• Title, Summary, Keyword: MUSCLE ACTIVITIES

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Effect of Head Posture and Breathing Pattern on Muscle Activities of Sternocleidomastoid and Scalene during Inspiratory Respiration (흡기 호흡 시 머리자세와 호흡패턴이 목빗근과 목갈비근의 근활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh, Eun-Kyung;Jung, Do-Young
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of head posture and respiratory pattern on muscle activities of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene during maximal respiration. The seventeen subjects with upper-costal breathing pattern were participated in this study. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscles activities of SCM and scalene. The volume and velocity of inspiration were monitored by using the spirometer in each subject. Each subject was performed the 3-cycle of respiration in each condition. The mean values of three peak muscle activity in each muscle were used in the data analysis. A2 (head posture: forward head posture: FHP vs. neutral posture) X 2 (breathing pattern: costal vs. diaphragmatic) repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the normalized muscle activities of the SCM and scalene. The results showed that the muscle activities of SCM and scalene in diaphragmatic breathing were significantly lower than those in costal breathing for each head posture (p<.0125). The muscle activities of SCM in neutral position were lower than those in forward head position during costal breathing (p<.0125). The diaphragmatic breathing in neutral position of head is recommended to decrease the tension of the accessory inspiratory muscles during respiration in neck-pain patients with FHP.

Effects of Fatigue in the Non-paretic Plantarflexor on the Activities of the Lower Leg Muscles during Walking in Chronic Stroke Patients (만성 뇌졸중 환자의 비마비측 발바닥굽힘근 근피로가 보행 시 양측 하지 근육의 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Woong;Koo, Hyun-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2019
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to obtain detailed and quantified data concerning the effects of plantarflexor fatigue induced to the non-paretic side on muscle activities of the bilateral lower extremities during walking in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: In this study, chronic stroke patients were evaluated for six months after the onset of stroke. To induce the non-paretic plantarflexor fatigue, 20 chronic stroke patients were asked to perform their given fatigue affecting assignments, which were presented in a forced contraction fatigue test method, until the range of motion of the plantarflexor was reduced to less than 50%. The muscle activities of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius in the paretic and non-paretic lower extremities were measured using a wireless surface EMG before and after muscle fatigue induction. RESULTS: The findings showed that after plantarflexor fatigue was induced on the non-paretic side, a significant decrease in muscle activities of the rectus femoris on the paretic side was noted (p<.05). The muscle activities of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were also observed to decrease, but, these results were not statistically significant (p>.05). In the non-paretic side, there was a significantly decrease in the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius (p<.05). CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that the muscle fatigue of the non-paretic plantarflexor affects not only the muscle activity of the ipsilateral lower extremity but also the muscles activity of the contralateral lower extremity. This highlights the necessity of performing exercise or training programs that do not cause muscle fatigue in clinical aspects.

The Comparison of the Onset Time of Hamstring, Gluteus Maximus, and Lumbar Erector Spinae Muscle Activity During Hip Extension Between Subjects With Low Back Pain and Healthy Subjects (고관절 신전시 요통환자와 정상인의 슬괵극, 대둔근, 요추기립근의 근 수축 개시시간 비교)

  • Kwon, Oh-Yun;Koh, Eun-Kyung
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the onset times of muscle activities and the order of muscle firing in hamstring gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae muscle during active hip extension between subjects with low back pain (LBP) and healthy subjects. Thirty subjects, 15 with LBP and 15 healthy subjects, participated in this study. Electromyographic activity was recorded during active hip extension in prone and standing position. Relative onset times of these muscle activities were determined. Similar muscle firing order in hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae muscle showed in both groups and positions. However, the onset time of gluteus maximus was significantly later in prone and standing active hip extension in subjects with LBP than in healthy subjects. The onset time of lumber erector spinae muscle activity was significantly delayed in subjects with LBP in standing active hip extension, The delayed onset times of gluteus maximus and lumbar erector spinae muscles' activities were probably related to LBP. Further studies are needed to identify whether the delayed onset times of gluteus maximus and lumbar erector spinae muscle activities are the contributing factors to LBP.

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The Effects of Robo-horseback Riding with Changes of Pelvic Tilting and Speeds on Muscle Activities of Trunk and Lower Limb (승마기구에서 골반자세와 속도가 몸통 및 다리 근 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun;Chang, Soo-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of robo-horseback riding with changes of pelvic tilting and speeds on muscle activities of trunk and lower limb in healthy adults. Methods: Thirty healthy adults were recruited for this study. Subjects performed robo-horseback riding at three pelvic postures (anterior tilting pelvic posture: AP, neutral pelvic posture: NP, posterior pelvic posture: PP) and different speeds (moderate and fast speed). Muscle activities were recorded from the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis [RA], T2 paraspinalis [T2 PS], L2 paraspinalis [L2 PS]) and lower limb muscles (rectus femoris [RF], vastus medialis [VM], vastus lateralis [VL], biceps femoris [BF], gastrucnemius [GCM]). Results: Significantly higher RA activities were observed under the PP condition than under the AP and NP conditions at both speeds. Significantly higher L2 PS activities were observed under the AP condition than under the PP and NP conditions at both speeds. Significantly higher T2 PS activities were observed under the AP condition than under the PP and NP conditions at fast speed. However, the muscle activities of the VM and GCM did not show significant changes with changes in pelvic posture at both speeds. All muscle activities were significantly higher under the fast speed than under the moderate speed in three pelvic postures. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the changes of pelvic tilting on muscle activities of trunk and lower limb were observed in healthy adults. NP condition can be introduced the most efficienct posture for muscle activities of trunk and lower limb in robo-horseback riding.

The Change of Muscle Strength, Muscle Endurance, Flexibility and Activities of Daily Living of the Kidney Transplant Recipients (신장이식 환자의 근력, 근지구력, 유연성 및 일상생활활동의 변화)

  • Ahn, Jae Hyun;Ha, Hee Sun;Hong, Jeong Ja
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the change of muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and activities of daily living to develop a rehabilitational program. The subjects were selected randomly among the patients who underwent kidney transplantations at one major transplantation hospital in Seoul, Korea. This study was carried out between November 23, 1999 and February 15, 2000. The subjects in this study consisted of 16 patients who had kidney transplantations between 1 month and 12 months ago prior to this study. They were all on steroids and did not take any physical exercise regularly. The muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and activities of daily living were evaluated at 1st week and after 12 weeks. The data were analyzed with numbers, percentiles, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The results were as follows: 1. After 12 weeks, the grip strength was significantly decreased than 1st week (p=.0002). 2. After 12 weeks, the back lift strength was significantly decreased than 1st week (p=.0002). 3. After 12 weeks, the muscle endurance was increased than 1st week, but it was not significant(p=.5487). 4. After 12 weeks, the flexibility was significantly decreased than 1st week (p=.0002). 5. After 12 weeks, the activities of daily living was significantly decreased than 1st week (p=.0006). Like the above result, the kidney transplant receipients' muscle strength, flexibility and activities of daily living were reduced. In order to solve this problem, the writer has found that program development to prevent the defects should be extremely required. Since now on the number of patients should expand. After the kidney transplantation, the periods of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks are extended. The writer proposes to examine the different phase of change in each periods.

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Muscle Activities of the Lower Extremity based on Ankle Plantar-flexion in Elderly Women (여성 노인의 발목 각도에 따른 하지근육의 근활성도 변화)

  • Cho, Yong-Ho;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To better understand falls in elderly women, we measured differences in muscle activities of 4 lower extremity muscles (tibialis anterior, soleus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris) based on angle plantar-flexion in elderly women. Methods: Subjects were 15 healthy elderly women. No subjects had musculoskeletal or nervous disorders. EMGs were used to check muscle activity of lower extremity muscles. For statistic analysis, data were expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). We measured %MVIC for 5 sec under 4 conditions and did not use data for the first and last second. Muscle activities of the muscles of the lower extremities were measured based on the degree of plantar-flexion of the ankle joint. The 4 conditions corresponded to different degrees of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 degrees. This was done using a 50 cm board for measuring the degrees. Results: The tibialis anterior, soleus, and bicpes femoris showed increasing muscle activity associated with increasing degree of plantar-flexion of the ankle joint. All muscles showed a significant increase in muscle activities in association with increasing degrees. Rectus femoris showed a significant increase in muscle activity for 0 degrees and for the other degrees, but there were no further changes when plantar flexion of the ankle joint was over 10 degrees. Conclusion: Activities of the muscles of the lower extremities except rectus femoris were higher with increasing degree of plantar flexion. High muscle activity may result in muscle fatigue. Thus, increasing degree of plantar flexion may be risk factors of falls in elderly women.

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A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN DELAIRE'S IDEAL OCCLUSAL PLANE AND MASTICATORY MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN KOREAN NORMAL ANGLE CLASS I OCCLUSION INDIVIDUALS (한국성인 정상교합자에서 Delaire의 이상적 교합평면과 저작근 근활성도와의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • Byun, Seong-Kyu;Yi, Choong-Kook
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 2000
  • According to the functional matrix theory, Delaire proposes that individual occlusal plane was determined by variable effects of teeth, maxilla, mandible, cranium, cranial base and soft tissue matrix including the orofacial musculature. and that there is the ideal occlusal plane determined by the most proper spatial position of maxilla and mandible, functionally and esthetically. This study was designed to find out the relation between Delaire's ideal occlusal plane and muscle activity of masticatory muscles in individuals who have normal maxillo-mandibular relationships. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken and his/her individual occlusal plane and ideal occlusal plane were analyzed with Delaire's architectural and structural craniofacial analytic method. For evaluation of muscle activities of masticatory muscles, electromyography of anterior temporal muscle, superficial masseter muscle, and anterior belly of digastric muscle was recorded in fifty Korean normal Angle class I occlusion individuals. According to the average value of ideal occlusal plane, fifty normal Angle class I occlusion individuals were classified into three groups: Ideal occlusal plane group(I group), hyperrotation group(I+ group) and hyporotation group(I- group). The result of this study was as follows: 1. The results of Delaire's architectural and structural craniofacial analysis of lateral cephalography of the fifty Korean normal Angle class I occlusion individuals are that twelve persons(24%) have consistent or parallel with ideal occlusal plane and the average of angular difference was $1.22^{\circ}{\pm}3.69^{\circ}$. 2. There is no significant difference in muscle activities of masticatory muscles during resting(p<0.05), but significant increases of muscle activity of ipsilateral anterior temporal and masseter muscle, contralateral anterior belly of digastric muscle during unilateral chewing and of anterior temporal and masseter muscle during bilateral clenching(p<0.05). 3. To find out the effect of the angular difference between Delaire's ideal occlusal plane and real occlusal plane to muscle activity, muscle activities of masticatory muscles were compared with three groups in each other; I group, I+ group and I- group. The results were no significant differences during resting, unilateral chewing and bilateral clenching.(p>0.05) 4. Although there is no significant differences of masticatory muscle activities among the three groups, the fact that increasing tendency of masseter muscle activity of ideal occlusal plane group(I+) than those of any other groups(I+ and I-) during bilateral clenching was noted. There is only the implication that occlusal plane makes some effects on masticatory muscle activities, espacially that of masseter muscle during bilateral clenching. In conclusion, the hypothesis that occlusal plane is one of the factors which affect the muscle activities of masticatory muscles and that anyone whose occlusal plane consistent with Delaire's ideal occlusal plane has an extraordinary functional advantage in masticatory muscle function cannot be proven with electromyography methods.

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Comparison of the Muscle Activities of Upper Trapezius and Middle Deltoid between Subjects with and without Elevation of Shoulder Girdle during Arm Elevation

  • Weon, Jong-Hyuck;Jung, Do-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.388-392
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Muscle imbalance between upper trapezius (UT) and serratus anterior (SA) during arm elevation is a factor causing shoulder dysfunction. However, there is no study to compare the muscle activities of the UT and middle deltoid (MD). The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activities of the UT and MD between with and without elevation of shoulder girdle (ESG) during shoulder abduction. Methods: The subjects without (control group=9) or with (ESG group=8) participated in this study. The muscle activities of the UT and MD were measured using a electromyography during $90^{\circ}$ shoulder abducted position in both group. The data in middle of 3-second of the 5-second periods were used. The mean value of three trials was used in the data analysis. For each muscle, independent t-tests were performed to compare for group differences. Results: The muscle activity of UT was significantly greater in ESG group, compared to that of the control group (p<0.05). The muscle activity of MD was significantly smaller in ESG group, compared to that of the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings showed that low muscle activation of MD as well as SA may contribute to hyperactivity of UT during arm elevation.

Comparisons of Vastus Medialis and Vastus Lateralis Muscle Activities according to Different Heights during Drop Landing in Flatfooted Adults

  • Chang, Jong Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate comparisons of vastus medialis (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle activities according to different heights during drop landing in flatfooted adults. Methods: Fifteen subjects with a flat foot arch and 15 subjects with a normal feet arch were participated. Subjects performed a double limb drop landing task from 20, 40, and 60 cm heights. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the VMO and VL during drop landing. Results: There were significant differences of muscle activities in the VMO, VL, and the VMO and VL ratio between groups. The electromyography values of VMO, VL, and the VMO and VL ratio in the normal group were significantly greater than in the flat foot group, and muscle activities and the VMO and VL ratio significantly increased with landing heights in the both groups. Conclusion: Our results indicated that muscle activity patterns of VOM and VL in the flat foot group were lower at heights than in the normal group, so calf tightness was negative effects on balance and gait ability, so assessment of muscle activation patterns in the knee extensors should be considered during exercise and treatment of flat feet.

The Immediate Effects of Kinesio Taping on the Maximal Power and Muscle Activity of Erector Spinae in Normal Subjects

  • Lee, Moon-Hwan;Kim, Seong-Yeol
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kinesio taping(KT) on the maximal power and muscle activity of erector spinae. 30 male subjects were allocated in this study and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. All subjects were measured for maximal power of trunk extensors and muscle activities of iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus, and multifidus between pre and post experiment. Maximal power was calculated using a dynamometer(Power Track II, JTECH medical, USA), and muscle activities were calculated using a surface EMG(MP150 BIOPAC System Inc. CA. USA). Maximal power of trunk extensor showed no significant difference between pre and post intervention in both groups(p>0.05). Muscle activity of iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus, and multifidus showed no significant difference between pre and post intervention(p>0.05). Finally, there was no significant difference between Experimental and control group in maximal power and muscle activity of trunk extensor. These study results suggested that KT did not affect increase or decrease in maximal power and muscle activities of trunk extensor.