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From the Onset of Panic Symptoms to Getting to a Psychiatric Treatment : The Change by Improved Public Awareness of Panic Disorder in Korea (증상의 발현부터 치료의 시작까지 : 한국인의 공황장애 인식도 변화가 치료적 접근에 미친 영향)

  • Choi, Yong-Won;Seo, Ho-Jun;Han, Sang-Woo;Hong, Jin-Pyo;Lee, Kyoung-Uk;Kim, Se-Joo;Lim, Se-Won;Lee, Sang-Hyuk;Yang, Jong-Chul;Lee, Seung-Jae;Park, Seon-Cheol;Gim, Min-Sook;Chae, Jeong-Ho
    • Anxiety and mood
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2019
  • Objective : This study aimed to investigate the general process from the symptom onset to the psychiatric treatment in Korean panic patients and the effect of improved public awareness on it. Methods : This study has a retrospective design. The subjects were the new patients with panic disorder who visited the psychiatric outpatient clinic in twelve university-affiliated hospitals all across Korea. The medical chart was reviewed retrospectively and the data were collected including chief complaints of symptoms, recent stressors, the time to visit the psychiatric outpatient clinic, and visit of other departments and diagnostic approaches for their symptoms. Results : A total of 814 participants were included in the study. The most common department other than psychiatry the panic patients visited were cardiology (28.3%), general internal medicine (16.0%) and neurology (11.4%). The most frequently used diagnostic tests were a echocardiography (17.9%), 24-hour Holter monitoring (11.2%), and brain MRI (8.2%). Only 37.3% of participants visited psychiatric clinic directly. About 80% of participants visited psychiatric department within 1 year after their first panic symptoms and it took $13.8{\pm}13.7weeks$ on average. Comparing before and after 2012, the number of participants increased who visit directly the psychiatric clinic without visiting other departments (p=0.002) and without visiting emergency room (p<0.001). Conclusions : Our results suggest that a substantial number of patients visit departments other than psychiatry when they experience first panic symptoms. However, most patients begin psychiatric treatment within 1 year after their first symptoms and the number of patient are increasing who visit psychiatric department directly without visiting other departments.

Reduction of Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Diamagnetic Substance (반자성 물질을 이용한 자기공명영상검사에서의 인공물 감소)

  • Choi, Woo Jeon;Kim, Dong Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.581-588
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    • 2019
  • MRI is superior when contrasted to help the organization generate artifacts resolution, but also affect the diagnosis and create a image that can not be read. Metal is inserted into the tooth, it is necessary to often be inhibited in imaging by causing the geometric distortion due to the majority and if the difference between the magnetic susceptibility of a ferromagnetic material or paramagnetic reducing them. The purpose of this study is to conduct a metal artefact in accordance with the analysis using a diamagnetic material. The magnetic material include a wire for the orthodontic bracket and a stainless steel was used as a diamagnetic material was used copper, zinc, bismuth. Testing equipment is sequenced using 1.5T, 3T was used was measured using a SE, TSE, GE, EPI. A self-produced phantom material was used for agarose gel (10%) to a uniform signal artifacts causing materials are stainless steel were tested by placing in the center of the phantom and cover inspection of the positive cube diamagnetic material of 10mm each length.After a measurement artefact artifact zone settings area was calculated using the Wand tool After setting the Low Threshold value of 10 in the image obtained by subtracting images, including magnetic material from a pure tool phantom images using Image J. Metal artifacts occur in stainless steel metal artifact reduction was greatest in the image with the bismuth diamagnetic materials of copper and zinc is slightly reduced, but the difference in degree will not greater. The reason for this is thought to be due to hayeotgi offset most of the susceptibility in bismuth diamagnetic susceptibility of most small ferromagnetic. Most came with less artifacts in image of bismuth in both 1.5T and 3T. Sequence-specific artifact reduction was most reduced artifacts from the TSE 1.5T 3T was reduced in the most artifacts from SE. Signal-to-noise ratio was the lowest SNR is low, appears in the implant, the 1.5T was the Implant + Bi Cu and Zn showed similar results to each other. Therefore, the results of artifacts variation of diamagnetic material, magnetic susceptibility (${\chi}$) is the most this shows the reduced aspect lower than the implant artificial metal artifacts criteria in the video using low bismuth susceptibility to low material the more metal artifacts It was found that the decrease. Therefore, based on the study on the increase, the metal artifacts reduction for the whole, as well as dental prosthesis future orthodontic materials in a way that can even reduce the artifact does not appear which has been pointed out as a disadvantage of the solutions of conventional metal artifact It is considered to be material.

Association between Cognitive function, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia and Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (알츠하이머형 치매 및 경도인지장애 환자에서 인지기능 및 행동심리증상과 내측두엽 위축의 연관성)

  • Jeong, Jae Yoon;Lee, Kang Joon;Kim, Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to compare severity, neurocognitive functions, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) according to the degree of temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in Korean patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. Methods : Participants were 114 elderly subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment in this cross-sectional study. MTA in brain MRI was rated with standardized visual rating scales (Scheltens scale) and the subjects were divided into two groups according to Scheltens scale. Severity was evaluated with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Neurocognitive functions was evaluated with the Korean version of Short Blessed Test (SBT-K) and the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease assessment packet (CERAD-K). BPSD was evaluated with the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI). Independent t-test was performed to compare severity, neurocognitive functions, and BPSD between two groups. Results : The group with high severity of MTA showed significantly lower scores in CDR, SBT-K, MMSE-KC, modified Boston naming test, word list recognition, and word list memory (p<0.05). There were no differences in K-NPI scores between two groups. Conclusions : Severity and neurocognitive functions of dementia had significant positive association with MTA, but BPSD had no association with MTA. Evaluating MTA seems to have potential benefit in diagnosing and treating neurocognitive impairments in the elderly. Further evaluation is needed to confirm the association between certain brain structures and BPSD.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Reactivity to Insomnia-Related vs. General Anxiety-Inducing Stimuli in Insomnia Patients with Subjective-Objective Discrepancy of Sleep (주관적-객관적 수면시간 차이를 보이는 불면증 환자에서 일반적 불안에 비해 불면증 관련 자극으로 인한 뇌활성에 관한 기능적 자기공명영상 연구)

  • Kim, Nambeom;Lee, Jae Jun;Cho, Seo-Eun;Kang, Seung-Gul
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Subjective-objective discrepancy of sleep (SODS) is a common symptom and one of the major phenotypes of insomnia. A distorted perception of sleep deficit might be related to abnormal brain reactivity to insomnia-related stimuli. We aimed to investigate differences in brain activation to insomnia-related stimuli vs. general anxiety-inducing stimuli among insomnia patients with SODS, insomnia patients without SODS, and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: All participants were evaluated for subjective sleep status using a sleep diary and questionnaires; occult sleep disorders and objective sleep status were assessed using polysomnography and actigraphy. Task functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during insomnia-related stimuli (Ins) and general anxiety-inducing stimuli (Gen). Brain reactivity to Ins versus Gen was compared among insomnia with SODS, insomnia without SODS, and HC groups, and a combined insomnia disorder group (ID, insomnia with and without SODS) was also compared with HCs. Results: In the insomnia with SODS group compared to the insomnia without SODS group, the right precuneus and right supplementary motor areas showed significantly increased BOLD signals in response to Ins versus Gen. In the ID group compared to the HC group, the left anterior cingulate cortex showed significantly increased BOLD signals in response to Ins versus Gen. Conclusion: The insomnia with SODS and ID groups showed higher brain activity in response to Ins versus Gen, while this was not observed in the insomnia without SODS and HC groups, respectively. These results suggest that insomnia patients with sleep misperception are more sensitive to sleep-related threats than general anxiety-inducing threats.

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC MOTOR TIC DISORDER AND TOURETTE'S DISORDER (만성 틱 장애 뚜렛씨 장애의 임상 특성)

  • Shin, Sung-Woong;Lim, Myung-Ho;Hyun, Tae-Young;Seong, Yang-Sook;Cho, Soo-Churl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 2001
  • Tourette's disorder is a disease which manifests one or more motor tics and vocal tics for more than a year. Chronic motor tic or vocal tic disorders are characterized by only one kind of tics for more than a year. We intended to investigate the clinical characteristics of the patients with chronic motor tic disorders or Tourette's disorders who had admitted from May 1, 1998 to May 1, 1999 to Seoul National University Hospital Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ward. In addition, we compared the clinical characteristics of the patients in order to elucidate the relationship between the two disorders. The patients with learning disabilities were selected as controls. There was no statistically significant difference between the onsets of the patients with chronic motor tic disorders(n=13, $7.3{\pm}2.5$ years), and Tourette's disorder(n=39, $7.2{\pm}2.2$ years), but with learning disability($4.2{\pm}1.9$ years). Also, the patients with chronic motor tic disorder and Tourette's disorder showed similar age at admission($11.7{\pm}2.7$ versus $11.5{\pm}2.6$ years), duration of admission($5.7{\pm}5.4$ versus $11.0{\pm}8.7$ weeks), mothers' ages at child birth($27.3{\pm}2.9$ versus $28.3{\pm}6.7$ years old),and fathers' age at child birth($32.2{\pm}3.2$ versus $33.3{\pm}5.2$ years old). We observed that those who had learning disabilities were alike in those aspects, except for age at visit to clinic($9.8{\pm}3.2$ years old). Family history of psychiatric illnesses(24.1% versus 46.2%), recognized precipitating factors(11.1% versus 35.7%) and response to pharmacological treatments(77.8% versus 76.9%) of the patients with chronic motor tic disorders and Tourette's disorders were observed and no differences were found. Comorbid patterns of diseases were noted. Intrafamilial conflicts were more common in the patients with learning disabilities than those with chronic tic disorders or Tourette's disorders. Precipitating factors were observed more frequent in chronic tic disorder and Tourette's disorder than learning disability. Neurocognitive profiles were investigated, and verbal IQs of the patients with chronic motor tic disorder, Tourette's disorder and learning disability were $92.3{\pm}10.7$, $94.7{\pm}14.9$, $94.3{\pm}13.8$, performance IQs $93.0{\pm}20.5$, $97.5{\pm}13.0$, $95.0{\pm}16.9$ and full-scale IQs $91.9{\pm}20.1$, $95.8{\pm}14.5$, $93.9{\pm}15.1$, respectively, which were found to be not significantly different. No difference was found in structural neurological abnormalities and EEG profiles. The patients with learning disabilities showed more common Bender-Gestalt test abnormalities. In conclusion, we have not found any affirmative clues for the division of chronic motor tic disorder and Tourette's disorder in clinical perspective.

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Multiple Daily Fractionated RT for Malignant Glioma (악성 성상세포종과 다형성 교아종 치료에 있어서 다분할 방사선 치료와 단순분할 방사선치료에 대한 성적비교)

  • Yang Kang Mo;Chang Hye Sook;Ahn Seoung Do;Choi Eun Kyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 1994
  • Since Jan. 1992, authors have conducted a pilot study to treat malignant glioma with multiple daily fractionated(MDF) radiation therapy and this paper presents the outcome compared MDF to conventional factionated(CF) radiation therapy Between Sep. 1989 and Jan. 1993, forty three patients with high grade glioma of brain except brain stem glioma were treated: nineteen patients were treated with CF radiation therapy and 24 patients were treated with MDF radiation therapy. In CF radiation therapy, total dose was 6300cGy/35fx in 7 weeks, which 5040cGy was delivered to the initial target volume and 1260cGy to reduced target volume. And in MDF radiation therapy, total dose was 6400cGy/40fx in 4 weeks, which 3200cGy was delivered to the initial target volume as 160cGy 2 times daily 6hr apart. All patients had histologically confirmed anaplastic astrocytoma(AA) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with stereotactic biopsy or craniotomy for subtotal or gross tumor resection. The range of follow-up was 7 months to 4 years with a median follow-up of 9 months. The Median survival from surgery was 9 months for all patients. The median survival was 9 months and 10 months for MDF group and CF group and 10 months and 9.5 months for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma, respectively. In 36 patients with follow-up CT scan or MRI scan, disease status was evaluated according to treatment groups, Four patients(GBM:3, AA:1) of 21 patients in MDF group, were alive with no evidence of disease, while none of patient was alive with no evidence of disease in CF group. The progression of disease had occurred in 20 patients, 11 patients and 9 patients in MDF group and CF group, respectively All of these patients showed in-field progression of disease, Four of 11 patients($27\%$) in MDF group showed the new leasion outside of the treatment field, while 5 of 9 patients($56\%$) in CF group. In our study the prognosis was not influenced by age, KPS, grade, extent of surgery and different fractional scheduled radiation therapy. Authors concluded that MDF regimen was well tolerated and shortened the treatment period from 7 weeks to 4 weeks without compromising results. We believe that further follow-up is needed to assess the role of MDF.

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Clinical Report of 46 Intracranial Tumors with LINAC Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (선형가속기를 이용한 뇌종양 46예의 뇌정위다방향방사선치료 성적)

  • Yoon Sei C;Suh Tge S;Kim Sung W;Kang Ki M;Kim Yun S;Choi Byung O;Jang Hong S;Choi Kyo H;Kim Moon C;Shinn Kyung S
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 1993
  • Between July 1988 and December 1992, we treated 45 patients who had deep seated inoperable or residual and/or recurrent intracranial tumors using LINAC based stereotactic radiosurgery at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College. Treated intracranial tumors included pituitary tumors (n=15), acoustic neurinomas (n=8), meningiomas (n=7), gliomas (n=6), craniopharyngiomas (n=4), pinealomas (n=3), hemangioblastomas (n=2), and solitary metastatic tumor from lung cancer (n=1). The dimension of treatment field varied from 0.23 to 42.88 $cm^3\;(mean;\;7.26\;cm^3)$. The maximum tumor doses ranging from 5 to 35.5 Gy (mean; 29.9 Gy) were given, and depended on patients' age, target volume, location of lesion and previous history of irradiation. There were 22 male and 23 female patients. The age was varied from 5 to 74 years of age (a median age; 43 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 35 months (2~55 months). To date, 18 $(39.1\%)$ of 46 intracranial tumors treated with SRS showed absent or decrease of the tumor by serial follow-up CT and/or MRI and 16 $(34.8\%)$ were stationary, e.g. growth arrest. From the view point of the clinical aspects, 34 $(73.9\%)$ of 46 tumors were considered improved status, that is, alive with no evidence of active tumor and 8 $(17.4\%)$ of them were stable, alive with disease but no deterioration as compared with before SRS. Although there showed slight increase of the tumor in size according to follow-up imagings of 4 cases (pituitary tumor 1, acoustic neurinomas 2, pinealoma 1), they still represented clinically stable status. Clinically, two $(4.4\%)$ Patients who were anaplastic astrocytoma (n=1) and metastatic brain tumor (n=1) were worsened following SRS treatment. So far, no serious complications were found after treatment. The minor degree headache which could be relieved by steroid or analgesics and transient focal hair loss were observed in a few cases. There should be meticulous long term follow-up inall cases.

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Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Carcinoma of The Uterine Cervix : A Phase I/II Prospective Study (국소적으로 진행된 자궁경부암의 방사선치료와 복합 항암화학요법의 동시치료 결과)

  • Kang One Chul;Choi Eun Kyung;Chung Weon Kuu;Kim Jong Hoon;Chang Hyesook;Kim Yong Man;Kim Young Tak;Nam Joo Hyun;Mok Jung-Eun;Lee Moo-Song
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.311-323
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Prospective, single arm, Phase I/II clinical trial was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of the concurrent chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy (RT) in patients with previously untreated locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials : From Mar 1992 to January 1997, a total of 73 patients with advanced cervical carcinoma were entered on the protocol but 5 patients were excluded in analysis because of patients' refusal of treatment. Their ages ranged from 31 to 77 years, median 58 years. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage distribution was as follows: IIB 46, IIIA 2, IIIB 15 and IVA 5. RT consisted of external beam irradiation to 4,140-5,040 cGy/23-28 fractions plus high dose rate intracavitary treatments to deliver a dose of 30-35 Gy to point A in 6-7 fractions. During the intracavitary treatments parametrial boost was delivered for point B dose of 60 Gy in stage IIB and 65 Gy in stage IIIB. Two cycles of concurrent 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (FP) chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/$m^2$/day continuous infusion for 4 days, day 1-4, 29-32 and cisplatin 20 mg/$m^2$/day intravenous bolus for 3 days day 1-3, 29-31) administered starting on day 1 of RT. Results : The median follow-up was 24 months (range 4-68+). Sixty-four patients were evaluable for survival rate in this protocol: The 5-year actuarial and disease-free survival rate were 52$\%$ and 64$\%$, respectively. The 5-rear actuarial survival for stage IIB and III+IVA patients were 58$\%$ and 36$\%$, respectively The 5-year disease-free survival rate for stage IIB and III+IVA patients were 71$\%$ and 40$\%$, respectively. Of the 68 patients evaluated for patterns of failure, overall recurrence rate was 27.9$\%$ (19/68) : local failure in 5.9$\%$ (4/68), distant metastasis in 10.3$\%$ (7/68) and both in 11.8$\%$ (8/68). Of the 64 patients evaluated for response at one month after the completion of treatment the complete response rate was 78$\%$ (50/64). Concurrent chemoradiation appear to be a well-tolerated regimen but there were two treatment-related deaths. Conclusion : Concurrent chemotherapy of FP with high-dose definitive RT in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix is feasible and effective with acceptable toxicities. This chemoradiation regimen may offer a modest survival benefit for advanced stage. Further follow-up of these patients will evaluate the impact of this regimen on the long-term local control and their survival.

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The Role of Camera-Based Coincidence Positron Emission Tomography in Nodal Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포폐암의 림프절 병기 결정에서 Coincidence PET의 역할)

  • Lee, Sun-Min;Choi, Young-Hwa;Oh, Yoon-Jung;Cheong, Seong-Cheoll;Park, Kwang-Joo;Hwang, Sung-Chul;Lee, Yi-Hyeong;Park, Chan-H;Hahn, Myung-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.642-649
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    • 1999
  • Background: It is very important to determine an accurate staging of the non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) for an assessment of operability and it's prognosis. However, it is difficult to evaluate tumor involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes accurately utilizing noninvasive imaging modalities. PET is one of the sensitive and specific imaging modality. Unfortunately PET is limited use because of prohibitive cost involved with it's operation. Recently hybrid SPECT/PET(single photon emission computed tomography/positron emission tomography) camera based PET imaging was introduced with relatively low cost. We evaluated the usefulness of coincidence detection(CoDe) PET in the detection of metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with NSCLC. Methods: Twenty one patients with NSCLC were evaluated by CT or MRI and they were considered operable. CoDe PET was performed in all 21 patients prior to surgery. Tomographic slices of axial, coronal and sagittal planes were visually analysed. At surgery, mediastinal lymph nodes were removed and histological diagnosis was performed. CoDe PET findings were correlated with histological findings. Results: Twenty of 21 primary tumor masses were detected by the CoDe PET. Thirteen of 21 patients was correctly diagnosed mediastinal lymph node metastasis by the CoDe PET. Pathological N0 was 14 cases and the specificity of N0 of CoDe PET was 64.3%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of N1 node was 83.3%, 73.3%, 55.6%, 91.7%, and 76.2% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of N2 node was 60.0%, 87.5%, 60.0%,87.5%, and 90.0% respectively. There were 3 false negative cases but the size of the 3 nodes were less than 1cm. The size of true positive nodes were 1.1cm, 1.0cm, 0.5cm respectively. There were 1 false positive among the 12 lymph nodes which were larger than 1cm. False positive cases consisted of 1 tuberculosis case, 1 pneumoconiosis case and 1 anthracosis case. Conclusion: CoDe PET has relatively high negative predictive value in the enlarged lymph node in staging of mediastinal nodes in patients with NSCLC. Therefore CoDe PET is useful in ruling out metastasis of enlarged N3 nodes. However, further study is needed including more number of patients in the future.

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Treatment Results of Radical Radiotherapy in Uterine Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암 환자의 근치적 방사선치료성적)

  • Huh Seung Jae;Kim Bo Kyong;Lim Do Hoon;Shin Seong Soo;Lee Jeong Eun;Kang Min Kyu;Ahn Yong Chan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : This study was conducted to evaluate the treatment results, prognostic factors, and complication rates after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients with uterine cervix cancer who were treated with curative aim. Materials and Methods : Of 269 cervix cancer patients treated at the department of radiation oncology, Samsung Medical Center from September 1994 to July 1998, the 106 who were treated with radical radio-therapy were analyzed. The median age was 61 years (range 22 to 89). All patients except 4 with carcinoma in situ (CIS) were given external beam radiotherapy (range $30.6\~50.4\;Gy$ to whole pelvis) and HDR brachytherapy. The common regimens of HDR brachytherapy were a total dose of $24\~28\;Gy$ with $6\~7$ fractions to point A at two fractions per week. The median overall treatment time was 55 days (range 44 to 104) in patients given both external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy. Results : Early responses of radiotherapy were evaluated by gynecologic examination and follow-up MRI 1 month after radiotherapy. Treatment responses were complete remission in 72 patients, partial response in 33 and no response in 1. The overall survival (OS) rate of all patients was $82\%,\;and\;73\%$, and the disease free survival (DFS) rate was $72\%,\;and\;69\%$, at 3, and 5 years, respectively. The pelvic control rate (PCR) was $79\%$ at both 3 and 5 years. According to the FIGO stage,3 and 5 year OS were $100\%\;and\;50\%$ in CIS/IA, $100\%\;and\;100%$ in IB, $83\%\;and\;69\%$ in IIA, $87\%\;and\;80\%$ in IIB, and $62\%\;and\;62\%$ in III, respectively. The 3 year OS in 4 patients with stage IVA was $100\%$. Three-year DFS were $80\%$ in CIS/IA, $88\%$ in IB, $100\%$ in IIA, $64\%$ in IIB, $58\%$ in III, and $75\%$ in IVA. Three-year PCR were $100\%$ in CIS/IA, $94\%$ in IB, $100\%$ in IIA, $84\%$ in IIB, $69\%$ in III, and $50\%$ in IVA. By univariate analysis, FIGO stage and treatment response were significant factors for OS. The significant factors for DFS were age, FIGO stage, treatment response and overall treatment time (OTT). For pelvic control rate, treatment response and OTT were significant factors. By multivariate analysis, FIGO stage had a borderline significance for OS (p=0.0825) and treatment response had a borderline significance for DFS (0=0.0872). A total of 14 patients $(13\%)$ experienced rectal bleeding, which occurred from 3 to 44 months (median, 13 months) after the completion of radiotherapy. Conclusion : HDR brachytherapy protocol of Samsung Medical Center combined with properly optimal external beam pelvic irradiation is a safe and effective treatment for patients with uterine cervix cancer. The authors found that OTT of less than 55 days had a positive impact on pelvic control and survival rate.