• Title, Summary, Keyword: MIC

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Antimycotic Susceptibility Testing of Trichophyton Rubrum by Microculture Method (96-well microplate를 이용한 Trichophyton Rubrum의 항진균제 감수성검사)

  • Lee, Moo-Woong;Kim, Jong-Chul;Choi, Jong-Soo;Kim, Ki-Hong
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.396-406
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    • 1992
  • Various susceptibility tests have been used to determine minimal inhibition concentration(MIC) of dermatophytes. They have limitations to apply practically because they need long time to determine MIC. Authors examined MIC of T. rubrum to ketoconazole and itraconazole using 96-well microplate and 24-well macroplate by method of Granade and Artis and tried to check the possibility of this method on clinical application. Nine strains of T. rubrum from patients with dermatophytosis were used. Evaluations of the factors affecting MIC were also tried. The results were as follows. 1. Effect of inoculation density on determination time and MIC : Determination of MIC were possible in 4th days after inoculation at higher inoculation density Caborbance 2.0, 1.0) compared to 6th days at lower inoculation density(absorbance 0.5, 0.25). 2. Effect of incubation temperature on MIC : When incubating at $37^{\circ}C$, MIC were below 0.006-$0.04{\mu}g/ml$ to ketokckonazole and below 0.006-$0.04{\mu}g/ml$ to itraconazole while at $25^{\circ}C$ 0.08-$5.68{\mu}g/ml$ to ketoconazole and 0.006-$0.71{\mu}g/ml$ to itraconazole. Significant reduction of MIC was observed at $37^{\circ}C$ compared to $25^{\circ}C$. 3. Effect of container size on determination time and MIC : When incubating in 96-well microplate and 24-well macroplate, determination of MIC was possible in 4th to 6th days after inoculation in broth-containig 96-well microplate compared to 8th to 12th days in broth-containing 24-well macroplate. But no difference in MIC was observed between different container size. 4. Effect of media on MIC : When using broth as media, MIC were below 0.006-$5.68{\mu}g/ml$ to ketoconazole, below 0.006-$0.36{\mu}g/ml$ to itraconazole in broth-containg 24-well macroplate. When using agar as media, MIC were below 0.006-$5.68{\mu}g/ml$ to ketoconzole, below 0.006-$5.68{\mu}g/ml$ to intraconzole in agar-containing 24-well macroplate. There was slight increase of MIC with agar media compared to broth media. 5. These findings confirm that determination of MIC of dermatophtes by method of Granade and Artis is fast and simple technique for antifungal susceptibility test.

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In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Gagam-seopyoungjeon Aqueous Extracts and Their Combination Effects with Clindamycin against Gardnerella Vaginalis (가감섭영전(加減攝營煎)의 Gardnerella vaginalis에 대한 시험관내 항균력 및 Clindamycin과의 병용효과)

  • Oh, Ja-Young;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.65-80
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The object of this study was to observe the in vitro antibacterial effects of Gagam-seopyoungjeon aqueous extracts (GGSYJ) against Gardnerella vaginalis and the possible synergic combination effects with clindamycin. Methods: Antibacterial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis of GGSYJ were detected using minimal inhibition concentration (MIC), and the effects on the bacterial growth curve were also monitored at MIC and MIC${\times}$2 levels. The combination effects of GGSYJ with clindamycin were observed by checkboard microtiter assay, and the effects of bacterial growth curve treated with GGSYJ MIC+clindamycin MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, respectively. The effects on the bacterial invasion and intracellular killing of GGSYJ were also observed using human vaginal epithelial (VK2) and murine macrophage (Raw264.7) cells with combination effects with clindamycin after treatment of GGSYJ MIC+clindamycin 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC and 1/6 MIC, respectively. Results: The MIC of clindamycin and GGSYJ against Gardnerella vaginalis were detected as $0.012{\pm}0.006$ (0.004~0.016)${\mu}g/ml$ and $1.016{\pm}0.524$ (0.391~1.563) mg/ml, respectively. Clindamycin and GGSYJ were also showed marked dosage-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth, and significant decreases of viable cells were detected in clindamycin MIC+GGSYJ MIC and clindamycin 1/2 MIC+GGSYJ MIC treatment as compared with each of single clindamycin MIC and GGSYJ MIC treatments. And significant decreases of intraepithelial and intra-macrophage viable bacteria numbers were detected in clindamycin 1/2 MIC+GGSYJ 1/2 MIC and clindamycin 1/4 MIC+GGSYJ 1/2 MIC treatment as compared with each of single clindamycin GGSYJ 1/2 MIC treatments, respectively. Conclusions: GGSYJ showed slight antibacterial effects against Gardnerella vaginalis, but they showed dosage-dependent inhibitory effects on the bacterial growth and VK2 epithelial invasions of bacteria with favorable accelerating effects of intracellular killing activities of macrophages. In addition, combination of GGSYJ also increased the inhibitory effects of clindamycin on the epithelial invasions of Gardnerella vaginalis and intracellular killing activities of macrophages against Gardnerella vaginalis as 2-fold higher as compared with clindamycin single treatment, respectively. Therefore, we expected that the clinical dosages of clindamycin can be reduced as 1/2 levels as combination with GGSYJ.

Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Antifungal Drugs on Pityrosporum Species (Pityrosporum 균속의 항진균제에 대한 연구)

  • 정병천;노병의;방용준
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1997
  • Meanwhile Pityrosporum species as well as Candida species in yeast phase are not pathogenic, Pityrosporum in mycelial phase is pathogenic. Pityrosporum species can be isolated not only from tinea versicolor patients but also from ninety (90) percent of healthy persons. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ketoconazole against Pityrosporum spp. was 0.05~0.8$\mu\textrm{g}$ ml$^{-1}$and the MIC of ketoconazole was the lowest. Of itraconazole, selenium sulfide, sodium thiosulfate and ketoconazole had the lowest MIC against P. orbiculare. The P. orbiculare strains isolated from healthy persons were inhibited by lower MIC than those isolated from tinea versicolor patients. P. ovale strains were inhibited by lower MIC at MIC$_{50}$ and MIC$_{90}$ of oral and topical antifungal agents than p. orbiculare.

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In vitro antibacterial activity, postantibiotic effects of norfloxacin and its interaction effects in combination with other antibiotics (시험관내에서 norfloxacin의 항균력과 다른 항생제와 병용투여시 상호작용)

  • Park, Seung-chun;Yun, Hyo-in;Oh, Tae-kwang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 1997
  • 국내에서 많이 사용되고 있는 제2세대 quinolone 항생제인 norfloxacin(NFX)에 대한 약역학적인 특성을 구명하기 위하여 국내에서 분리된 동물유래 병원성 세균에 대하여 시험관내에서 실험을 수행하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 즉, E coli(n=89) 대한 NFX의 $MIC_{50}$$MIC_{90}$는 공히 0.02g/ml이었으며, Streptococcus spp.(n=36)에 대한 NFX의 $MIC_{50}$는 2g/ml 그리고 $MIC_{90}$는 4g/ml로 나타났다. Salmonella spp.(n=56)에 대한 NFX의 $MIC_{50}$$MIC_{90}$ 모두 0.2g/ml로 강한 항균력을 보였으며, Streptococcus spp.(n=24)에 대한 NFX의 $MIC_{50}$는 2g/ml 그리고 $MIC_{90}$가 4g/ml로 나타났다. Bacillus spp.(n=34)는 NFX의 $MIC_{50}$$MIC_{90}$는 모두 0.4g/ml으로서 대부분의 병원성 세균에 대해서 $MIC_{50}$$MIC_{90}$치가 동일하든지 또는 매우 비슷한 수치를 보여주었다. 그러나 NFX는 혐기성세균인 Clostridium spp.(n=34)에 대해서는 항균력이 매우 낮았다. 현재 수의임상에서 항균제 병용요법이 많이 응용되고 있는 것을 고려하여 NFX와 다른 항생물질간의 분획억제농도 (FICs)를 E coli 88ac을 시험균주로 하여 실험한 결과, NFX와 colistin과 병용할 때 FIC 값이 0.38로서 상승작용을 그리고 gentamicin, trimethoprim, amikacin, penicillin 및 tylosin과의 병용시 FIC 값이 각각 0.52, 0.56, 0.63, 1.00 및 1.02로서 상가작용을 보여주었으며, tetracyclin과의 병용시의 FIC값은 1.49로서 길항작용을 나타냄을 알 수 있었다. 한편 실제 항균제의 임상적용시 매우 주요한 요소인 항균활성후 저농도유효성(PAE)을 알아보기 위하여 E coli AB1157을 시험균주로 측정한 결과 PAE은 0.90~1.02 시간 그리고 S aureus R-209에 대해서는 PAE가 1.58~1.99 시간으로서 그람음성균 및 그람양성균 모두에 대해서 긴 PAE를 갖고 있음을 알 수 있었다.

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Assessment of mandibular incisive canal using cone-beam computed tomography in Korean population (콘빔 CT를 이용한 한국인의 하악 절치관 평가)

  • Cho, Bong-Hae;Jung, Yun-Hoa
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.967-974
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of mandibular incisive canal (MIC) in Korean population. Materials and methods: A total of 97 subjects (60 males and 37 females) who underwent cone-beam computed tomography were included in the study. The anatomic features of MIC was assessed according to gender. Length, diameter and distance to inferior, lingual and buccal border were measured at the origin and the terminal. Also the distribution of MIC at each tooth position was evaluated. Results: Of 97 patients included, 75(77.3%) presented bilateral MIC and 13(13.4%) presented unilateral MIC. Of 194 hamimandibles, MIC was detected in 102(85%) sites in male and 61(82.4%) sites in female. Gender and side showed no statistically significant differences in detectability. The length, diameter and distance to adjacent structures were bigger in male than in female except the distance to lingual border. MIC travelled anteriorly in a slightly downward and lingual direction and usually terminated between the first premolar and the canine. On cross-sectional view, MIC showed individually scattered distribution both buccolingually and superoinferiorly. Conclusion: MIC is well detected with cone-beam computed tomography. Considered that the length and the location of MIC has large variations between individuals, its localization using cone-beam CT is highly recommended before performing surgical procedures such as implant placement and bone harvesting.

Evaluation and Optimization of a Serum-based Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay to Caspofungin in Candida albicans Clinical Isolates

  • Yoo, Young Bin;Kim, Sung-Soon;Kim, Young Kwon;Kim, Sunghyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.174-183
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    • 2016
  • In the present study, a serum-based minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing to caspofungin was optimized and evaluated to solve the limitations of the conventional Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline-based antifungal agent MIC test and the usefulness of this testing for clinical application was determined. A total of 105 Candida albicans clinical isolates were used for measuring MIC to caspofungin. Results showed that growth characteristics were different according to types of serum and the mouse serum was the most suitable for this assay. In order to measure the optimal concentration of mouse serum, 0 to 100% mouse serum were added to the media during fungal culture. The optimal concentration of serum was 50% when consideration of antifungal agent administration and inoculum size, serum components and ease of hyphae separated, and the consideration of the degree of growth. In comparison of the usefulness between the conventional Alamar-modified broth microdilution MIC assay and 50% mouse serum-based MIC testing, the range of $MIC_{80}$ of the Alamar-modified broth microdilution MIC assay was $0.13{\sim}2.0{\mu}g/mL$ (SD ${\pm}0.42{\mu}g/mL$) and that of the 50% mouse serum-based MIC assay was $2.0{\sim}32.0{\mu}g/mL$ (SD ${\pm}9.01{\mu}g/mL$). The range of $MIC_{50}$ of the Alamar-modified broth microdilution MIC assay was $0.13{\sim}2.0{\mu}g/mL$ (SD ${\pm}0.40{\mu}g/mL$) and that of the 50% mouse serum-based MIC assay was $1.0{\sim}16.0{\mu}g/mL$ (SD ${\pm}2.36{\mu}g/mL$). The MICs of 50% mouse serum-based MIC testing was increased by up to 4 to 64 times than Alamar-modified broth microdilution MIC assay. In conclusion, a 50% mouse serum-based MIC assay was more useful for measuring MIC in Candida albicans clinical isolates than conventional colorimetric broth microdilution MIC testing.

Effect of Sub-minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Chlorhexidine on Biofilm Formation and Coaggregation of Early Colonizers, Streptococci and Actinomycetes

  • Lee, So Yeon;Lee, Si Young
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2016
  • Chlorhexidine has long been used in mouth washes for the control of dental caries, gingivitis and dental plaque. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial substance to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Concentrations lower than the MIC are called sub minimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). Many studies have reported that sub-MICs of antimicrobial substances can affect the virulence of bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sub-MIC chlorhexidine on biofilm formation and coaggregation of oral early colonizers, such as Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The biofilm formation of S. gordonii, A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus was not affected by sub-MIC chlorhexidine. However, the biofilm formation of S. mutans increased after incubation with sub-MIC chlorhexidine. In addition, cell surface hydrophobicity of S. mutans treated with sub-MIC of chlorhexidine, decreased when compared with the group not treated with chlorhexidine. However, significant differences were seen with other bacteria. Coaggregation of A. naeslundii with A. odontolyticus reduced by sub-MIC chlorhexidine, whereas the coaggreagation of A. naeslundii with S. gordonii remained unaffected. These results indicate that sub-MIC chlorhexidine could influence the binding properties, such as biofilm formation, hydrophobicity and coaggregation, in early colonizing streptococci and actinomycetes.

Effects of Sub Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Metronidazole and Penicillin on Morphology of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Scanning Electron Microscopy Observation

  • Kwon, Ye Won;Lee, Si Young
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 2015
  • Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of antibiotics that inhibits the visible growth of bacteria. It has been reported that sub-MIC of antibiotics may result in morphological alterations, along with the biochemical and physiological changes in bacteria. The purpose of this study was to examine morphological changes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, after the treatment with sub-MIC metronidazole and penicillin. The bacterial morphology was observed with scanning electron microscope, after incubating with sub-MIC antibiotics. The length of A. actinomycetemcomitans was increased after the incubation with sub-MIC metronidazole and penicillin. Sub-MIC metronidazole and penicillin inhibited bacterial division and induced long filaments. Our study showed that metronidazole and penicillin can induce the morphological changes in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

Effect of Sub-Minimal Inhibitory Concentration Antibiotics on Morphology of Periodontal Pathogens

  • Kwon, Ye Won;Lee, Si Young
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2014
  • Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of antibiotics that inhibits the visible growth of a microorganism. It has been reported that sub-MIC of antibiotics may result in morphological alterations along with biochemical and physiological changes in bacteria. The purpose of this study was to examine morphological changes of periodontal pathogens after treatment with sub-MIC antibiotics. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were used in this study. The MIC for amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole, penicillin, and tetracycline were determined by broth dilution method. The bacterial morphology was observed with bright field microscope after incubating with sub-MIC antibiotics. The length of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum were increased after incubation with metronidazole; penicillin and amoxicillin. P. gingivalis were increased after incubating with metronidazole and penicillin. However, F. nucleatum showed decreased length after incubation with doxycycline and tetracycline. In this study, we observed that sub-MIC antibiotics can affect the morphology of periodontal pathogens.

Antibacterial Effects of Chungdae-tang Aqueous Extracts, and Their Combination Effects with Clindamycin against Gardnerella vaginalis In Vitro (청대탕(淸帶湯)의 Gardnerella vaginalis에 대한 시험관내 항균력 및 Clindamycin과의 병용 효과)

  • Kwon, Ji-Myung;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The object of this study was to observe the in vitro antibacterial effects of Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts, traditionally used for treating various gynecological diseases including vaginitis in Korea against Gardnerella vaginalis, and combination effects of Chungdae-tang extracts with Clindamycin were also monitored in this study. Methods: Antibacterial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis of Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts were detected using standard agar microdilution methods. In addition, the effects on the bacterial growth curve were also monitored at MIC and MIC${\times}$2 levels. The combination effects of Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts with Clindamycin were observed by Checkerboard microtiter assay, and the effects of bacterial growth curve treated with or Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts MIC+Clindamycin MIC, 1/2MIC and 1/4MIC, respectively. In the present study, Gardnerella vaginalis were incubated under $37^{\circ}C$, 10% $CO_2$; and bacterial growth curves were calculated at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120hrs after incubations. Results: MIC of Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts against Gardnerella vaginalis were detected as $3.906{\pm}2.344$(0.782~6.250) mg/$m\ell$, respectively. MIC of Clindamycin was detected as $0.010{\pm}0.006$(0.004~0.016) ${\mu}g/m\ell$ at same conditions. In addition, Clindamycin and Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts also showed marked dosage-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth, and more dramatical inhibitions were detected in Clindamycin+Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts MIC treatment as compared with each of single Clindamycin MIC and Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts MIC treatments, respectively. In addition, quite similar inhibitory effects on bacterial growth were detected in Clindamycin 1/4 MIC+Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts MIC treatment as compared with single Clindamycin MIC treatment in the present study. FIC index in combination of Chungdae-tang and Clindamycin were detected as $0.775{\pm}0.285$ (0.500~1.250) at Checkerboard microtiter assay. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that Chungdae-tang aqueous extracts showed antibacterial effects against Gardnerella vaginalis, and it also showed dosage-dependent inhibitory effects on the bacterial growth. In addition, combination treatment of Chungdae-tang aqueous extract with Clindamycin showed more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gardnerella vaginalis with FIC index $0.775{\pm}0.285$(0.500~1.250), respectively. It means, the combination of Chungdae-tang aqueous extract with Clindamycin is partially synergistic effects. It, therefore, is expected that effective dosages of Clindamycin will be reduced to 1/4 or over 1/4 levels as combination with Chungdae-tang extracts, respectively.