• Title, Summary, Keyword: MUSCLE ACTIVITIES

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Mulberry Leaves and Silkworm Excreta Extracts on Weight Performance, Blood Characteristics and Cecal Microflorae of Chicks (뽕잎과 잠분 추출물 급여가 육계의 생산성, 혈액 성상 및 맹장 내 미생물군에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Dong Wook;Ji, Sang Yoon;Hong, Seong Koo;Kim, Sang-Ho;Lee, Heui-Sam
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.150-160
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    • 2012
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of mulberry leaves and silkworm excreta ethanol extracts on weight performances, blood characteristics, cecal microflorae of chickens. Two hundred forty male broiler chicks(Ross) were fed diets for five weeks containing 0.1%(MLA) and 1%(MLB) of mulberry leaves ethanol extracts, and 0.1%(SEA) and 1%(SEB) of silkworm excreta ethanol extracts. Weight performance did show no significant difference in all test groups which were fed with supplementation of mulberry leaves and silkworm excreta ethanol extracts. They showed better weight gain and feed conversion than the negative control group which was fed only with forage without antibiotics. ABTS(2'-azine-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) test was conducted to investigate free radical scavenging activity of blood in tested groups. ABTS scavenging activities of tested groups were higher than control groups in significant level, though there was no significant difference(P = 0.396). Specifically, MLB group showed the highest scavenging activity. Blood-level concentration of MDA, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was also decreased in tested groups and the lowest level was observed in SEA(P = 0.001). As storage time increased at $4^{\circ}C$, muscle-level MDA concentrations of all tested groups were generally increased and significant difference was obsereved between tested groups and controls in total increase of MDA concentration($P=4.417{\times}10^{-3}$). In cecal microflorae, SEA and SEB showed decreased total microbe population compared to NC($P=6.462{\times}10^{-5}$) and even to PC. Supplementation of mulberry leave and silkworm excreta ethanol extract did show a similar inhibition effect against Salmonella sp., furthermore, MLB did enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus sp.($P=3.636{\times}10^{-7}$). In summary, ethanol extract of silkworm excreta may be a potential alternative of antibiotics for chicks. In addition, both of ethanol extracts supplementation to broiler chicks would be very useful not only to improve antioxidant effect of blood but also to suppress lipid peroxidation without any loss of weight performance in poultry farming.

Isolation and Purification of Antimicrobial Peptide from Hard-shelled Mussel, Mytilus coruscus (참담치(Mytilus coruscus) 유래 항균 펩타이드 분리 및 정제)

  • Oh, Ryunkyoung;Lee, Min Jeong;Kim, Young-Ok;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kong, Hee Jeong;Kim, Joo-Won;An, Cheul Min;Kim, Dong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1259-1268
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigated antimicrobial peptide from the acidified muscle extract of Mytilus coruscus, which mostly inhabits China, Japan, and Korea, to develop a natural product-derived antibiotics substitution in terms of its abuse and restriction. Antimicrobial peptide was purified by $C_{18}$ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and was detected as having a molecular mass of 6,701 Da by MALDI-TOF/MS. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified peak was obtained from edman degradation, and 20 identified residues shown 100% identity with the N-terminus region of sperm-specific protein and protamine-like PL-II/PL-IV precursor of Mytilus californianus. We also identified 60 open-reading frame (ORF) encoding amino acids with 183 bp of purified peptide based on the obtained amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of ORF showed 100% and the nucleotide sequence revealed 97.2% identity with the protamine-like PL-II/PL-IV precursor of Mytilus californianus. Synthesized antimicrobial peptide showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus (minimal effective concentration [MEC], $20.8{\mu}g/ml$), Bacillus subtilis (MEC, $0.2{\mu}g/ml$), Streptococcus mutans (MEC, $0.2{\mu}g/ml$), gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MEC, $5.7{\mu}g/ml$), Escherichia coli (MEC, $2.6{\mu}g/ml$) and fungi, Candida albicans (MEC, $56.3{\mu}g/ml$). In addition, synthesized peptide showed stable activities under heat and salt conditions against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but was inhibited by salt against only C. albicans. With these results, isolated peptide from M. coruscus could be an alternative agent to antibiotics for defending against pathogenic microorganisms, and helpful information to understand the innate immune system of marine invertebrates.

Pseudomonas tolaasii bacteriophage-specific polyclonal antibody formation and its cross reactivity to various phages (Pseudomonas tolaasii 박테리오파지에 특이적인 다클론항체 형성 및 이를 이용한 파지 교차 반응성)

  • Yun, Yeong-Bae;Park, Soo-Jin;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2019
  • Pseudomonas tolaasii causes brown blotch disease on the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Various pathogenic strains of P. tolaasii were isolated and divided into three subtypes, $P1{\alpha}$, $P1{\beta}$, and $P1{\gamma}$. For phage therapy, bacteriophages against to these subtype strains were applied to mushroom cultivation and very successful to prevent from the disease. In this study, bacteriophages were isolated against the representative strains of subtype pathogens and their polyclonal antibodies were synthesized to investigate structural relationship among capsid proteins of phages. Phage preparations over $10^{10}pfu/mL$ were injected to rabbit thigh muscle and polyclonal antibodies were obtained after three times of boost injection. Titers of the antibodies obtained were over $2{\times}10^7Ab/mL$ for the phage ${\phi}6264$, $1{\times}10^6Ab/mL$ for the phage ${\phi}HK2$, and $1{\times}10^7Ab/mL$ for the phage ${\phi}HK19$ and phage ${\phi}HK23$. High specific activities were observed between antibodies and the corresponding bacteriophages. Some cross-reactivities between the antibodies and non-corresponding bacteriophages were also measured. Antibody $Ab{\phi}6264$ inactivated all phages of $P1{\alpha}$ subtype and only phage ${\phi}HK16$ among $P1{\beta}$ subtype phages. Antibody $Ab{\phi}HK23$ of $P1{\gamma}$ subtype neutralized all phages of $P1{\beta}$ subtype as well as the phage ${\phi}HK23$, showing the widest phage-inactivation range. When the structural-similarity studies of phages were investigated by using phage antibodies, closeness obtained by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes of pathogenic strains were quite different from that of polyclonal antibody-specific structural similarity of phage capsid proteins. In conclusion, there is weak correlation between the host strain specificity of bacteriophage and its capsid structural similarity measured by phage antibodies.

Effect of Nardostachyos Rhizoma on Apoptosis, Differentiation and Proliferation in HL-60 cells

  • Ju Sung-Min;Lee Jun;Choi Ho-Seung;Yoon Sang-Hak;Kim Sung-Hoon;Jeon Byung-Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 2006
  • Nardostachyos Rhizoma (N. Rhizoma) belonging to the family Valerianaceae has been anti-arrhythmic effect, and sedation to the central nerve and a smooth muscle. We reported that the water extract of N. Rhizoma induced apoptotic cell death and differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Cytotoxicity of N. Rhizoma was detected only in HL-60 cells (IC50 is about 200 ${\mu}g/ml$). The cytotoxic activity of N. Rhizoma in HL-60 cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We used several measures of apoptosis to determine whether these processes were involved in N. Rhizoma-induced apoptotic cell death. The high-dose (200 ${\mu}g/ml$) treatment of N. Rhizoma to HL-60 cells showed cell shrinkage, cell membrane blobbing, apoptotic bodies, and the fragmentation of DNA, suggesting that these cells underwent apoptosis. Treatment of HL-60 cells with N. Rhizoma time-dependently induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Also, we investigated the effect of N. Rhizoma on cellular differentiation and proliferation in HL-60 cells. Differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells was determined through expression of CD11b and CD14 surface antigens using flow cytometry and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay, and through analysis of cell cycle using propidium iodide assay, respectively. N. Rhizoma induced the differentiation of HL-60 at the low-dose (100 ${\mu}g/ml$) treatment, as shown by increased expression of differentiation surface antigen CD11b, but not CDl4 and increased reducing activity of NBT. When HL-60 cells were treated with N. Rhizoma at concentration of $50{\mu}g/ml\;and\;100{\mu}g/ml$, NBT-reducing activities induced approximately 1.5-fold and 20.0-fold as compared with the control. In contrast, HL-60 cells treated with the N. Rhizoma-ATRA combination showed markedly elevated levels of 26.3-fold at $50{\mu}g/ml$ N. Rhizoma-0.1 ${\mu}M$ ATRA combination and 27.5-fold at 50 ${\mu}g/ml$ N. Rhizoma-0.2 ${\mu}M$ ATRA combination than when treated with N. Rhizoma alone or ATRA alone. It may be that N. Rhizoma plays important roles in synergy with ATRA during differentiation of HL-60 cells. DNA flow-cytometry indicated that N. Rhizoma markedly induced a G1 phase arrest of HL-60 cells. N. Rhizoma-treated HL-60 cells increased the cell population in G1 phase from 32.71% to 42.26%, whereas cell population in G2/M and S phases decreased from 23.61% to 10.33% and from 37.78% to 33.98%, respectively. We examined the change in the $p21^{WAF1/Cip1}\;and\;p27^{Kip1}$ proteins, which are the CKIs related with the G1 phase arrest. The expression of the CDK inhibitor $p27^{Kip1},\;but\;not\;p21^{WAF1/Cip1}$ were markedly increased by N. Rhizoma. Taken together, these results demonstrated that N. Rhizoma induces apoptotic cell death through activation of caspase-3, and potently inhibits the proliferation of HL-60 cells via the G1 phase cell cycle arrest in association with $p27^{Kip1}$ and granulocytic differentiation induction .

A case of simultaneously identified glycogen storage disease and mucopolysaccharidosis (당원병과 뮤코다당체침착증이 동시에 발견된 증례 1예)

  • Lee, Ju Young;Shim, Jeong Ok;Yang, Hye Ran;Chang, Ju Young;Shin, Choong Ho;Ko, Jae Sung;Seo, Jeong Kee;Kim, Woo Sun;Kang, Gyeong Hoon;Song, Jeong Han;Kim, Jong Won
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.650-654
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    • 2008
  • Glycogen storage disease (GSD) and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are both independently inherited disorders. GSD is a member of a group of genetic disorders involving enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. GSD leads to abnormal tissue concentrations of glycogen, primarily in the liver, muscle, or both. MPS is a member of a group of inherited lysosomal storage diseases, which result from a deficiency in specific enzymatic activities and the accumulation of partially degraded acid mucopolysaccharides. A case of a 16-month-old boy who presented with hepatomegaly is reported. The liver was four finger-breadth-palpable. A laboratory study showed slightly increased serum AST and ALT levels. The liver biopsy showed microscopic features compatible with GSD. The liver glycogen content was 9.3% which was increased in comparison with the reference limit, but the glucose-6-phosphatase activity was within the normal limit. These findings suggested GSD other than type I. Bony abnormalities on skeletal radiographs, including an anterior beak and hook-shaped vertebrae, were seen. The mucopolysaccharide concentration in the urine was increased and the plasma iduronate sulfatase activity was low, which fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for Hunter syndrome (MPS type II). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of GSD and Hunter syndrome being identified at the same time.

Antiglycemic Effect of Carnosine in Diabetic Mice (당뇨 마우스에서 카르노신의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Hue, Jin-Joo;Kim, Jong-Soo;Kim, Jun-Hyeong;Nam, Sang-Yoon;Yun, Young-Won;Jeong, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2009
  • Carnosine is a dipeptide ($\beta$-alanyl-L-histidine) found in mammalian brain, eye, olfactory bulb and skeletal muscle at high concentrations. Its biological functions include antioxidant and anti-glycation activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate anti-diabetic effects of carnosine as determined by blood glucose levels in glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), insulin level and serum biochemical and lipid levels in male C57BL/6J db/db mice. There were five experimental groups including normal (C57BL/6J), control (vehicle), and three groups of carnosine at doses of 6, 30, and 150 mg/kg b.w. Carnosine was orally administered to the diabetic mice everyday for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight changes in carnosine-treated groups compared to the control. The treatments of carnosine significantly decreased the blood glucose level in the diabetic mice compared with the control (p < 0.05) after 5 weeks. The treatments of carnosine also significantly decreased the blood glucose levels in GTT and ITT and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), compared with the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine at the dose of 6 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum insulin level compared to the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine significantly increased total proteins but significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase and blood urea nitrogen compared with the control (p < 0.05). Carnosine also significantly decreased glucose, LDL, and triglyceride in the serum of diabetic mice compared to the control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that carnosine has a hypoglycermic effect resulting from reduction of glucose and lipid levels and that high carnosine-containing diets or drugs may give a benefit for controlling diabetes mellitus in humans.

Inhibitory Effects of Four Solvent Fractions of Alnus firma on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase. (사방오리나무 추출물의 α-amylase 및 α-glucosidase 저해활성)

  • Choi, Hye-Jung;Jeong, Yong-Kee;Kang, Dae-Ook;Joo, Woo-Hong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1005-1010
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    • 2008
  • In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of four solvent fractions of Alnus firma on ${\alpha}-amylase$, ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and aldose reductase activities. The inhibitory test showed that methanol (MeOH) extract and hexane (HX) fraction strongly inhibited pork pancreatin and salivary ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity. The MeOH extract and HX fraction of Alnus firma at the concentration of 4 mg/ml inhibited more than 70% of pancreatin and salivary ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity. The inhibitory effect of fractions has different specificities against ${\alpha}-amylase$ from pancreatin and salivary. In addition, the MeOH extract and butanol (BuOH) fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity on yeast ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ at values of $IC_{50}$ $137.36\;{\mu}g/ml$ and $115.14\;{\mu}g/ml$ respectively. The MeOH extract and BuOH fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity on yeast ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ than commercial agent such as 1-deoxynorjirimycin and acarbose. Inhibition kinetics of solvent fractions showed that ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ has been inhibited noncompetitively by the MeOH, EA and BuOH fraction. The aldose reductase from human muscle cell had been inhibited strongly by the MeOH extract and EA fraction at 57.996% and 83.293% at the concentration of $50\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. These findings may contribute to biological significance in that ${\alpha}-amylase$, ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and aldose reductase inhibitory compounds could be used as a functional food and a drug for the symptomatic treatment of antidiabetic disease in the future.

An Analytical Study of the Relationship between Climacteric Symptoms and the Stress of Life Events (갱년기 증상과 생활스트레스의 관계에 관한 연구)

  • Im Eun-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.1-34
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    • 1994
  • This study has been done in order to analyze the relationship between climacteric symptoms and the stress of life events. For the purpose of this study. objectives set up were as followings. : 1. Climacteric symptoms complained by middle aged women are studied. 2. The stress of life events experienced by middle aged women is studied. 3. The relationship between climacteric symptoms and the stress of life events is studied. 4. The relationship between climacteric symptoms and general characteristics is studied. and the relationship between the stress of life events and general characteristics is also studied. The sample size of this study was 462 cases. The subjects were middle-aged women. who were from 40 to 60 years old and resided in Seoul. Data were collected by using questionnaires which consisted of 122 questions from Jan. 1 to Feb. 7 in 1992. The questionnaires include questions about general characteristics. climacteric symptoms and life events. The measurement scales for this study were adopted from the climacteric symptoms scale developed by Chi. Sung-Ai and the measurement scale of stress related to life events devised by Lee. Pyoung Sook. The analysis of data collected was done by using SPSS-pc package. Firstly. general characteristics were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods. Secondly. climacteric symptoms were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods. the analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Thirdly. the stress of life events was studied by using descriptive statistical methods. the analysis of variance. and tests of independence. The results of this study are as followings. 1. General characteristics of the respondents are as followings: The average age is 49. 13. and the age group from 46 to 50 has $30.5\%$ in the respondents. Christianity is the major religion $(42.6\%)$. and the respondents with a high school diploma are $(43.1\%)$ of the respondents. $60\%$ of all respondents are housewives. and $90.5\%$ are married. The average number of children is 2.71. and the average number of family is 4.24 Monthly income of $39.1\%$ of the respondents is from l,010,000 Won to 2,000,000 Won. The premenopausal group is $4.9\%$. and $45.5\%$ of all respondents are satisfied with marrital life. $43.3\%$ of all feel happy. and $13.9\%$ feel economic frustration. $27.9\%$ of respondents are satisfied with sexual life. and $45\%$ of all report that the amount of recreational activities are more needed. 2. The average score of climacteric symptoms is 1. 8461 (The maximum score is 5.0). The symptoms complained frequently are nervousness. muscle-ache. fatigue. headache and knee-ache. Climacteric symptoms are significantly different in menopausal states. age groups. the number of children, marrital satisfaction. the feeling of life. self-reported health states and sexual satisfaction. 3. The life events occurred frequently were 'discord with husband', 'children's important exams', 'separation from husband related to works' and 'vacation'. When life events are analyzed by factors. the most frequently mentioned factor is 'marrital life'. The stress of life events is significantly different in a few general characteristics (age. the number of children, the number of family, monthly income, menopausal status, the feeling of life. self-reported health states, economic satisfaction). 4. The score of climacteric symptoms complained is significantly different according to the stress of life events (p<0.051, Especially, the difference is the widest in psychological symptoms according to the factor of 'couple. marrital life' among stressful life events. In Summary, climacteric symptoms complained by middle-aged women are related to the amount of the stress of life events. Whether life events are positive of negative is not important. Yet. climacteric symptoms and stressful life events are deeply related to general characteristics. so we can not insist strongly that one be directly related to the other.

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Effect of Knee Joint Stimulation on the Activity of Phrenic Nerve and Inspiratory Nuron in the Cat (슬관절 자극이 횡격신경 및 흡식중추신경에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Dong-Ill;Han, Hee-Chul;Nahm, Sook-Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.683-693
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    • 1993
  • Background: During movement the major inputs to nervous system come from firstly the muscle and joint to maintain posture and motion and secondly the chemoreceptors and baroreceptors to adjust the cardiovascular and respiratory function. Their complex relationships are generally studied for many years but the direct relation between the joint and respiratory system is not studied thoroughly until now. So this experiment was performed to determine whether the natural movement of knee joint can cause the enhancement of respiratory function by observation of the changes of respiratory rate, phrenic nerve activity and inspiratory neuron activity during the stimulation of knee joint in cat anesthetized with $\alpha$-chloralose. Method: Twenty six male adult cats were used and the extracelluar recording using bipolar platinum electrode and carbon filament electrode was done to record the changes in the activities of phrenic nerve and inspiratory neuron movement of knee joint, injection of chemicals into the joint cavity and electrical stimulation of articular nerve were done. Results: The 60 Hz. could not but 120 Hz. flexion-extension movement of knee joint increased respiratory rate(R.R.), tidal neural activity(TNA) and minute neural activity(MNA). Intra-articular injection of lactate could not increase R.R. but significantly increase TNA and MNA which represented the enhanced respiratory function. Injection of potassium chloride showed similar effects with the case of lactate but the duration of effect was shorter. The electrical stimulation of medial articular nerve with IV strength which could activate only group I and II afferents showed increased TNA and MNA during stimulation but 20 V stimulation which could activate all the afferents increased all the respiratory parameters. The changes of inspiratory neuron activity by knee joint stimulation was similar to that of phrenic nerve. Conclusion: The respiratory center could be directly stimulated by the activation of group I and II articular afferents and it seemed that the magnitude of the respiratory center enhancement is proportional to the amount of sensory information from the knee joint. These facts might suggest that the respiratory function could be enhanced even by the normal movement of knee joint.

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A Statistical Study on the Key Words in the Titles of Nursing Related Theses (학위논문의 주요어 분석 (간호학 및 간호학관련 학위논문을 중심으로 : 1960-1991. 8))

  • 고옥자;김상혜;김희걸;이금재;이영숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 1994
  • In order to see the development of Nursing related research activities in Korea over the last three decades, abstracts of almost all of the Master and Ph.D theses that appeared from 1961 up to August 1991 were collected. The number of theses was 2354, from which an index of key words has been constructed. Key words were defined as those terms in each thesis title that convey major objectives of the given thesis study and the important nursing concepts dealt with in the thesis. Although all the key words were picked from the thesis title only, full use was made of the abstracts in deciding the principal objectives and essential contents of the thesis studies and their important concepts as well. In total, 539 kinds of key words were identified from the 2354 titles, and the identified words were all found to be in the International Nursing Index. On an average each title has two key words. Which key words were most frequently used, how they have changed with time, what kind of concept is preferably dealt with by each graduate school, and the concepts to which a given key word is likely to be connected were examined. The results are summerized below : 1) For each decade the theses numbers were as follows : 54(2.3%) from the 60’s, 413(17.5%) from the 70’s, 1523(64.7%) from the 80’s, and 364(15.5%) from the 90’s. Master’s thesis contributed 96% (2252) of the papers and Ph. D’s theses filled the remaining 4%(102). 2) A total of 539 key words were used, averaging about 2 for each thesis. The most frequently used key words were ‘Nurse’, ‘Anxiety’, ‘Knowledge / Attitude /Practice’, ‘Stress /Stressor’, ‘Attitude’, ‘Job-Satisfaction’, ‘Mental Disorder’, ‘Operation’, ‘Elderly’, ‘Nursing Role’. 3) Each decades key words can be classified as : the 60’s : ‘Nursing Education’, ‘Pulmonary Tuberculosis’, ‘Mother-Child Health’, ‘Growth & Development’, ‘Public Facilities’, ‘Mental Disorder’ : the 70’s : ‘Nurse’, ‘Family Planning’, ‘Attitude’ / ‘Knowledge, Attitude / Practice’, ‘Curriculum in Nursing Education’, ‘Clinical Practice in Nursing’, ‘Analysis of the Work of the Nurse’, ‘Health Education of School’, : the 80’s : ‘Nurse’, ‘Anxiety’, ‘Stress /Stressor’, ‘Operation’, ‘Nursing Role’, ‘Job Satisfaction’ : the 90’s : ‘Nurse’, ‘Elderly’, ‘Family-Support’, ‘Stress /Stressor’, ‘Home Care’. Key word ‘Nurse’ appears continuously and most frequently through the years, which indicates that there has been active study of the characteristics of nurses and related fields. The concept ‘Anxiety’ has been studied steadly from the 80’s and it shows that interest in health and disease are increasing Which comes as a result of society changing to an industrial and informational community. 4) Looking into each graduate school’s study area key words ‘Anxiety’, ‘Nurse’, ‘Mental Disorder’, ‘Stress /Stressor’, ‘Operation’, ‘Attitude’, ‘Hemo-dialysis’, were studied in the regular graduate school : ‘Family Planning /Contraception’, ‘Knowledge / Attitude /Practice’, ‘Physical Health-State /Physical Health Examination’, ‘Nurse’, ‘Using Clinical Facilities’, ‘Health Education of School’, were studied in the Graduate School of Public Health’ ; ‘Nurse’, ‘Anxiety’, ‘Stress / Stressor’, ‘Job-Satisfaction’, ‘Clinical Practice Education’, ‘Nursing Education’, were studied in the Graduate School of Education : ‘Nurse’, ‘Job Satisfaction’, ‘Nursing Role’, ‘Administration - Employment /Employment Management’, ‘Leadership’, ‘Personnel Profile’, ‘Nursing Manpower / Changing Working Place’, were studied in the Graduate School of Public Administration. 5) The Connection between key words were : ‘Nurse Job Satisfaction’, ‘Stress / Stressor ⇔ Coping / Ajustment’, ‘Nurse ⇔ Nursing Role’, ‘Anxiety ⇔ Giving Information’, ‘Nurse ⇔ Stress / Stressor’, ‘Anxiety ⇔ Operation’, ‘Nurse ⇔ Burnout’, ‘Knowledge, Attitude, Practice ⇔ Family Planning’, ‘Nurse Administration ⇔ Employment’, ‘Anxiety Muscle ⇔ Relaxation Technic’, ‘Anxiety ⇔ Mental Disorder’. From the above it can be noted that many nursing concepts were handled in the thesis titles. But there were more than enough papers on the characteristics of the nurse. It is suggested that in depth research be made on ‘Nursing Accidents’, t-‘Ethics’, ‘Nurse - Patient Interactions’, ‘Spritual Care’, ‘Dying’, ‘Hospice’, ‘Resident Helper’ and that there should be in depth research relating to the physical and mental development of youth and in particular physical concepts like ‘Drug - Abuse’, ‘Child -Abuse and Teaching’.

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