• Title/Summary/Keyword: Magnetic stimulation

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The development of a high efficient transcranial magnetic stimulation adopted real time-charging-discharging circuit

  • Kim, Whi-Young;Park, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we have been proposed the new type of a transcranial magnetic stimulation adopted a variable voltage capacitor with Cockcroft-Walton circuit and constant-frequency current resonant half-bridge inverter. This a transcranial magnetic stimulation has some merits compared with the conventional one. First, it doesn't require the high voltage transformer. And second, it has less switching losses, compact size and capability in adjusting the transcranial magnetic stimulation output energy precisely. In this paper, we have performed the output characteristics of a transcranial magnetic stimulation system which is well known as magnetic stimulation. The tested results are described as a function of pulse repetition rate and switching numbers of the half-bridge inverter.

Changes in Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase Immune Response Cells of Cerebral Ischaemia Induced Rat by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Alternating Current Approach

  • Koo, Hyun-Mo;Kim, Whi-Young
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2014
  • This study examined effect of a transcranial magnetic stimulation device with a commercial-frequency approach on the neuronal cell death caused ischemia. For a simple transcranial magnetic stimulation device, the experiment was conducted on an ischemia induced rat by transcranial magnetic stimulation of a commercial-frequency approach, controlling the firing angle using a Triac power device. The transcranial magnetic stimulation device was controlled at a voltage of 220 V 60 Hz and the trigger of the Triac gate was varied from $45^{\circ}$ up to $135^{\circ}$. Cerebral ischemia was caused by ligating the common carotid artery of male SD rats and reperfusion was performed again to blood after 5 minutes. Protein Expression was examined by Western blotting and the immune response cells reacting to the antibodies of Poly ADP ribose polymerase in the cerebral nerve cells. As a result, for the immune response cells of Poly ADP ribose polymerase related to necrosis, the transcranial magnetic stimulation device suppressed necrosis and had a protective effect on nerve cells. The effect was greatest within 12 hours after ischemia. Therefore, it is believed that in the case of brain damage caused by ischemia, the function of brain cells can be restored and the impairment can be improved by the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Starting Current Application for Magnetic Stimulation

  • Choi, Sun-Seob;Bo, Gak-Hwang;Kim, Whi-Young
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2011
  • A power supply for magnetic-stimulation devices was designed via a control algorithm that involved a start current application based on a resonant converter. In this study, a new power supply for magnetic-stimulation devices was designed by controlling the pulse repetition frequency and pulse width. The power density could be controlled using the start-current-compensation and ZCS (zero-current switching) resonant converter. The results revealed a high-repetition-frequency, high-power magnetic-stimulation device. It was found that the stimulation coil current pulse width and that pulse repetition frequency could be controlled within the range of 200-450 ${\mu}S$ and 200-900 pps, respectively. The magnetic-stimulation device in this study consisted of a stimulation coil device and a power supply system. The maximum power of the stimulation coil from one discharge was 130 W, which was increased to 260 W using an additional reciprocating discharge. The output voltage was kept stable in a sinusoidal waveform regardless of the load fluctuations by forming voltage and current control using a deadbeat controller without increasing the current rating at the starting time. This paper describes this magnetic-stimulation device to which the start current was applied.

The Characteristics on the Change of Cerebral Cortex using Alternating Current Power Application for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

  • Kim, Whi-Young
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2014
  • A transcranial magnetic stimulation device is a complicated appliance that employs a switching power device designed for discharging and charging a capacitor to more than 1 kV. For a simple transcranial magnetic stimulation device, this study used commercial power and controlled the firing angle using a Triac power device. AC 220V 60 Hz, the power device was used directly on the tanscranial magnetic stimulation device. The power supply device does not require a current limiting resistance in the rectifying device, energy storage capacitor or discharge circuit. To control the output power of the tanscranial magnetic stimulation device, the pulse repetition rate was regulated at 60 Hz. The change trigger of the Triac gate could be varied from $45^{\circ}$ to $135^{\circ}$. The AVR 182 (Zero Cross Detector) Chip and AVR one chip microprocessor could control the gate signal of the Triac precisely. The stimulation frequency of 50 Hz could be implemented when the initial charging voltage Vi was 1,000 V. The amplitude, pulse duration, frequency stimulation, train duration and power consumption was 0.1-2.2T, $250{\sim}300{\mu}s$, 0.1-60 Hz, 1-100 Sec and < 1 kW, respectively. Based on the results of this study, TMS can be an effective method of treating dysfunction and improving function of brain cells in brain damage caused by ischemia.

TreatmentWD Pulse Application for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

  • Ha, Dong-Ho;Kim, Jun-Il;Lee, Sun-Min;Bo, Gak-Hwang;Kim, Whi-Young;Choi, Sun-Seob
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2012
  • The transcranial magnetic stimulation recharges the energy storing condenser, and sends the stored energy in the condenser to the pulse shaping circuit, which then delivers it to the stimulating coil. The previous types of transcranial magnetic stimulation required a booster transformer, secondary rectifier for high voltages and a condenser for smooth type. The energy storing condenser is recharged by switching the high-voltage direct current power. Loss occurs due to the resistance in the recharging circuit, and the single-pulse output energy in the transcranial magnetic stimulation can be changed because the recharging voltage cannot be adjusted. In this study a booster transformer, which decreases the volume and weight, was not used. Instead, a current resonance inverter was applied to cut down the switching loss. A transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can simultaneously alter the recharging voltage and pulse repeats, was used to examine the output characteristics.

3 Stage 2 Switch Application for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

  • Ha, Dong-Ho;Kim, Whi-Young;Choi, Sun-Seob
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2011
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation utilizes the method of controlling applied time and changing pulse by output pulse through power density control for diagnosis purposes. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can also be used in cases where diagnosis and treatment are difficult since output pulse shape can be changed. As intensity, pulse range, and pulse shape of the stimulation pulse must be changed according to lesion, the existing sine wave-shaped stimulation treatment pulse poses limitations in achieving various treatments and diagnosis. This study actualized a new method of transcranial magnetic stimulation that applies a 3 Stage 2 Switch( power semiconductor 2EA) for controlling pulse repetition rate by achieving numerous switching control of stimulation coil. Intensity, pulse range, and pulse shape of output can be freely changed to transform various treatment pulses in order to overcome limitations in stimulation treatment presented by the previous sine wave pulse shape. The method of freely changing pulse range by using 3 Stage 2 Switch discharge method is proposed. Pulse shape, composed of various pulse ranges, was created by grafting PFN (Pulsed Forming Network) through AVR AT80S8535 one-chip microprocessor technology, and application in transcranial magnetic stimulation was achieved to study the output characteristics of stimulation treatment pulse according to delaying time of the trigger signal applied in section switch.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters as neurophysiological biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease

  • Lee, Juyoun;Lee, Ae Young
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2021
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and noninvasive tool for investigating the cortical excitability of the human brain and the neurophysiological functions of GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neural circuits. Neurophysiological biomarkers based on TMS parameters can provide information on the pathophysiology of dementia, and be used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease and differentiate different types of dementia. This review introduces the basic principles of TMS, TMS devices and stimulating paradigms, several neurophysiological measurements, and the clinical implications of TMS for Alzheimer's disease.

Commercial frequency AC discharge magnetic stimulation operating characteristics (상용교류방전 자기자극장치의 동작특성)

  • Kim, Whi-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.2685-2692
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    • 2009
  • We propose pulsed magnetic stimulation below 30W by the AC(60Hz) switching control of leakage transformer primary which has some advantage of cost and size compared to a typical pulsed power supply. Pulse repetition rate is adjusted from 5Hz to 60Hz to control magnetic stimulation output. In this magnetic stimulation, a low voltage open loop control for high voltage discharge circuit is employed to avoid the HV sampling or switching and high voltage leakage transformer is used to convert rectified low voltage pulse to high voltage one. A ZCS(Zero Cross Switch)circuit and a DSP & FPGA are used to control gate signal of SCR precisely. The pulse repetition rate is limited by 60Hz due to the frequency of AC line and a high leakage inductance. The maximum magnetic stimulation output was obtained about 33W at pulse repetition rate of 60Hz, total 40, 80, 120, $160^{\circ}$, SCR gate trigger angle $90^{\circ}$ and total output.

The Effect of Direct Functional Magnetic Stimulation of the Lesion on Functional Motor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rat (척수손상 흰 쥐의 운동기능 회복에 미치는 손상부위 직접자극을 통한 기능적 자기자극치료 효과)

  • Cho, Yun-Woo;Kim, Su-Jeong;Park, Hea-Woon;Seo, Jeong-Min;Hwang, Se-Jin;Jang, Sung-Ho;Lee, Dong-Gyu;Ahn, Sang-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of direct functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) of affected spinal cord on motor recovery following spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: After a contusion injury at the spinal level T9 using an NYU Impactor, functional magnetic stimulation was delivered by a magnetic stimulator through a round prototype coil (7 cm in diameter). Stimulation parameters were set as follows: repetition rate = 50 Hz (stimulus intensity 100% = 0.18 T), stimulation time = 20 min. Functional magnetic stimulation was administered twice a day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks starting 4 days after spinal cord injury. Functional magnetic stimulationwas delivered directly to the affected spinal cord. Outcomes of locomotor performance were assessed by the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and by an inclined plane test weekly for 8 weeks. Results: In the BBB test, hindlimb motor function in the Functional magnetic stimulation group improved significantly more compared to the control group at 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 weeks (p<0.05). In the inclined plane test, the angle of the plane in the functional magnetic stimulation group increased significantly more compared to the control group at 4, 5, 7, and 8 weeks (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that direct Functional magnetic stimulation of the lesional site may have beneficial effects on motor improvement after spinal cord injury.

Effects of Motor Imagery Practice in Conjunction with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Stroke Patients

  • Ji, Sang-Goo;Cha, Hyun-Gyu;Kim, Ki-Jong;Kim, Myoung-Kwon
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 2014
  • The aim of the present study was to examine whether motor imagery (MI) practice in conjunction with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to stroke patients could improve theirgait ability. This study was conducted with 29 subjects diagnosed with hemiparesis due to stroke.The experimental group consisted of 15 members who were performed MI practice in conjunction with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, while the control group consisted of 14 members who were performed MI practice and sham therapy. Both groups received traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks; additionally, they received mental practice for 15 minutes. The experimental group was instructed to perform rTMS and the control group was instructed to apply sham stimulation for 15 minutes. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system, which is a real-time tracking device that delivers data via infrared reflective markers using six cameras. Results showed that the velocity, step length, and cadence of both groups were significantly improved after the practice (p<0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups in velocity and cadence (p<0.05) as well as with respect to the change rate (p<0.05) after practice. The results showed that MI practice in conjunction with rTMS is more effective in improving gait ability than MI practice alone.