• Title/Summary/Keyword: MUSCLE ACTIVITIES

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Transoral Cross-Lip (Abbé-Estlander) Flap as a Viable and Effective Reconstructive Option in Middle Lower Lip Defect Reconstruction

  • Hahn, Hyung Jin;Kim, Hyun Jee;Choi, Jin Young;Lee, Soo Young;Lee, Young Bok;Kim, Jin Wou;Yu, Dong Soo
    • Annals of dermatology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.210-214
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    • 2017
  • The $Abb{\acute{e}}$-Estlander flap surgery is a cross-lip procedure that is valuable in repairing a defect on the lower lip using a full-thickness flap, consisting of the skin, muscle and mucosa, from the upper lip. As usefulness and practicality of the flap in reconstruction of lower lip surgical defects in Asian ethnicity have not been documented, the authors present a case of successful lower lip reconstruction with a staged, $Abb{\acute{e}}$-Estlander lip switching flap with commissuroplasty as an illustrative example. A 71-year-old male has presented with an ulcerating lip nodule in the middle one third of the lower lip, measuring about $1.5{\times}2cm$ across its long and short axes. Wide excision of the tumor was followed by delineation of the triangular $Abb{\acute{e}}$-Estlander flap from the upper lip, in which the medial hinge point of the base was chosen as the pedicle. Then, the flap elevation was carried out from the lateral commissure and then was transferred into the lower lip defect. Three weeks later, commissuroplasty was performed to correct the rounding at the new commissure. The patient is currently performing his daily activities with no apparent compromise in orbicularis oris strength or oral continence. Given the size of the primary defect and the flap-to-defect ratio of size, the degree of microstomia was acceptable. Even with other myriad of reconstructive options at surgeons' disposal, the $Abb{\acute{e}}$-Estlander lip-switching flap is a reliable, and less morbid method of lower lip reconstruction for Asian surgical candidates. The authors illustrate an exemplary case in which a relatively large lower lip defect was successfully repaired using an upper lip flap of a significantly smaller size in an Asian subject of advanced age, without any remarkable long term sequelae which have traditionally been associated with the trans-oral lip switching flap technique.

Growth Performance and Antibody Response of Broiler Chicks Fed Yeast Derived β-Glucan and Single-strain Probiotics

  • An, B.K.;Cho, B.L.;You, S.J.;Paik, H.D.;Chang, H.I.;Kim, S.W.;Yun, C.W.;Kang, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.1027-1032
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    • 2008
  • A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary yeast derived ${\beta}$-glucan and single-strain probiotics on the growth performance and antibody response in broiler chicks. Six hundred and thirty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were divided into seven groups, placed into three pens per group (30 birds per pen) and fed one of seven non-medicated corn-SBM based experimental diets containing 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1% Saccharomyces cerevisiae ${\beta}$-glucan and 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA-pro, $1.3{\times}10^9/g$) or devoid of them for 5 wk. The body weight gains in groups fed diets containing 0.025 or 0.1% ${\beta}$-glucan, 0.1% or 0.2% BA-pro were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control over 1-35 d. Feed conversion rates of groups fed ${\beta}$-glucan and BA-pro tended to be improved compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weights of liver, abdominal fat and breast muscle. No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum enzymes and concentrations of various cholesterol fractions. The antibody titers against Newcastle disease or infectious bronchitis virus in the chicks fed diets containing ${\beta}$-glucan and BA-pro were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control. The concentrations of cecal lactic acid bacteria in all groups fed BA-pro were significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to the control. These results indicated that dietary yeast derived ${\beta}$-glucan and BA-pro exerted growth-promoting and immune-enhancing effects in broiler chickens. In addition, BA-pro added to the diets modulated the profiles of cecal microflora, reflecting a potential to be beneficial microorganisms in chickens.

Effect of bitter melon (Momordica Charantia) on anti-diabetic activity in C57BLI/6J db/db mice (C57BL/6J db/db생쥐에서 여주 (Momordica Charantia)의 항당뇨 효과)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Hue, Jin-Joo;Lee, Ki-Nam;Nam, Sang Yoon;Yun, Young Won;Jeong, Seong-woon;Lee, Young Ho;Lee, Beom Jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.327-336
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    • 2008
  • Many herbal extracts have been reported to have a preventive or therapeutic effect of on diabetes mellitus. Momordica Charantia commonly known as bitter melon or karela has been reported to be a medicinal plant for treating various diseases including cancers and diabetes. The objectives of this study were to investigate anti-diabetic effects of bitter melon (BM) as determined by blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), insulin and HbA1C activities in serum, serum biochemical and lipid levels, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and AMPK-${\alpha}2$ expression of skeletal muscle in male C57BL/6J db/db mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, BM 10 mg/kg, BM 50 mg/kg, and BM 250 mg/kg. BM at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg was orally administered to the diabetic mice everyday for 8 weeks. The treatments of BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose level in the diabetic mice compared with vehicle control (p < 0.05). The treatments of BM 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the GTT, ITT and HbA1c levels in the diabetic mice compared with vehicle control (p < 0.05). All BM groups significantly decreased GOT, GPT, BUN, LDL and glucose levels in the diabetic mice compared with the vehicle control mice (p < 0.05). The livers of mice treated with the BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg showed a remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets compared with the vehicle control. The pancreas of mice treated with the BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg showed a remarkable increase in insulin concentration of ${\beta}$-cells compared with the vehicle control. In addition, the treatments of BM 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg actually increased the expression of AMPK-${\alpha}2$ compared with vehicle control. These results suggest that BM has a respectable anti-diabetic effect resulting from inhibition of blood glucose level and lipid level in serum and that consumption of BM may give a benefit for controlling diabetes mellitus in humans.

Studies on Albinic Flat-Fish Paralichthys olivaceus I. Effects of Enzyme Activities and Substrates on Melanin Formation (넙치의 백화현상 규명에 관한 연구 I. 멜라닌 색소 생성에 미치는 효소와 기질의 영향)

  • Choi Yeung Joan;Kang Seok-Joong;Cho Chang-Hwan;Myoung Jung-Goo;Kim Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 1990
  • The albinic phenomenon of flat-fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated by measuring protein content, tyrosinase activity, amino acid composition, and contents of vitamin A and C. These materials in the flat-fish feed-stuff were also tested. The amount of skin protein was higher than that of muscle in normal flat-fish. Catechol and L-dopa oxidase activity did not differ between normal and albinic flat-fish. The free amino acid of skin in normal flat-fish was 7.5 times that in albinic one. Sulfur-containing amino acid in normal flat-fish was also 6.3 times that in albinic ones. Vitamin A was not detected in both of flat-fish. The content of vitamin C in normal flat-fish was 7.8 times that in albinic one. The contents of protein, sulfur-containing amino acid and vitamin C in micro-encapsulated feed (one commercial feed in Japan) were the highest among the feed-stuff used in this experiment. The melanin formation of flat-fish skin was affected by substrates such as aromatic amino acid and cofactor such as sulfur amino acid.

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Electrophysiologic Mechanism of Tail Flick Reflex in Rats (흰쥐 Tail Flick Reflex의 신경생리학적 기전)

  • Seoh, Sang-Ah;Kim, Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.139-149
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    • 1989
  • Although tail flick reflex (TFR) in rats has been used as a classic model of the nociceptive test to evaluate the action of analgesics, there have been few studies on the origin of the latent period of TFR. Present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of increase in latency of TFR by morphine in anesthetized rats. Tail skin and dorsolateral tail nerve were stimulated electrically and EMG activities were recorded from abductor caudae dorsalis muscle participating in tail flick reflex. In the case of noxious radiant heat stimulation to tail, the tail flick tension was recorded before and after administration of morphine. Then changes in latency and conduction velocity of peripheral nerve were evaluated. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The latencies of TFR evoked by the electrical stimulation of tail skin and dorsolateral tail nerve were all within 40 ms and were elongated by several milliseconds from control after the administration of morphine. Peripheral conduction velocities of tail flick afferent nerve were within the range of 10-25 m/s. 2) The conduction velocity of peripheral nerve was significantly reduced after morphine administration, therefore the afferent time (utilization time+conduction time to spinal cord) was significantly increased. But the time for central delay and efferent time was not affected by morphine. 3) The conduction velocity under room temperature $(20-25^{\circ}C)$ was significantly reduced after morphine while that under vasodilation state $(40{\sim}42^{\circ}C)$ increased, 30 min and 45 min after morphine. The conduction velocity under vasodilation state without treatment of morphine increased continuously 4) The latency in tension response of TFR evoked by electrical stimulation was elongated by several milliseconds from control while the latency evoked by noxious radiant heat was elongated by several seconds compared with that of control. From the above results, it could be concluded that: 1) the increased latency of TFR evoked by electrical stimulation of the tail after morphine administration was due to the reducton in conduction velocity of peripheral nerve, which was the secondry effect of morphine on the peripheral vasomotion and 2) increased latency of TFR evoked by noxious radiant heat was also due to the same effect of morphine and the increase in cutaneous insulation to the noxious heat.

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Anti-Inflammmatiry Effects of Nerium indicum Ethanol Extracts through Suppression of NF-kappaB Activation (NF-κB 활성 저해를 통한 협죽도 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효능)

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan;Ko, Seog-Soon;Park, Cheol;Park, Sang-Eun;Hong, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Byung-Woo;Choi, Yung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1221-1229
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    • 2010
  • Nerium indicum, an India-Pakistan-originated shrub belonging to the oleander family, is reported to possess many pharmacological activities including cardiac muscle stimulation, and anti-diabetes, anti-angiogenesis, anti-cancer and neuro-protective activities. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of N. indicum were unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the N. indicum leaf and stem (ENIL and ENIS) on the expression of anti-inflammatory mediators in U937 human pre-monocytic cell models. In U937 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), pre-treatment with ENIS significantly inhibited the expression of both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein, which are associated with inhibition of the release of prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$, whereas the inhibitory effects appeared weakly in ENIL. Moreover, ENIS significantly attenuated PMA-induced IkappaB ($I{\kappa}B$) degradation and suppressed elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) nuclear translocation. Taken together, these findings provide important new insights that N. indicum exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes through the NF-kB signaling pathway.

Therapeutic Effect of Bee-Venom and Dexamethasone in Dogs with Facial Nerve Paralysis (개 안면신경마비에 대한 봉독과 덱사메타손의 치료효과)

  • Jun, Hyung-Kyou;Oh, Hyun-Uk;Han, Ji-Won;Lee, Hyun-Hwa;Jeong, Seong-Mok;Choi, Seok-Hwa;Kim, Cristopher Mun-Ho;Kim, Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.503-508
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    • 2007
  • Although canine facial nerve paralysis(FNP) occurs similarly in humans, there is no properly recognized therapy using Western medicine for idiopathic causes. To elucidate therapeutic measures by acupuncture(AP) on canine FNP, we examined the therapeutic effect of injection-AP on the artificially induced canine FNP. Twelve dogs on artificially induced canine FNP were divided into a control group(4 dogs), an experimental dexamethasone-treated group(dexamethasone group, 4 dogs) and an experimental bee venom-treated group(apitoxin group, 4 dogs). Saline (1 ml) was intramuscularly injected into the head muscle after the induction of FNP in the control group. On the other hand, injection-AP with dexamethasone was performed on such acupoints as LI04, LI20, ST02, ST07, TH17, SI18, GB03 and GB34, twice per week after induction of FNP in the dexamethasone group. In addition, injection-AP with $100{\mu}g$ of apitoxin was performed on the same acupoints as the dexamethasone group twice per week after the induction of FNP in the apitoxin group, respectively. The changes of the clinical symptoms of FNP with each treatment during the experimental period were recorded by using clinical scores, respectively. The changes of serum creatine kinase(CK) activities along with each treatment were determined using an autoanalyzer. The significant differences of clinical scores were detected on day 14(p<0.05) in the apitoxin and dexamethasone groups, compared with those in the control group, respectively. However, significant difference was not detected between the apitoxin and dexamethasone groups. Significant differences of serum CK activities were detected on day 7(p<0.05) and day 14(p<0.05) in the dexamethasone and apitoxin groups, compared with those in the control group, respectively. However, significant difference was not detected between the dexamethasone and apitoxin groups. In condition, injection-APs with apitoxin and dexamethasone were all effective for treatment of canine FNP and the therapeutic effect by injection-AP with apitoxin was similar to that of injection-AP with dexamethasone.

Antibacterial Activity of Sodium Phytate and Sodium Phosphates Against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Meats (식육에서 피틴산염과 인산염의 Escherichia coli O157:H7균에 대한 항균효과)

  • Hue, Jin-Joo;Li, Lan;Lee, Yea-Eun;Lee, Ki-Nam;Nam, Sang-Yoon;Yun, Young-Won;Jeong, Jae-Hwang;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Yoo, Han-Sang;Lee, Beom-Jun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2007
  • The approval of use of certain food-grade phosphates as food additives in a wide variety of meat products greatly stimulated research on the applications of phosphates in foods. Although phosphates have never been classified as antimicrobial agents, a number of investigators have reported that phosphates have antimicrobial activities. Phytic acid is a natural plant inositol hexaphosphate constituting 1-5% of most cereals, nuts, legumes, oil seeds, pollen, and spores. In this study, we investigated antibacterial activities of sodium phytate(SPT), sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 on tryptic soy broth and in beef, pork and chicken. In tryptic soy broth, SPT, SPP and STPP at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5% effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a concentration-dependent manner. The bactericidal activity of SPT was the stronger than that of SPP or STPP at the same concentrations. In addition, the antibacterial effects of SPT, SPP and STPP at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% on Escherichia coli O157:H7 were also investigated in raw or cooked meats including beef, pork and chicken. SPT, SPP and STPP significantly inhibited the bacterial growth in a dose-dependant manner (p<0.05). The bactericidal effect of SPT was stronger than that of SPP or STPP. The addition of SPT, SPP and STPP in meats increased meat pHs. SPP and STPP also increased the levels of soluble orthophosphate in meats but STP did not. These results indicate that SPT is very effective for inhibition of bacterial growth and that can be used as a muscle food additive for increasing functions of meats.

Effects of Dietary Locally Grown Herbs (Mentha piperascens, Rubus coreanus, Tagetes patula) on the Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicken (국내 자생 약용식물자원(박하, 복분자 및 매리골드)의 첨가 급여가 육계의 생산성과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong-Ran;Lee, Bo-Keun;Kim, Jae-Young;Kim, Ji-Suk;Lee, Wan-Seob;Lee, So-Yeon;Kim, Eun-Jib;Ahn, Byoung-Ki;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.168-177
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effects of locally grown herbs (Mentha piperascens, PM; Rubus coreanus, RC; Tagetes patula, MG) on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chicken. A total of 600 1-d-old Ross male broiler chicks were divided into eight groups and were fed control diets (antibiotics-medicated or non-medicated commercial diets) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3 or 0.5% PM, 0.3 or 0.5% RC, or 0.3 or 0.5% MG) for 5wk. The body weight gains and feed conversion rates (FCRs) in all the groups that were fed diets containing PM, RC, or MG were significantly improved compared to those in the non-medicated control group (p<0.05). The relative weights of various organs, the serum cholesterol levels, and the GOT/GPT activities in all the groups were also not significantly different. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities in the groups that were fed diets containing 0.3% PM or 0.3% MG were significantly increased compared to those in the non-medicated control group (p<0.05). The number of cecal lactic-acid bacteria in the groups that were fed diets containing 0.3% PM or 0.5% RC tended to increase. The malondialdehyde contents in the leg muscles were significantly lowered by feeding with PM or MG (p<0.05). The physicochemical properties of the edible meat, including the shear force, water-holding capacity, heat loss, pH, and muscle color degrees $(CIEL^*.\;a^*.\;b^*)$, were not affected by the dietary treatments. It has been suggested that spontaneous Korean plants promote the growth of broilers and may delay lipid oxidation in edible muscles without any negative effect when added in broiler diets.

Effect of buchu (Allium tuberosum) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (부추가 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐의 지질과산화와 항산화방어체계에 미치는 영향)

  • 송영선;정현실;노경희;조혜연;박지영;최춘연;권태완
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 2003
  • The pathogenic effort of high glucose, possibly in concert with fatty acids, is mediated to vascular complications of diabetes via increased production of reactive oxygen species(ROS), reactive nitrogen species(RNS), and subsequent oxidative stress. This study was carried out to investigate the suppressive effect of buchu(Allium tuberosum) on oxidative stress in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley male rats. The effect of buchu supplementation (10%) on lipid peroxidation, and antioxidative defense system in blood and liver was compared among normal rats fed basal diet(normal) and diabetic rats fed basal diet(DM-control) or 10% buchu-supplemented diet(DM-buchu). Diabetes was experimentally induced by the femoral muscle injection of 50 mg STZ per kg of body weight. Animals were sacrificed after 4 wks of experimental diets feeding. The induction of diabetes by STZ elevated the level of lipid peroxidation represented by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances(TBARS) and conjugated dienes in plasma, LDL, liver, and erythrocytes. 10% buchu-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of conjugated dienes in erythrocytes(p<0.05) and lowered TBARS in liver and LDL to the levels of control. Induction of diabetes by STZ elevated Mn-superoxide dismutase(Mn-SOD) activity and lowered activities of glutathionine reductase(GSH-red) and glutathionine peroxidase(GSH-px). Catalase activity was not affected by the induction of diabetes by STZ. However, buchu supplementation to diabetic rats significantly elevated catalase activity(p<0.05) and slightly elevated GSH-px and GSH-red activities in liver. GSH levels of blood and liver were lowered or not changed by induction of diabetes by STZ, respectively, while buchu supplementation to diabetic rats significantly elevated hepatic GSH level (p<0.05). In conclusion, it can be concluded that buchu might be a food source to attenuate oxidative stress in diabetic patients by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, by increasing hepatic GSH level, and by inducing anti-oxidative enzyme systems.