivity of L-lysine from carboxy methyl cellulose as substrate.

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PROTEIN SPARING EFFECT AND AMINO ACID UTILIZATION IN BROILERS FED TWO TYPES OF LYSINE

  • Heo, K.N.;Han, I.K.;Lee, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 1995
  • A growth experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritivie values of supplemental lysine and methionine in broiler chicks. Two types of L-lysine, liquid and powder type, and DL-methionine were added to the diets at different levels of dietary protein with two growth phases, 0-3 weeks and 4-6 weeks named starter and grower, respectively. Six hundred seventy two chicks were allotted in 14 treatments; 3 controls by dietary CP level (starter-grower) with CP 23-21%, CP 21-19% and CP 20-18, 8 groups of liquid and powder lysine supplementation of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, and 3 groups of lysine and methionine supplementation. Body weight, feed intake, and excreta were measured and analyzed to determine growth performance, amino acid digestibilities, and the quantity of excreted nitrogen in feces. Chicks fed CP 23-20 with 3,200 ME kcal showed significantly better growth performance than those fed CP 21-18 for 6 weeks. The supplementation of 0.2% of either type of lysine to CP 21-19 diet improved weight gain and feed efficiecy to the extent that CP 23-21 diet was fed. Physical type of lysine did not affect chick's growth and amino acid digestibilities of the diets. The level of CP in the diet significantly affected nitrogen excretion in feces. Supplementation of lysine and methionine to CP 21-18 diet reduced fecal nitrogen by 10% compared to CP 23-21 diet. It was confirmed that 0.2% of supplemental lysine to the broiler diet spared the dietary protein by 3%, and also reduced nitrogen excretion in feces by 10%.